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Vol 5, No 1 (2014)

Articles
Physiological Scientific Pedagogical Schools of the Leningrad Pediatric Medical Institute - Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University
Lytayev S.A.
Abstract
This paper is presented to leading representatives of physiological schools of pediatric medical institute since 1925 to present time. Achievements in the field of physiology are connected with such remarkable names, as M. S. Maslov, A. F. Tur, A. G. Ginetsinsky, D. G. Kvasov, V. D. Glebovsky, J. P. Pushkarev, etc. The article opens the contribution of scientists to development of a physiological science at Russia and abroad, and also a role of physiologists in preparation of physicians-pediatrists.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):3-17
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Biomechanical lung characteristics depending on the clinical and laboratory status of newborns in critical state
Aleksandrovich Y.S., Blinov S.A., Pshenisnov K.V.
Abstract
Effectiveness estimation and correction of respiratory support parameter is one of the most important issues of the modern neonatology. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between indicators of biomechanical properties of respiratory system, patient clinical status and laboratory data. It was found that the respiratory system compliance, the lung overdistention coefficient and the time constant correlate with clinical and laboratory indicators of patient status. They were shown to be the key indicators of lung biomechanics, they reflect the severity of lesions, the effectiveness and necessity of parameter correction of the therapy of the respiratory system.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):18-25
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Paresis of the left vocal cord after surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants
Marasina A.V., Zakharova M.L., Pavlov P.V., Saulina A.V., Mostovoi A.V., Karpova A.L., Alexeeva N.P., Ievkov S.A.
Abstract
Background: paresis of the left vocal cord is one of the most frequent complications in children undergoing surgery for patent ductus arteriosus in the newborn period. Paresis of the left vocal cord (PLVC) may remain undiagnosed and can lead to an increased risk of childhood diseases such as frequent respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, gastro-oesophageal reflux. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of paresis of the left vocal cord after surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants with birth weight less than 1500 grams. Materials and Methods: The study included all premature infants who were operated on for a PDA in the neonatal period from January 1 to December 31, 2011 in St. Petersburg. Questioning on the phone was possible in 51 patients from 101 patients who has surgical treatment in this period of time. Children who are identified complaints typical of the left vocal cord paresis (impaired breathing, hoarseness, choking) were invited to inspect a specialist for direct fiber-optic laryngoscopy. Results: In 21 of the 51 children interviewed were identified PLVC symptoms, which accounted for 41,2% of all children in the group. Parents of 11 children with the complaint, agreed to undergo direct fiber-optic laryngoscopy. In the survey, we had confirmed the diagnosis PLVC posed on the basis of a telephone survey in 11 of 11 children, that is 100%. Conclusions: We recommend doing direct fiber-optic laryngoscopy in all premature babies after surgical treatment of the flow to the start of early diagnosis and treatment of PLVC. Parents should be informed about possible complications and consequences of the operation of this complication.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):26-31
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Particular transit patterns EEG in premature babies with hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy
Melashenko T.V., Guzeva V.V.
Abstract
The transit patterns EEG of 50 premature baby with hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and 30 premature baby with not have HIE was analyzed in postconceptual age 38-40 weeks. Neurophysiology immaturation were observed in all premature babies. Delta-brash is seen as physiology pattern EEG in premature baby. STOP, PTӨ and sharp-wave are assessed as abnormalities pattern EEG and were detected in premature babies with HIE.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):32-36
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Psychological peculiarities of auditory cognitive defect when psychopathology
Belskaya K.A., Lytayev S.A., Kipyatkov N.Y.
