Vol 6, No 3 (2013)

Articles
Issues of interaction and cooperation between prescribers and pharmaceutical companies
Morozova N.A.
Abstract
The prescription of a specific drug to treat a patient is influenced by the patient’s medical condition, the prescriber’s medical knowledge, and the pharmaceutical industry’s influence on the prescriber. This paper describes the different areas of interaction and cooperation between the prescriber and the pharmaceutical industry. This relationship is discussed in light of the requirements of the Federal law of the Russian Federation regarding the restrictions imposed on the prescribers. Problems of application of the standards of the law are discussed and ways of elimination of gaps of the legislation are offered.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):4-8
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Trophic keratopathy treatment and lagophthalmos correction in neurosurgical patients
Tabashnikova T.V., Serova N.K., Shimanskiy V.N.
Abstract
In the neuroophthalmological practice, there is an everyday necessity to correct neurogenic corneal xerosis and lagophthalmos in neurosurgical patients. Recently, the objectives of adequate treatment of patients with “dry eye” syndrome, coupled with n. trigemini and facial nerve dysfunction, gain more and more significance. 245 patients with lagophthalmos or trophic keratopathy were analyzed. We divided all patients into 4 groups according to methods initially used to correct lagophthalmos and/or trophic keratopathy: keratoprotective treatment, induced ptosis, surgical lagophthalmos correction, “bandage” soft contact lenses. An algorithm of therapy tactics choice for patients with lagophthalmos and/or trophic keratopathy is proposed.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):9-15
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Izmeneniya morfometrii setchatki pri SD 1 tipa
Moshetova L.K., Arzhimatova G.S., Turkina K.I., Komarov A.V.
Abstract
Осложнения сахарного диабета (СД) являются одной из основных проблем современной медицины. В данной работе приведены результаты обследования 89 пациентов с СД 1 типа. Дополнительно к традиционным методам диагностики, применялась оптическая когерентная томография (ОКТ). В результате работы уточнена значимость гендерных различий в толщине сетчатки, достигающих 13 мкм в фовеа, 9 мкм в области парафовеа и 5 мкм в перифовеальной области макулы. При оценке толщины сетчатки у пациентов с отсутствием видимых диабетических изменений на глазном дне и группой контроля выявлены доклинические изменения структуры сетчатки, проявляющиеся достоверным уменьшением её толщины в области парафовеа, преимущественно за счет внутренних слоев (p < 0,05). Изменения сетчатки, ассоциированные с прогрессированием ДР, определяются постепенным увеличением толщины сетчатки с последующим резким уменьшением на стадии ПДР.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):16-21
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Individual psychological stress-resistance of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma
Bryndina I.G., Zharov V.V., Glazachev O.S., Gizzatullina Y.A.
Abstract
In the study, indices of individual stress-resistance were investigated in 122 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using the “Stress-resistance” battery of psychological tests. A predominance of patients with “lowered and low” individual stress-resistance among examined patients was found, as well as an absence of this individual characteristic lowering in patients with “acceptable” POAG characteristics at baseline by increasing disease duration.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):22-25
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Comparative pathophysiological characteristic of intraocular immunological changes in open globe injury in the experiment at intravitreal and periocular administration of depot glucocorticoids
Boiko E.V., Grabovetskiy S.I., Churashov S.V., Sazhin T.G., Kulikov A.N., Sukhinin M.V.
Abstract
One of the most severe types of eye trauma - open globe injury - is a serious medical and societal problem. Short-acting glucocorticosteroids (dexamethasone and others) were widely used in open globe injury treatment. Over the last several years ophthalmologists treating this problem have used depot corticosteroids (triamcinolone acetonide and others), which have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect and do not require multiple injections. However, up to now, there is no consensus concerning the route of depot steroids administration to patients with open globe injuries. In the present study, in experiments on rabbits, a comparative assessment of the influence of intravitreal and periocular triamcinolone acetonide administration on intraocular immunologic reactions during acute period of open globe injury was evaluated.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):26-31
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A corneal surface study in patients after laser keratomilesis
Maslennikov V.I., Koskin S.A., Shelepin Y.Y., Yan A.V.
