Vol 10, No 1 (2022)


Current state of research in the field of chemical composition and pharmacological effects of zea maydis styli cum stigmatis

Nikiforova E.B., Bat N.M., Davitavyan N.A.


Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis (Engl. corn silk) are well known in medical practice. In the scientific literature, a lot of information has been accumulated about the chemical composition and pharmacotherapeutic actions of this medicinal plant material. A chronological analysis of this information shows that earlier, the scope of scientific publications was mainly devoted to the study of the choleretic, diuretic, hemostatic kinds of Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis activity, and the identification of the active substances responsible for these types of action. Currently, there is a growing scientific interest not only in the individual natural compounds of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis composition, but also in the search for new aspects of their medical application.

The aim of the article is a review and systematization of modern scientific data in the field of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition and their pharmacological action.

Materials and methods. For the information and analytical search, the scientific data posted on the following electronic resources were used: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, eLibrary. The search was carried out in the period from 2005 to 2021 using the following keywords: Zea mays L.; Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis; corn silk; chemical composition; pharmacological action.

Results. The review is devoted to the generalization and analysis of modern scientific data on the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition and their pharmacological action. It has been shown that, as before, the greatest attention of scientists is attracted by flavonoids in the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis chemical composition. Alongside with them, phenolcarboxylic acids, vitamin K, phytosterols, volatile compounds and polysaccharides are of no small importance for the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis pharmacological activity. Modern ideas about the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis pharmacological activity have been expanded by summarizing the study results of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hypotensive, neuro- and photoprotective activities. The data on the effectiveness of their use as parts of the complex tumor diseases therapy have been published.

Conclusion. As a result of the data analysis of modern scientific literature, it has been found out that Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis are still in the sphere of scientists’ interest. Alongside with the flavonoids of this raw material, other groups of pharmacologically active substances are also being actively studied. It has been revealed that the information about potentially significant and confirmed types of the Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis therapeutic action is significantly updated. The results of this review may be useful for identifying promising directions for the development of the drugs based on Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis.

Abbreviations: ZMSS – Zea maydis styli cum stigmatis; MPRM – medicinal plant raw material; PASs – pharmacologically active substances; MCF-7 – an epithelial-like cell line derived from invasive human breast ductal adenocarcinoma; TBARS – Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mRNA – messenger ribonucleic acid.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):4-18
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Obesity as a reflection of psycho-emotional disorders: focus on pharmacotherapy

Shishkova V.N.


Obesity is a vivid example of a multifactorial disease. In its development, not only the discrepancy between the energy intake and its expenditure but also various neurohumoral mechanisms, as well as external socio-economic and psychosocial factors, play important roles. One of the frequent options for combining psychoemotional disorders with obesity is the development of certain types of eating disorders in a patient. In this regard, the actual problem is to find the optimal therapeutic and prophylactic strategy in the management of such patients.

The aim of the work is to analyze the literature data on the features of the pathogenetic mechanisms of the obesity development against the background of psychoemotional disorders that are realized through eating disorders, and to identify the possibilities of using sibutramine to carry out a pharmacological correction of these pathological conditions.

Materials and methods. In the process of selecting materials for writing a review article, the following databases were uses: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, etc. The search carried out, was based on the publications for the period from 2009 to 2020. The following words and phrases were chosen as parameters for the literature selection: obesity, psycho-emotional disorders, eating disorders, sibutramine.

Results. This review summarizes the main pathogenetic aspects that unite both the development of psychoemotional and metabolic disorders. A modern classification of obesity, taking into account the latest domestic and international recommendations of professional communities, is given. Eating disorders are considered in detail, their socio-psychological and psychiatric classifications are given. The prospect of choosing a therapeutic and prophylactic strategy for managing such patients is assessed, depending on the presence of psycho-emotional and eating disorders.

Conclusion. Thus, the combined drug containing sibutramine and metformin registered in the Russian Federation is effective, safe and can be used in patients with alimentary obesity and eating disorders, taking into account contraindications.