Abstract
Work is executed on faculty of normal physiology of Saint-Petersburg state pediatric medical University of the Ministry of health of Russia and St. Petersburg psycho-neurological dispensary N 1. Of the existing Arsenal of psychophysiological methods in this study, we used the original method of studying perception of auditory images and psychological analysis of the status of higher mental functions in patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and control group. With increasing levels of anxiety, both healthy subjects and in patients of any information provided may be assessed as important. In such circumstances, the inhibition processes touch flow reduced and insignificant background is estimated sick longer than healthy. Normal perception clean and noisy auditory images has high identifiability (95 %) and efficiency with latent period of 4.2-8.4 C. Taking into account time for вербализацию a decision and biologically significant effect on the perceived information, this time interval corresponds to the physiological norm. The effectiveness of the perception of auditory images in chronic psychopathology is within 40- 75 %, and the latent period - within 11.2-24.3 with that 2.6-2.9 times exceeds the normative time of identification. Reduction in speed and efficiency of information-analytical activities in psychopathological disorders caused, apparently, by the decrease of the functional state of stem-reticular structures included in the first structural-functional Department of the auditory analyzer. The dependence of the quality of auditory-cognitive activity not only from the functional state of cortical fields, responsible for attention, perception, recognition, remembering, but also on the state of slightly-stem systems of the brain responsible tone and reactivity of the brain. Registered reliable link of functional reduce nonspecific brain systems in violation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of perception.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):37-43
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Prospects of use of integrative indicators of computer processing of EEG in the structure of the express-analysis of neurocognitive status
Kipyatkov N.Y., Dutov V.B.
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the set of procedures that allows to assess most adequately the neurocognitive profile of a person in conditions of time shortage.The procedure that we have suggested included the registration of EEG with its subsequent computer processing. The study group included 152 adults with age ranging from 18 to 65 years who were undergoing occupational selection for professions demanding heightened attention. Processing of the fragments of EEG with the computer program WinEEG allowed to calculate the index and power spectrum in every frequency range. The results of the examination of 34 psychoneurological dispensary patients served as the control database.In study group EEGs recorded during the testing were visually evaluated as free from any paroxysmal or focal abnormal activity. Statistical processing of the data obtained in EEG computer analysis allowed to reveal which differences between the two data groups were statistically significant: the indices and spectrums of EEG power of the theta frequency range in all channels. The indices and spectrums of EEG power of the alpha frequency range were also significantly different in occipital and temporal channels. Computer analysis of EEG makes this method a promising approach for further development of rapid diagnostics of human mental state in psychophysiological screening tests. The proposed procedures may be useful for integrated rapid diagnostics of human mental state.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):44-48
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Influence of additional tasks on forming cognitive set (electroencephalographic investigation)
Yakovenko I.A., Cheremushkin Y.A., Kozlov M.K.
Abstract
Beta-rhythm parameters were investigated during different conditions of forming cognitive set to emotional facial expression. Formation of visual set to facial emotion recognition was supplemented with three types of additional tasks: a) verbal - to tell word from a pseudoword; b) visuospatial - to find a target stimulus among other; c) extending the interstimuli time up to 8 sec between the target (facial image) and starting (spot light) stimuli. Formation of visual set was characterized increase mean level and latency maximum of wavelet coefficient (WLC) beta-rhythm in experiment with extending the interstimuli time. The mean level, maximum and latency maximum of wavelet coefficient (WLC) beta-rhythm increased during the tasting stage of set with verbal and visuospatial additional tasks. This experimental paradigm could use for revelation children with unripeness fronto-thalamic and trunk cortico-subcortical activation systems.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):49-56
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Opportunities electroretinography in stadying of physiological stages of maturation human retina at different ages
Konikova O.A., Brzheskiy V.V.
Abstract
The results of evaluation of the functional state of the retina in 55 healthy children of different ages (110 eyes). Distinctive features of the formation curve electroretinogram in early childhood. So in children under 6 months a-wave electroretinogram was not recorded, b-wave had a very low amplitude and increased latency. Typical configuration electroretinogramm was after 1 year of life. Noted that the maturation of cone function finishes later than the rod-function. Electroretinography objectively confirm phasing formation of functional activity of the visual system in children.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):57-61
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Analysis of Independent Components for ERPs from ADHD patients of various ages
Pronina M.V., Ponomarev V.A., Müller A., Kropotov Y.D.