Abstract
The cornea of the human eye is not only refracts the light, but also acts as a convex mirror, which reflects the surroundings. In ophthalmology, an image reflected by its anterior surface is known as the 1st Purkinje image. Characteristics of this image are determined by the properties of the light source and the state of corneal surface. At the present time, there are many methods in ophthalmology to study various properties of the cornea, but most of them either require expensive equipment or are qualitative and not informative. Meanwhile, a “shining” characteristic of the cornea in general is assessed subjectively and is not properly addressed in the ophthalmic literature. Our work was conducted to study the possibility of applying the method of measuring the reflective ability of the cornea to measure the state of its anterior surface. Our study involved men and women aged 18–45 years after laser-assisted in situ keratomilesis (LASIK). With our new method of measuring the corneal reflectance, we investigated patients before surgery, day 1 post-op and after 1 week. Each study case included a measurement of the reflectivity of the cornea after blinking, and after 15 sec. We found that on the day 1 after surgery corneal reflectivity increases, at the same time, 15 sec after blinking it is reduced to normal. This suggests a reduction of the tear film stability and that the patients had some symptoms of corneal syndrome, and as a consequence, increased tear production. One week after surgery, we observed a different picture: the reflective power of the cornea decreased. We consider this to be a sign of corneal nerves damage and decreased tear production.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):32-36
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The oxygen-induced retinopathy as an experimental model of retinopathy of prematurity
Konikova O.A., Brzheskiy V.V., Fedotova Y.P., Nasyrov R.A.
Abstract
The experimental model of retinopathy of prematurity was developed on the base of an oxygen-induced retinopathy in newborn. Wistar rats. This model was meant to investigate histopathological and functional manifestations of the disease. The study was performed on 60 newborn Wistar rats. The main experimental group included 34 animals with induced retinopathy of prematurity, the control group — 26 experimental animals. The predominating morphological manifestations of the oxygen-induced retinopathy were photoreceptor apoptosis, and the development of pathological intraretinal vascularization. Histological and electrophysiological changes were also detected even before the formation of clinical signs of retinopathy. There was a significant impairment of immature retina architectonic after induced hyperoxia.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):37-42
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Experimental reproduction of the glaucomatous process
Gazizova I.R., Alekseyev V.N., Nikitin D.N.
Abstract
The glaucomatous process is one of the important challenges in ophthalmology. And this is due primarily to the fact that, so far, the main causes for the onset and progression of glaucoma are not been fully determined. Numerous experimental studies concentrate on the role of ocular hypertension. However, there are forms of glaucoma, which are independent of the intraocular pressure level. A better experimental model for the study of glaucoma would also take into consideration the development of the characteristic complex of signs, in which a key sign would be a slowly progressing optic disc excavation. Therefore, taking into account the new knowledge in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in glaucoma, the ability to investigate the brain, vascular factors of progression, the level of neurotransmitters, trophic factors, etc. should be added to this model. Therefore we tried to make an analysis of glaucoma models in various experimental animals to find most appropriate models to study the aspects of glaucoma pathogenesis.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):43-50
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Hematogenic ocular tuberculosis: pathohistomorphology, diagnosis
Ustinova Y.I.
Abstract
The results of patho- and histopathology investigations by A.L. Prigoshina in ocular tuberculosis were analyzed, including 98 eyes of 67 patients who died from different forms of tuberculosis forms, and 82 eyes enucleated for poor clinical outcomes of ocular tuberculosis (n=82). Results of the ocular diagnosis of tuberculosis in clinical settings by several authors using different methods are also presented (more than 700 patients). Investigation results prove the probability of hematogenous ocular tuberculosis form separation in the classification. Ocular tuberculosis diagnosis by investigation of a surgical specimens is the most effective method, but is rarely used in clinical practice. Quantiferon test is one of the important but ancillary (probabilistic) criteria to diagnose ocular tuberculosis. We recommend a verification method according to indirect indicators with consideration of statistical significance and informative value of every criterion. This method is effective and could be used in any phtisioophthalmological unit.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):51-61
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Lacrimal gland tumors and their influence on tear production
Brovkina A.F., Steshenko O.N., Nechesnyuk S.Y.