Abbreviations: CNCD – chronic non-communicable diseases; RF – Russian Federation; WHO – World Health Organization; BMI – body mass index; WC – waist circumference; HC – hip circumference; CVD – cardiovascular diseases; NA – anorexia nervosa; BN – bulimia nervosa; PO – pathological overeating; GIT – gastrointestinal tract; AH – arterial hypertension; BP – blood pressure; DM2 – type 2 diabetes mellitus; CI – confidence interval.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):19-30
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Features of quantitative estimation of flavonoid content in juglans nigra l. barks preparations

Kurkin V.A., Zimenkina N.I.


The aim of the research is the development of quantification procedures of flavonoids in Juglans nigra L. barks preparations using modern instrumental analytical techniques (spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography).

Materials and methods. The subjects of research were tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L. bark, the samples of which were prepared in March and April 2020 in the Botanical Garden of Samara State Medical University (Samara); the standard samples (SS) of myricitrin, myricetin. The registration of the electronic spectra was carried out with a spectrophotometer «Specord 40» (Analytik Jena, Germany). The chromatographic analysis was carried out by the method of reversed-phase HPLC on a microcolumn liquid chromatograph “Milichrom-6” (NPAO “Nauchpribor”, Russia).

Results. Using differential spectrophotometry, methods for the quantitative determination of the total amount of flavonoids in terms of myricitrin in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L. bark, has been developed. It has been determined that the content of the total amount of flavonoids in terms of myricitrin in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L., is 0.84±0.07% and 12.38±0.24%, respectively. The error of a single determination of the total amount of flavonoids in terms of myricitrin in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L. bark with a confidence probability of 95%, is ± 8.91% and ± 2.10%, respectively. Methods for the quantitative determination of myricitrin in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L. bark by HPLC has been developed. The content of the dominant flavonoid – myricitrin (myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) – in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L., was 0.42±0.06% and 8.45±0.24%, respectively. The error of the single determination of myricitrin in the tincture and dry extract of Juglans nigra L. with a confidence probability of 95% is ± 15.04% and ±2.96%, respectively.

Conclusion. The developed methods for the quantitative determination of flavonoids in the preparations of Juglans nigra L. barks L. can be used in solving the problems of standardization of Juglans nigra L. preparations.

Abbreviations: MPRM – medicinal plant raw materials; HP – herbal preparation; HPLC – high-performance liquid chromatography; SS – standard sample.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):31-43
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Study of organic acids profile of genus Persicaria Mill species

Chistyakova A.S., Gudkova A.A., Slivkin A.I., Chupandina E.E.


The genus Persicaria Mill. species belonging to the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae Juss.) and widespread in Russia, are weeds. The chemical composition’s main components of the genus Persicaria Mill. species, are flavonoid glycosides (rutin, avicularin, hyperoside, etc.). The data concerning a comparative study of the organic acids in the herb representatives of genus Persicaria Mill., have not been detected in the available literature.

The aim of the research is a comparative study of the organic acids qualitative and quantitative composition in the genus Persicaria Mill. species growing in the Voronezh region.

Materials and methods. The objects of the study were dried herb samples of the genus Persicaria Mill. species. All the species were harvested in the Voronezh region during the blooming period. The quantitative content of ascorbic acid and the amount of organic acids in terms of malic (hydroxy-succinic) acid was carried out according to the titrimetric methods of the Russian Federation State Pharmacopeia, the XIVth ed. The study of the qualitative composition of the organic acids profile and their quantitative content assessment in the studied objects, the herbs, was carried out by the method of capillary electrophoresis (“Kapel”, St. Petersburg, Russia).

Results. With the help of pharmacopoeial titrimetric methods, it was established that the highest content of the organic acids total amount is characteristic of the Persicaria maculosa Mill. herb (5,60%), the lowest one – of the Persicaria tomentósa (Schrank) E. P. Bicknell herb (4.03%). Persicaria maculosa S. F. Gray and Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre are the richest in ascorbic acid (0.17% and 0.15%, respectively). Using the method of capillary electrophoresis, the composition of the total amount of the studied organic acids has been established. It is represented by oxalic, formic, citric, malic, wine, propionic, lactic, benzoic and other acids.