Abstract
We investigated the characteristics of independent components for event-related potentials in adolescents (11- 17 years old) and adults (18-30 years old) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared to the normative database. In both age groups was found significant decrease in the amplitude of the two independent components generated (according to sLORETA) in the left posterior temporal and premotor cortex and presumably associated with the processing of visual stimuli and the action suppression. In the teenage group, moreover, was broken component generated in the cingulate cortex in the adult group - another component, the source of which is localized in the premotor cortex.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):62-69
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Particular Features of the Sonograms of the Ligamentum Arteriosum and Para-Aortic Arterial Calcifications in Children Suffering From Tuberculosis of Intrathoracic Lymph Nodes
Sinitsyna A.V., Sinelnikova Y.V., Krivokhizh V.N., Krasnogorskaya O.L., Nasyrov R.A., Gavrilov P.V., Zharov Y.V.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study aimed to check the assumption that there is disparity in interpretation of X-ray and ultrasound images of Ductus arteriosus in children supposed to have tuberculosis. In total the images of 230 children with ambiguous Mantoux tuberculin skin test and with calcification adjusted to aortic window described in terms of regular X-ray were investigated. It is stated that multispiral computer tomograms are usually falsely interpreted as presenting calcifications in cases when ultrasound scans reveal only tissue heterogeneity near former Ductus arteriousus.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):70-75
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The systemic arterial pressure waveform management by means of the study of peripheral vessels
Pugovkin A.P., Verlov N.A., Landa S.B., Yerkudov V.O.
Abstract
The systemic arterial pressure waveform was reconstructed from peripheral pulse curve measured dy volume-clump method with sphygmoarteriorhythmograph SACR-2 by means of specially designed transfer function. The restored pulse curve was compared with that obtained from peripheral pulse curve measured with appliqué gauge and software of the Sphygmocor cardiovascular system. The comparative study revealed the identity of results obtained via both approache.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):76-81
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Medico-social problems of hospices in St.-Petersburg pediatric practice
Vishnyakov N.I., Kutyrev Y.M., Sofiyeva Z.A., Gvozdarev S.I.
Abstract
Children with an unfavourable disease prognosis require separate attention in the public health service of any state. A child with such disorder probably won’t enter into adult life. That fact creates a number of social and economic problems. In this article authors examine the work of the first in Russia children hospice in St. Petersburg and raise the problem of cooperation between hospices and other medical, non-medical organizations and public authorities.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):82-89
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Prenatal effects of buspirone and stress on behavioral reactions in rat pups of different sexes during period of ontogeny with low level of brain serotonin
Butkevich I.P., Shimarayeva T.N., Mikhaylenko V.A.
Abstract
Previously we revealed for the first time pain response exacerbation caused by inflammation in rats born to dams exposed to stress during pregnancy (prenatal stress). The present study is devoted to tinvestigation of prenatal stress effects on psychoemotional and tonic pain reactions in rat pups during the individual development period that is characterized with a dramatic reduction of the brain serotonin level. Effects of maternal buspirone before stress during pregnancy on functional indices of psychoemotional and tonic pain systems in the offspring were also investigated. Prenatal stress increased the number of pain patterns (flexing + shaking) during different phases of the time-course of formalin-induced pain in females and males to a greater extent in males. Prenatlly stressed rat pups of both sexes failed to show reliable changes in the index of psychoemotional behavior in the forced swim test. With the aim to decrease pain response exacerbation found in prenatally stressed offspring, pregnant dams were exposed to chronic injections of serotoninergic anxiolytic and antidepressant buspirone which is an agonist of 5-HT1A receptors; prenatal effect of buspirone on psychoemotional behavior in prenatally stressed rat pups was also evaluated. Maternal buspirone normalized pain behavior and decreased considerably the time of immobility, the index of depressive behavior in the forced swim test. The present results indicate analgesic and antidepressive effects of maternal buspirone in prenatally stressed 10-day old rat pups and demonstrate sexual dimorphism in effects of prenatal stress on the time-course of formalin-induced pain. Differences in effects of prenatal influences on pain respone during the interphase in males and females indicate earlier maturation of the descending serotonergic inhibitory system of afferent pain signals modulation in males than in females and demonstrate that 5-HT1A receptors are involved in this process.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):90-96
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Erythroderma: the modern questions of diagnostics and treatment
Zaslavsky D.V., Ravodin R.A., Tatarskaya O.B., Sidikov A.A., Khvedelidze M.G.