Abstract
Tear production was measured pre treatment and at different intervals post treatment for different lacrimal gland tumors. The differences in tear production was correlated with the histopathology of the tumor and the treatment whether it was excisional or combined treatment
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):62-69
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A comparative study of Xalatan and Xalacom (Pfizer, USA) efficacy in the treatment of pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
Apostolova A.S.
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Xalatan (Pfizer, USA) and Xalacom (Pfizer, USA) in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma therapy. We observed 41 patients (53 eyes) with PEG, 16 of them were men and 25 women. Treatment period was 24 months. The main group (20 patients, 28 eyes) instilled Xalatan, the comparison group (21 patients, 25 eyes) instillated Xalacom once before bedtime (8 p. m.). In the Xalatan group, IOP decreased from 23.75 ± 0.576 mm Hg at baseline to 18.93 ± 0.337 mm Hg at 6 Month visit, and increased again up to 22.00 ± 0,542 mm Hg by the end of 24 months period. In the Xalacom group, IOP decreased from 22.00 ± 0.552 at baseline to 19.67 ± 0.47 at 6 Months visit and did not increase significantly to the 24 Month visit. Glaucoma stabilization was registered in both groups. MD index improved at 12 Months visit from –5.16 ± 0.61 to –4.21 ± 0.66, without significant changes till Visit 24 Month in the Xalatan group. MD index improved for the entire period of observation from –5.57 ± 0.64 to 4.82 ± 0.69 in the Xalatan group. These results allow us to recommend Xalatan and Xalacom as medications of choice for PEG treatment, especially taking into consideration possible risk of glaucomatous optic neuropathy progression.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):71-74
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Otsenka gipotenzivnogo effekta preparata «GLAUMAKS»
Astakhov Y.S., Sokolov V.O., Morozova N.V., Novikov D.P.
Abstract
When choosing a medication, a physician has to be sure of its efficacy and safety for the patient. Carrying out of multiple post-clinical studies of different aspects of medication use is intended to help clinicians to correctly appreciate the capacities of proposed medications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the pressure-lowering effect of latanoprost 0.005 % - “Glaumax” according to the data of different tonometry methods at different baseline IOP levels and to compare the IOP-lowering effects of timolol 0.5 % and Glaumax. The pressure lowering effect in the Glaumax group significantly exceeds that of the timolol 0.5 % group regardless of IOP measurement method, at comparable baseline IOP level. In the group with higher baseline IOP level, the IOP decrease in % from baseline was higher. Mean IOP-lowering effect for Glaumax in the present study is comparable to the data of multicenter studies and meta-analyses carried out for the original “Xalatan” medication.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):75-79
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Torpedo Maculopathy
Cherney E.
Abstract
Based on literature data and own clinical experience this article summarizes the clinical findings on Torpedo maculopathy. The author of the present article hopes that these materials could help ophthalmologists in practice in diagnosing this disease.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):80-82
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Outpatients’ eye demodecosis in St. Petersburg [according to St. Petersburg state budget health institution «Diagnostic Center №7 (ophthalmic)» data]
Sokolov V.O., Morozova N.V., Polovinkina G.V., Khramtzova M.A.
Abstract
The authors presented existing evidence in the literature and their own research on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of eye demodecosis. Data are presented on its prevalence among St. Petersburg population for 13 years (from 2000 to 2012).
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):83-87
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Rare case of refractive anomaly from clinical practice
Simakova I.L., Kirillov Y.A., Chernysh V.F., Korovenkov R.I.
Abstract
The rare case of interior lenticonus is described in this article. Authors consider that an interior lenticonus is the cause of development high myopia and compound myopic astigmatism.
Ophthalmology journal. 2013;6(3):88-95
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