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Vol 4, No 3 (2006)

Articles
Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale Wigg. S.L.) Is A Convenient Object For Genetic Monitoring Of Environmental Pollution
Reutova N.V., Djambetova P.M.
Abstract
It is proposed to use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l.) for testing of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants. This widespread species is convenient for genetic monitoring. It is sensitive to various types of pollutants (heavy metals, products of combustion and processing of oil). T. officinale appeared to be a convenient, simple in using and inexpensive object for genetic monitoring of environmental pollution. anaphase-telophase method is recomended for this purpose.
Ecological genetics. 2006;4(3):3-6
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Perspectives of micronuclear test in human lymphocytes cultivated in cytogenetic block conditions. Part 1: Cell proliferation
Ingel F.I.
Abstract
Cultivation of human blood lymphocytes under the conditions of cytokinetic block with cytochalasin B creates unique opportunity to analyze the total spectrum of the changes describing genome instability. The main task of the present publication is the analysis of a modern state, opportunities and outlooks of the micronuclear test on human blood lymphocytes. The special attention is given those directions of researches which are rather seldom present in the literature - to laws of cellular proliferation, to existence of physiological conditionality and genetic predisposition to development of effects of genome instability; to effects of emotional stress and the adaptive response to action of ionizing irradiation, etc. The material is presented in 2 consecutive publications. It is finished with discussion of methodical features of statement of culture, results of the microscopic analysis and ideology of creation of the conclusions of the study.
Ecological genetics. 2006;4(3):7-19
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ADAPTIVE MUTAGENESIS IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
Babudri N., Lucaccioni A., Achilli A.
Abstract
The nature of mutation in microorganisms has been debated for a long time. Two theories have been at odds: random spontaneous mutagenesis vs. adaptive mutagenesis. "random mutagenesis" means that mutations occur in proliferating cells before they encountered the selective agent. "adaptive mutagenesis" means that advantageous mutations form in the environment where they have been selected, in non-replicating or poorly replicating cells even though other, non-selected, mutations occur at the same time. In the last 20 years it has been definitely shown that random as well as adaptive mutagenesis occur in bacteria and yeast. microorganisms in nature do not divide or divide poorly because of adverse environmental conditions; therefore adaptive mutations could provide cells with a selective advantage and allow evolution of populations. Here we will focus on some fundamental aspects of adaptive mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We begin with a historical overview on the nature of mutation. We then focus on experimental systems aimed at proving or disproving adaptive mutagenesis. We have briefly summarized the results obtained in this field, with particular attention to genetic and molecular mechanisms.
Ecological genetics. 2006;4(3):20-28
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Bract Reduction In Cruciferae: Genetic Control And Evolution
Penin A.A., Budaev R.A.
Abstract
Оne of the characteristic features of members of the Cruciferae family is an inflorescence bearing ebracteate flowers. Bract reduction is supposed to occur once in an ancestral group. The mechanisms of genetic control and the possible role of the genes that control this process are discussed.
Ecological genetics. 2006;4(3):29-35
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