Conclusion. The study of the organic acids of the genus Persicaria Mill. species has been carried out. It has been established that in the studied species, the organic acids total amount in terms of malic acid and the amount of ascorbic acid are similar. By the method of capillary electrophoresis, a complete composition of organic acids has been studied, and the quantitative content of each component has been established. In all the studied Persicaria Mill. species, the predominance of oxalic, formic and malic acids has been revealed.

Abbreviations: AsA – ascorbic acid; SP – State Pharmacopoeia; OAs – organic acids; GPM – General Pharmacopoeia Monograph; PM – Pharmacopoeial Monograph; BASs – biologically active substances.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):44-54
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Development of nitrofuran derivative: composition and technology of effervescent tablets with solid dispersions

Elagina A.O., Belyatskaya A.V., Krasnyuk I.I., Krasnyuk I.I., Stepanova O.I., Fateeva T.V., Smolyarchuk E.A., Kozin S.V., Plakhotnaya O.N., Rastopchina O.V., Rau J.V.


Taking into account the current Product specification file, the aim of the work was to develop the composition and technology for obtaining effervescent tablets based on solid dispersions of furazolidone in the form of an aqueous solution for external use.

Materials and methods. The used substances were: furazolidone, anhydrous sodium carbonate (chemically pure), polyvinylpyrrolidone-24000±2000 (chemically pure), malic acid (analytically pure), tartaric acid (chemically pure), citric acid (chemically pure), sodium benzoate (chemically pure), ethyl alcohol 96% (chemically pure), purified water. Preparation of granulates is separate wet granulation in a fluidized bed (Mycrolab, BOSCH, Germany). Obtaining tablets is the process of pressing on a manual hydraulic test press (“PRG”, VNIR, Russia). The dependence of disintegration, abrasion capacity and crushing resistance on compacting pressure was investigated. Technological parameters of granulates, еру obtained effervescent tablets, shelf life and storage conditions were investigated according to the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIVth ed.

Results. Two compositions of effervescent tablets containing solid dispersions of furazolidone as an active substance were obtained, which, when dissolved in 100 ml of water at room temperature (20°C), form a solution of furazolidone with a concentration of 0.004% in less than 5 minutes. The method of quantitative determination of the furazolidone content in the effervescent tablets was validated. A complex of physicochemical methods for the analysis of tablets was carried out. Quality standards have been developed. The developed compositions stability of instant tablets during storage during accelerated and long-term tests has been experimentally confirmed. The preliminary shelf life and storage conditions have been determined.

Conclusion. The result of technological and chemical-pharmaceutical research is the creation and evaluation of the quality of a new instant furazolidone dosage form as effervescent tablet formulations.

Abbreviations: FZ – furazolidone; SD – solid dispersions; AS – active substance; DF – dosage form; PVP – polyvinylpyrrolidone; SP RF XIV – State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIV edition; Es – excipients; PSF – Product Specification File; GL – granulation liquid.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):55-68
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Application of multivariate anova and generalized desirability to optimize the composition and technology of tablets containing N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-phenylpyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-3-carboxamide

Tishkov S.V., Blynskaya E.V., Alekseev K.V., Alekseev V.K., Gavrilov D.I.


The creation of drugs with an anxiolytic activity, which do not have the main side effects characteristic of drugs of this group, is an important and socially significant task. For its implementation, within the framework of the development of an original drug with an anxiolytic activity, the composition and manufacturing of GML-1 tablets (N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-phenylpyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-3-carboxamide) are being developed.

The aim of this article is to study, using a four-factor analysis of variance, the influence of composition factors on the manufacturing properties of GML-1 tablets and the selection of the type, the amount, stage of the disintegrant addition and the type of lubricating excipients used in the technology of wet granulation of GML-1 tablets.

Materials and methods. The materials used are: the substance – GML-1 (N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-phenylpyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-3-carboxamide). Excipients: microcrystalline cellulose 101 (MCC 101); polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP); crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), sodium starch glycolate (SSG); magnesium stearate (MS), sodium stearyl fumarate (SSF). To obtain tablet mixtures, wet granulation and tableting with the study of their main pharmaceutical and technological properties was used.

