Vol 15, No 3 (2017)

1. Genetic basis of ecosystems evolution
Assessment of the state of population gene pools of the slightly mobile animal species on the example of the land snail Bradybaena fruticum Müll. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) based on the DNA markers
Snegin E.A., Snegina E.A.

Abstract

Using the polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD and ISSR), the genetic structure was examined and the viability of 26 populations of the terrestrial gastropod Bradybaena (Fruticicola) fruticum Müll., most of which lives in the south of the Central Russian Upland, was estimated. Samples from Romania, the Urals and Vyatka regions for comparison were taken. In total, 1153 individuals were examined. The level of expected heterozygosity averaged He = 0.208 ± 0.028, the Shannon index Ish = 0.320 ± 0.039. The lowered level of variability, both actual and theoretically expected (estimated by the methods of Chao1-bc and 1st order jackknife) in groups of anthropogenically disturbed biotopes inhabiting the zones of industrial enterprises is noted. The indices of the genetic disunity of the populations were Fst = 0.298, Gst = 0.254, and the level of the gene flow Nm = 0.708. The cluster analysis and the Mantel correlation coefficient Rm = –0.024 showed the absence of a reliable relationship between the geographic and genetic distance between populations, which indicates the violation of the isolation model by distance and confirms the thesis advanced earlier that the urbanized forest-steppe landscape disrupts the natural migration processes, leads to the strong isolation and of the genetic drift in populations of snails. At the same time, the observed phenomenon of increasing the degree of subdivision of populations against the background of a decrease in the allelic diversity noted by us in many groups of bush snail can be regarded as the shift of genetic equilibrium toward increasing interpopopulation diversity (according to Wright's model). The calculation of the effective population size with the help of the Slatkin model turned out to be the lowest of the background mollusks in the study area (Ne = 0.39-0.83). However, the level of the effective population size calculated with the subdivision index (Fst and Gst) was equal to 6.2 and 7.3, respectively, which is comparable with other species of mollusks.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):4-19
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The reasons of genetic heterogeneity of Siberian whitefish Coregonus lavaretus pidschian in the Anabar river
Sendek D.S., Ivanov E.V.

Abstract

Background. A population genetic study of Siberian whitefish or pidschian Coregonus lavaretus pidschian Gmelin of the Anabar River (North-West Yakutia) has been done to study genetic structure of the species within a river system and for revealing its phylogeographic relations.

Materials and Methods. Five samples of pidschian from different parts of the river were analyzed for 30 isozyme loci.

Results and Discussion. The results has demonstrated a significant genetic heterogeneity of the species sampled from lower and middle reaches of the river (0.001 < DN< 0.056). The most likely reason for genetic differentiation of the species within the river system is a colonization of the watershed by independent phylogenetic lineages of whitefish. At present the phylogenetic lineages in Anabar River are presented by sympatric ecological forms of the species – eastern-siberian whitefish and glacial-plains whitefish – which maintain their reproductive isolation. The relationships of ecological forms of whitefish dwelling the Anabar River with other populations of the species in Siberia, and possible ways of penetration of discrete phylogenetic lineages of pidschian in the basin of studied river are discussed.

Conclusions. A genetic heterogeneity of whitefish from Anabar River should be taken into account while creating adequate intraspecific taxonomy and considered in conducting fisheries and environmental measures.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):20-26
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Peculiarities of choromosomal polymorphism Glyptotendipes glaucus meigen, 1818 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from lake Chaika of the national park “Curonian spit”
Kalinina E.A., Vinokurova N.V.

Abstract

Background. The genus Glyptotendipes includes widespread species of chironomids with the largest phytophilous larvae, which constitute a large percentage of the total biomass of invertebrates. Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818) is the dominant species of chironomids in Lake Chaika of the National Park “Curonian Spit”.

Materials and methods. The material of the study included 51 Glyptotendipes glaucus fourth – instar larvae collected in Lake Chaika of the National Park “Curonian Spit”. Larvae were fixed in Carnoy’s liquid (ethanol : glacial acetic acid = 3 : 1) at the collection site. The slides of polytene chromosomes from salivary glands of the larvae were prepared according to the standard aceto – orsein technique. Chromosome mapping was carried out according to Belyanina and Durnova (1998).

Results. The level of inversion polymorphism for given populations was determined. Two new inversion sequences glaD6 and glaD7 were detected and localized. Ectopic contact type of T-T between the chromosome G(IV) and the arm of F(III), as well as the monomorphy of the chromosome III(EF) Glyptotendipes glaucus were first identified in the Kaliningrad region. The value of the ratio of the number of inversion sequences to the number of genomic combinations corresponded to its level for previously studied reservoirs in Kaliningrad city.

