Molecular-genetic bases of development of acute pancreatitis

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Acute pancreatitis is included into the three most common diseases of organs of the abdominal cavity following acute appendicitis and cholecystitis, with the middle share in this group of 10-16%. As before, acute pancreatitis is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Many researchers confirm growth of severe forms of the disease with destructive changes in the pancreas.

Aim. A review of literature sources devoted to study of etiology, pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and molecular-genetic bases of acute pancreatitis. Factors that play a role in development of the disease (episodes of infringement of the diet, cholelithiasis, vascular diseases, abuse of alcohol) are elucidated. Mechanisms of development of acute pancreatitis depending on the etiology, are described in detail, modern classification of acute pancreatitis is given. The main methods of diagnosis of the disease including both laboratory and instrumental ones, are described. Data of the methods of determination of severity of patients’ state based on evaluation of all the most important physiological systems, are presented. In terms of modern understanding of mechanisms of development of acute pancreatitis, the results of investigation of the probability for genetic predisposition to the studied disease are given that opens the ways for optimization of therapy and diagnosis. The results of both individual and large-scale genetic studies of acute pancreatitis are described. Research works with isolation of certain candidate genes whose protein products participate in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, are presented.

Conclusion. A complex approach to diagnosis of acute pancreatitis with identification of different mutations in the studied genes, and also determination of the influence of epigenetic phenomena in the individuals of risk groups will permit to improve the results of the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic activity in acute pancreatitis.

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About the authors

Alfiya K. Imaeva

Bashkir State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3421-0212
SPIN-code: 5205-2002
ResearcherId: AAM-7925-2020

MD, PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Pathological Anatomy

Russian Federation, 450008, Bashkortostan Republic, Ufa, Lenina street, 3

Alfiya K. Nurgaleeva

Bashkir State University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6077-9237
SPIN-code: 9658-8010
ResearcherId: Q-3045-2017

PhD in Biological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Genetics
and Fundamental Medicine

Russian Federation, 450076, Bashkortostan Republic, Ufa, Zaki Validi str., 32

Lilia F. Gallyamova

Bashkir State University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2018-2767
SPIN-code: 1930-1871
ResearcherId: U-1276-2019

Laboratory Assistant of the Molecular Medicine Center

Russian Federation, 450076, Bashkotrostan Respublic, Ufa, Zaki Validi str., 32

Tagir I. Mustafin

Bashkir State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2854-0792
SPIN-code: 7152-4131

MD, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Pathological Anatomy

Russian Federation, 450008, Bashkortostan Republic, Ufa, Lenina street, 3

Leisen S. Safinova

Bashkir State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3388-5987
SPIN-code: 7450-0066

MD, PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Pathological Anatomy

Russian Federation, 450008, Bashkortostan Republic, Ufa, Lenina street, 3

Elza K. Khusnutdinovna

Bashkir State University; Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of Ufa Federal Scientific Centre of RAS

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2987-3334
SPIN-code: 7408-9797
ResearcherId: A-4810-2013

PhD in Biological Sciences, Professor, AM of REA

Russian Federation, 450054, Ufa, Prospect Oktyabrya str., 71; Ufa


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