Results. Model compositions were developed and their pharmaceutical and technological properties were studied. These results have been analyzed, the degree of these factors’ influence and their interactions have been determined. In most of the cases considered, the interactions of the factors did not cause a significant change in the optimization criteria. With an increase in the amount of a disintegrant, the disintegration time decreased unevenly, so an increase in the amount of these excipients from 4 to 6 mg had a stronger effect than from 2 to 4 mg. Factor B affected the release degree non-linearly. Factor A influenced all the optimization criteria considered, especially a PS release. The best release and disintegration were observed with crospovidone, which was of a particular importance when processing the test results using a generalized desirability method.

Conclusion. In view of the conflicting variance analysis results, for particular factors, the resulting values were additionally analyzed using the generalized desirability function. The use of this method made it possible to reduce the conflicting variance analysis results to the most optimal composition.

Abbreviations: MP – medicinal product; DP – drug product; DF – dosage form; PS – pharmaceutical substance; API – active pharmaceutical ingredient; PVP – polyvinylpyrrolidone; MCC – microcrystalline cellulose; SCC – sodium croscarmellose; SSG – sodium starch glycolate; MS – magnesium stearate; SSF – sodium stearyl fumarate; GPM – General Pharmacopoeia Monograph.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):69-81
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Pharmacological activity of extracts from plants of cosmos bipinnatus cav. species

Kulichenko E.O., Andreeva O.A., Sergeeva E.O., Sigareva S.S., Terekhov A.Y., Oganesyan E.T., Sidorskaya S.Y.


The aim of the study is to determine antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activities of the extracts from Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. three varieties, obtained by the extraction with 70% ethyl alcohol.

Materials and methods. The antioxidant effect was studied in vitro using a model of iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the lecithin liposome system. The study of the anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on 30 male rats of the “Wistar” line. Diclofenac was used as a reference drug (p. o., the dose of 13 mg/kg in terms of the weight of an adult). The substances were administered to animals in the form of an aqueous suspension stabilized with Tween-80. To simulate the inflammatory process, a model of “cotton granuloma” was created. A hypolipidemic activity of the extracts was studied on 36 white male rats of the “Wistar” line. To study the hypolipidemic activity of the studied extracts, a tween model was used to create a hyperlipidemic state in rats, the concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides was determined in the serum of the experimental animals.

Results. The conducted model experiments made it possible to conclude that the alcohol extracts obtained from the dried inflorescences of the “Dazzler”, “Rosea” and “Purity” varieties of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic kinds of activities. It has been established that the extracts from the “Dazzler” and “Rosea” varieties (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.) contribute to a better reduction in the accumulation of peroxide compounds, compared to the extract obtained from the “Purity” variety. The data analysis on the anti-inflammatory activity shows that all the studied objects significantly (p = 0.05) reduce the stage of exudation compared with the control group animals by 50% (the «Purity» variety), by 52% (the «Rosea» variety) and by 40% (the “Dazzler” variety).

An experiment on the study of a hypolipidemic activity in the control group of the animals revealed a significant, in relation to the values of the intact group, increase in the cholesterol level of the blood serum by 78%, and in the level of triglycerides (TGCs) – by 64%.

The administration of the extracts obtained from Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. “Purity”, “Rosea”, “Dazzler” varieties to the animals, led to a decrease in cholesterol in blood serum by 44%, 47%, 50%, and triglycerides by 52%, 52% and 57%, respectively. Both indicators reached the normal level and did not differ significantly from the values in healthy (intact) animals.

Conclusion. According to the conducted studies, it can be concluded that alcohol extracts obtained from Cоsmos bipinnatus Cav., have pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic kinds of effect.