Conclusion. The prevalence of the inversion sequences glaA2, glaA3, glaB2 glaB3, glaB4, glaB6, glaC3, glaD2, glaD3, glaD5, glaG4 in chromosomes I(AB), II(CD) and IV(G) Glyptotendipes glaucus of Lake Chaika indicates the greatest variability and dynamism of this parts of the genome of the species.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):27-33
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2. Genetic toxicology
Genotoxic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine in somatic and generative cells of mice
Lovinskaya A.V., Kolumbayeva S.Z., Kolomiets O.L., Abilev S.K.

Abstract

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was shown to have genotoxic properties in acute and subacute studies on laboratory mice. The organ-specificity of the genotoxic effect of NDMA was revealed using the Comet assay. The most sensitive organs to the action of NDMA were kidneys and liver. DNA damage in liver cells of NDMA-treated animals at doses of 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg, increased compared to control in 6.9 and 12.5 (р < 0.001), and in kidney cells – in 8.1 and 14.2 times (р < 0.001), respectively. NDMA also showed genotoxic activity in the reproductive cells of experimental animals, causing structural disorders of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocyte. In NDMA-treated animals at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg in acute and subacute studies, the level of spermatocytes with damaged synaptonemal complexes increased statistically significantly compared to control in 6.0 and 7.0 (р < 0.05) times, respectively.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):34-41
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DNA methylation in early mice embryogenesis under the influence of bisphenol A
Noniashvili E.M., Grudinina N.A., Kustova M.E., Tran V., Suchkova I.O., Pavlinova L.I., Sasina L.K., Dergacheva N.I., Sofronov H.A., Patkin E.L.

Abstract

Background. Nonsteroid estrogen – bisphenol A (BPA) can have a detrimental effect on human health, and therefore poses a potential threat to humans. The critical window for the effect of BPA is the time of early development of the embryo, especially during the activation of the embryonic genome during development to the stage of blastocyst. Therefore, it is especially important to understand how DNA methylation is modified in embryos of the earliest developmental period under the influence of BPA.

Materials and methods. Mice hybrids F1 (CBAXC57BL) were once administered 0, 8 mg of BPA per mouse and the level of DNA methylation was estimated by detection the fluorescence of antibodies against 5-MeC in nuclei of GD3 and GD9 embryos. In other series, the level of DNA methylation and the rate of blastocyst development were estimated following cultivation of one- and two cells embryos in the presence of BPA (50 or 100 µM) during 72-96 hours in vitro.

Results. BPA exposure induced the decrease of the level of DNA methylation in GD3embryos received toxicant in utero, the amount of blastomeres in these embryos was decreased too. The level of DNA methylation in GD9 embryos was slightly higher than in control group. Upon cultivation of one-two cells embryos, BPA decreased the level of DNA methylation and the rate of embryos development to blastocyst stage.

Conclusion. We have determined that early embryogenesis is highly sensitive period to the BPA effects. Such effect is most likely due to active reprogramming processes in this period, primarily related to DNA demethylation/methylation de novo of both the whole genome and individual genes.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):42-53
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5. Genetic education
Combination of rice blast resistance genes in the genotypes of russian rice varieties with the use of marker assisted selection
Kostylev P.I., Krasnova E.V., Redkin A.A., Dubina E.V., Mukhina Z.M.

Abstract

Grain productivity of rice is significantly reduced by dangerous disease – blast. Therefore, the development of resistant high yielding rice varieties with the Pi group of genes is important. Use of molecular markers linked with the loci of resistance significantly optimizes the breeding process.

The purpose of the research is to develop rice lines combining 2-6 loci of resistance to blast: Pi-1, Pi-2, Pi-33, Pi-ta, Pi-b, Pi-40 by molecular marking.

Materials and Methods. As donors of resistance genes foreign samples were used, recipient – Russian varieties. In the studies we used micro-satellites markers and PCR analysis.

Results. In the first stage of the research as a result of hybridization domestic lines with genes Pi-l, Pi-2, Pi-33 were obtained. At the second stage – hybrids with all 3 genes were developed. In the third stage genes Pi-b and Pi-ta and on the fourth – Pi-40 were introduced.

Conclusion. As a result, rice genotypes, combining 6 loci of blast resistance were developed with use of marker assisted selection.

Ecological genetics. 2017;15(3):54-63
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