Abstract
This article considers the modern approaches to terminology, classification, diagnosis, clinical manifestation and the treatment of the erythroderma. Authors touch upon questions about the meaning of the terminology “erythroderma”, with understanding pathogenesis, methods of making diagnosis and the treatment of the erythroderma.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):97-102
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Dynamic of somatic-vegetative relating ontogenesis of animals and man
Pushkarev Y.P.
Abstract
In early ontogenesis the functioning reliability of physiological systems is provided by their increased functional activity in a relative rest state. The period of pronounced qualitative activity changes of physiological systems is 6-7 years of age. At 9-10 years the system organization develops, characterized by high specialization аnd integration of individual units of systems.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):103-106
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Psychological help for children and adolescents with somatic diseases
Mamaychuk I.I.
Abstract
The focus of the article is the features of internal picture of the disease and personal development of children and adolescents with somatic diseases. The article reveals methodological approaches and the specifics of the psychological help for the children and adolescents with somatic diseases and their families. The features of psychological counseling, psychological correction, psychological maintenance and psychological support for the children with diseases and their families pointed out.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):107-118
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The children diagnosed with bronchial asthma: personal particularities and methods of psychological defense
Galitsyna Y.Y.
Abstract
The following study compares two groups of children between 8-12 years of age: a group of children diagnosed with asthma and a group children without any significant health problem. The study results point at significant differences between these two groups when it comes to responding to a frustrating situation. These differences can be seen both in the main reaction types and in the structure of reaction types in general. The results gained show significant differences in the structure of psychological protection by children diagnosed with asthma. The results of this study help to set the direction of the psychological adjustment treatment for the children diagnosed with asthma.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):119-125
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The attitude to children, their right for life and development in Russia (X cent.-beginning of the XVIII cent.)
Mikirtichan G.L.
Abstract
The article discusses the problem of treatment of children and care for them during the period of Kiev and Moscow Rus and Russia at the beginning of the XVIII century. The basic legislative acts and documents reflecting the situation with children and their legal status, relationships between parents and children are analyzed. The basic principle of relations within the family was lawlessness, unquestioning obedience children to parents which was maintained by both oral reprimands and corporal punishment. Peter I had a systematic program of little-year-olds’ charity on the state level. A number of his decrees aimed to stop infanticide , to change the system of orphans’ protection and help, to alleviate the fate of illegitimate children (including the organization of hospitals for “bastards” and wet nurses service), to create conditions for upbringing and education of children, to reduce beggary. Speed, pragmatism, brutal methods of his reforms splitted the Russian society which was not ready for the new, including the state regulation of orphans’ charity, so the fulfillment of his decrees met great difficulties.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):126-131
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Periodization of the history of the world and Russian homeopathic medicine
Likhtshangof A.Z.
Abstract
During the last two centuries homeopathy is a part of Russian medicine in whole, that’s why its development must be studied by historical medical science. There are following main stages in the development and dissemination of homeopathic medicine in Russia: 1) 1820ies-1860ies: penetration of homeopathic ideas into Russia - since the first physicians who practiced homeopathy in treatment up to organization of the first homeopathic societies and journals; 2) the end of 1860ies-1918: this stage was characterized by strengthening of homeopathy positions in Russia - since the organization of the first homeopathic societies and journals up to radical political changes in Russia which influenced on the government attitude to homeopathic medicine; 3) 1918 - second half of 1980ies - these years were a severe time for homeopathy, when it was nearly underground; 4) since the end of the 1980ies till nowadays - this period is characterized by rapid development of homeopathic medicine, including its recognition by physicians and people. The same four stages (start, spreading, decline and renaissance) can be seen in the history of homeopathy in the most developed countries as well.
Pediatrician (St. Petersburg). 2014;5(1):132-139
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