Abbreviations: DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid; DMSO – dimethyl sulfoxide; TGCs – triglycerides; TBA – thiobarbituric acid; LPO – lipid peroxidation.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):82-92
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Pharmacotherapy possibilities of cardiovascular autonomous neuropathy in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at the preclinical stage

Malyuzhinskaya N.V., Shishimorov I.N., Magnitskaya O.V., Stepanenko K.V., Polyakova O.V., Klitochenko G.V., Petrova I.V., Emelyanova S.A., Skiba A.P.


The aim of the article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the thioctic acid preparation in the complex therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at the preclinical stage.

Materials and methods. A design is a prospective randomized study. A clinical and instrumental examination of 64 children with preclinical stage signs of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) was carried out. The cohort was divided into 2 groups: in the main and control groups, glycemic control was normalized by adjusting a dose of insulin therapy; in the main group, the children additionally received thioctic acid at the dose of 600 mg/day for 3 months. To control the effectiveness of the therapy, the technique of laser Doppler flowmetry was used.

Results. After the pharmacological intervention, there was an improvement in the disease course, normalization of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased vasomotor mechanisms of the regulation of the tissue blood flow due to an increase in endothelial and neurogenic kinds of activity in combination with a decrease in the intravascular tone and an increase in the effective perfusion in tissues. An increase in the heart rate variability was detected, positive dynamics of cardiovascular tests indicators according to D. Ewing, temporal (pNN50%, SDNN) and spectral indicators (VLF) were diagnosed. Achievement and maintenance of the target values of glycemic control indicators, as well as the absence of glycemic variability, turned out to be clinically significant for reducing the manifestations of neuropathy. The non-invasive technique of laser Doppler flowmetry is informative for the early diagnosis of DCAN in T1DM children.

Conclusion. The carried out studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the lipoic acid use at the dose of 600 mg/day for 3 months in the children with DCAN signs at the preclinical stage. The method of laser Doppler flowmetry for determining indications and monitoring the effectiveness of therapy makes it possible to implement a personalized approach to prescribing preventive treatment in T1DM children.

Abbreviations: GCP – good clinical practice; HbA1c – glicated hemoglobin; LADA – Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults; MODY – maturity onset diabetes in youth; pNN50% – the mean number of times an hour in which the change in successive normal sinus (NN) intervals exceeds 50 ms; SDNN – standard deviation normal to normal; VLF – very low frequencies; АVА – arteriolo-venular anastomoses; ALA – Alphalipoic acid/α-lipoic acid; DCAN – diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; VVR – vegetative-vascular regulation; ESPALIPON II – an octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs; NATHAN I – Neurological Assessment of Thioctic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy; LDF – Laser Doppler Flowmetry; HDLP- High-Density Lipoprotein; LDLP – Low-Density Lipoprotein; HR – heart rate; T1DM – type 1 diabetes mellitus; TG – triglycerids; ECG – electrocardiography; BMI – body mass index.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):93-103
pages 93-103 views

Evaluation of ABCB1-protein inhibition prospectiveness in hematoencephalic barrier as method for increasing efficiency of pharmacotherapy in cerebral ischemia

Chernykh I.V., Shchulkin A.V., Gatsanoga M.V., Yakusheva E.N.


The aim of the article is to evaluate the ABCB1 protein inhibition in the blood-brain barrier to increase the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapy for focal and global cerebral ischemia.

Materials and methods. The work was performed on 103 male Wistar rats. In the 1st group (n=33), the neuroprotective activity of the ABCB1 protein substrate, nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg), was analyzed in terms of reducing the area of the brain necrosis after a 1-hour occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with a 24-hour reperfusion (focal ischemia). In the 2nd group (n=60), the effectiveness of nimodipine was analyzed by reducing the lethality of rats and the neurological deficit (ND) level against the background of the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (global ischemia). In both groups, nimodipine was used alone or in the combination with omeprazole, the ABCB1 protein inhibitor (17.6 mg/kg). The drugs were administered intravenously.

