Low doses of aspirin and gastrointestinal complications (Literature review)

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Abstract

Low-dose aspirin has been and remains one of the main antithrombotic agents used to prevent cardiovascular accidents. However, its use is associated with a wide range of complications from the gastrointestinal tract, including such a dangerous pathology, as ulcers and bleeding. According to statistics, while receiving low doses of aspirin, dyspepsia occurs in 30, gastric erosion in more than 50, gastric and duodenal ulcers in about 7, and «large» gastrointestinal bleeding in 0.6% of patients. In the presented review, the pathogenesis of these complications, their clinical and endoscopic characteristics, epidemiology and risk factors, including the role of Helicobacter pylori, are considered. Low-dose aspirin and H. pylori have been shown to be independent factors for ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding. The advantages and disadvantages of the main methods of preventing side effects while taking low doses of aspirin are discussed: the use of proton pump inhibitors, anti-helicobacter therapy, the use of rebamipide. When prescribing aspirin as an antithrombotic agent, one should be aware of the danger of development in patients with risk factors for life-threatening bleeding and the need for their prevention.

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