Results. The nimodipine administration to the 1st group led to the reduction of the necrosis focus by 28% compared with the control series. Omeprazole did not cause a change in the area of the necrosis. The combination of drugs caused a decrease in the area of the necrosis in relation to the control by 29%; there were no differences in comparison with the nimodipine series. Nimodipine reduced the rats’ lethality in the 2nd group against the background of the pathology (a tendency). Omeprazole alone did not change the mortality. The drug combination reduced the mortality compared to the control and nimodipine series. The administration of omeprazole alone did not reduce the neurological deficit score relative to the control. In the nimodipine series, ND was 88% lower than the control, after 24 hours. With the administration of the drugs combination, this indicator decreased in relation to the control by 88%, 80%, 88%, 87% and 86% after 4, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and in relation to the nimodipine series it decreased by 60% and 67% after 4 and 48 hours.

Conclusion. The ABCB1 protein inhibition is promising for increasing the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapy for global ischemia, but not for focal cerebral ischemia.

Abbreviations: BBB – blood-brain barrier; TTC – triphenyltetrazolium chloride; ATP – adenosine triphosphate; creb – cAMP response element-binding; Akt – protein kinase B (intracellular protein kinase B enzyme); IC50 – half-maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):104-112
pages 104-112 views

Effectiveness and safety of favipiravir infusion in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

Balykova L.A., Zaslavskaya K.Y., Pavelkina V.F., Pyataev N.A., Selezneva N.M., Kirichenko N.V., Ivanova A.Y., Rodoman G.V., Kolontarev K.B., Skrupsky K.S., Simakina E.N., Mubarakshina O.A., Taganov A.V., Pushkar D.Y.


Research in the development of new therapeutic agents with a wide spectrum of the antiviral activity and a low ability to develop resistance remains the main dimension in combating the global threat to public health. The need for a parenteral form of favipiravir was dictated by the necessity to increase the efficacy of therapy in COVID-19 inpatients. This dosage form has expanded the possibilities of drug therapy in the inpatients, for whom a therapeutic effect acceleration and a high safety profile of the drugs used are especially important.

The aim of the article is the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medicinal product containing favipiravir for the parenteral administration against the background of pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy, in comparison with standard therapy in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Materials and methods. An open, randomized, multicenter comparative study was conducted in 6 research centers in the Russian Federation to evaluate the efficacy and safety of favipiravir, a lyophilisate for the preparation of a concentrate for the infusion solution administrated to the patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Screening procedures and randomization were completed in 217 patients, 209 of which had completed the study in accordance with the protocol.

Results. Between the study groups, statistically significant differences have been found out, making it possible to consider the hypothesis of the drug Areplivir (favipiravir) superiority for the parenteral administration over the standard therapy, which included favipiravir (p. o.) and remdesivir. A comparative analysis has shown that a course of therapy with the parenteral favipiravir drug leads to a significant improvement in the condition of patients with COVID-19, significant benefits in terms of the speed and frequency of improvement in the clinical status of patients, as well as a reduction in the hospital stay length. It has been proven that therapy with a drug containing favipiravir for the parenteral administration does not adversely affect the parameters of clinical and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, coagulograms, vital signs and ECG, which indicates the therapy safety. The study drug is characterized by a high safety profile and tolerability.

Conclusion. The versatility and resistance to mutations of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase make it possible to consider it as the main target for combating the most common RNA viruses that cause ARVI, that determines the need further studies of favipiravir to expand the range of its indications.

Abbreviations: COVID-19 – novel coronavirus infection (Coronavirus disease 2019); AV – Artificial ventilation; GIT – gastrointestinal tract; ECMO – Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; ITT – population of all included (Intent-to-treat) patients; PP – the population of patients who completed the study according to the protocol (Per protocol); NAATs – nucleic acid amplification techtiques; NYHA – New York Heart Association; e-IRK – electronic individual registration card; ARDS – Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; CRP – c-reactive protein; ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate; NAATs – Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques; GIT – gastrointestinal tract; HR – heart rate; AspAT – aspartate transaminase; ALT – alanine aminotransferase; ULN – upper limit of normal; UDE – undesirable effects; IGs – Interim Guidelines; NSAIDs – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; GGT – gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; CK – creatine kinase.

Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2022;10(1):113-126
pages 113-126 views

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