Vol 46, No 5 (2019)

Water resources and water objects regime
Scenario forecast of changes of the water balance components in the Ob-Irtysh river basin in connection with potential climate change
Gusev E.M., Nasonova O.N., Shurkhno E.A., Dzhogan L.Y.
Abstract

An intergovernmental group of experts on climate control obtained the forecast options of the dynamics for the weather components of the Ob-Irtysh river basin in the XXI century for four global climatic scenarios of the family “Special Report on Emissions Scenarios” complying with the set scenarios of economic, technological, political, and demographic development of the civilization, which served as the basin for the estimation of the options of possible changes of the water balance components of the specified river basic up to the middle of the XXI century. The calculation technique is based on using the physically based model of heat and mass exchange between the land surface and atmosphere SWAP and the climatic scenarios generator MAGICC/SCENGEN. The changes of the annual flow of the Ob river due to potential global climate changes were compared herein with its natural fluctuations caused by the weather noise.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):463-473
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Multiyear changes of the Danube delta marine edge
Mikhailova M.V., Kravtsova V.I., Morozov V.N.
Abstract

With the help of field and remote (space) methods, detailed studies of long-term changes of the Danube delta coastline (DCL) were carried out. It was established that the DCL displacements (progradation or retreat) can be an effective indicator of delta formation process as a whole: the dynamics of the delta channel network and the redistribution of water flow and sediment load between the branches, the impact of external factors on the delta (river water flow and sediment load, wind and wave action, rise or drop of the sea level). To determine the causes and characteristics of the Danube DCL changes on seven genetically homogeneous areas the contribution of various factors to the balance of sand sediments forming the DCL was evaluated. Locations of the DCL progradation or retreat were determined. Comparison of the results of a study of the Danube DCL dynamics with the data on changes of morphology and regime of other large deltas may allow one to assess the causes and trends of modern processes in river deltas.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):474-484
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Hydrophysical processes
Specialty of vertical water exchange of the Caspian sea on the basis of distribution of transient tracers
Brezgunov V.S.
Abstract

The analysis of the reliability of different scenarios for the formation of the vertical structure of the waters of the Caspian Sea, obtained from the distribution of transient tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, 3H and 3He) at the deep-water stations of the Middle and Southern Caspian within the framework of international integrated isotope-geochemical studies during the maximum sea level rise in 1995–1996. Taking into account the available hydrometeorological data and the characteristics of water dating using transient tracers, it was concluded that after large-scale gravitational convection in the Middle Caspian caused by anomalous cooling of surface waters in the Northern Caspian at the end of the winter of 1976, a structure of water masses was formed that excluded deep water ventilation in the Middle and South Caspian Sea until the mid-90s.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):496-502
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Seasonal variability and anomalies of the currents of the cyclonic gyre in the northeastern sector of Caspian sea
Ambrosimov A.K.
Abstract

The experimental data presented in the article show that in the North-Eastern sector of the Middle Caspian sea in the area of Peschanomyssky uplift there is a disturbance of currents caused by the interaction of the cyclonic cycle with the southern slope of the uplift. As a result of this interaction, the waters of the cyclonic cycle are divided into branches – the lower and upper. The lower bottom branch is thrown by the uplift in the South-Western direction, where at the Cape of the uplift it collides with the waters flowing down the bottom of the South-Buzachinsky deflection in the South-Eastern direction, and the upper branch, consisting of near-surface and intermediate cold waters, is pushed up and passes through the uplift. As a result of the rise of cold water in the surface layer formed upwelling, which extends to the entire North-Eastern region of the sea.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):485-495
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Seiches in Petrozavodsk bay of the lake Onego
Ivanov V.A., Pal’shin N.I., Manilyuk Y.V.
Abstract

The analysis of observation data on fluctuations in the level and velocity of currents in the Petrozavodsk Bay of Lake Onega, performed in 2016–2017, was carried out. Level oscillations were measured with a discreteness of 10 s using two TDR-2050 devices (RBR Ltd., Canada). Spectral analysis was performed using the simple Fourier transform method after one-minute data averaging to reduce instrument noise. Energy-carrier periods corresponding to the seiches of Petrozavodsk Bay and the Lake Onega are identified. Current velocities were measured with Aquadopp HR-Profiler (Nortek, Norway). Within the framework of the linear long wave theory, seiche oscillations are considered in a model basin approximating the Petrozavodsk Bay with regard to the Ivanovskiye Islands. Using an analytical solution, estimates for the periods of the higher seiche modes and the corresponding maximum wave flow velocities are obtained for the Petrozavodsk Bay. The comparison of theoretical estimates with the data of field observations, was showed satisfactory agreement.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):503-510
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Hydrochemistry. Hydrobiology, environmental aspects
Methane in water and bottom sediments of lake Baikal
Garkusha D.N., Fedorov Y.A., Tambieva N.S., Andreev Y.A., Mikhaylenko O.A.
Abstract

The results of the methane concentration distribution in different areas of Lake Baikal obtained in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in this study. In periods of expedition examinations, the methane concentration in the water and in the bottom sediments of the lake varied in a range from <0.1 to 13.9 μl/dm3 (average: 0.7 μl/dm3) and from <0.01 to 3.69 μg/g of the dry deposition (average: 0.34 μg/g). The maximum methane concentrations in the water and bottom sediments in the lake were typical for the North region, where rivers Verkhnyaya Angara and Kichera are flowing, and in the individual stations of the profile set along the mouth area of the river Selenga, as well as the stations located in the zone of the waste water underwater release of Baikalsk City and the Baikalsk pulp and paper mill closed in 2013. The presence of increased and decreased methane concentrations in the examined top strata of the sediments of Lake Baikal was stipulated herein aside from the differences in the power of the anthropogenic effect by the variation of the sediment accumulation conditions determining the particle size distribution and the organic matter content and, as a result, by the methanogenesis intensity.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):511-522
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Ecological condition of the small north river after emergency release of oil products
Lapteva E.M., Loskutova O.A., Kholopov Y.V.
Abstract

The features of the chemical compositions of the surface water, bottom sediments, and zoobenthos communities of the small forest water way after an oil pipeline accident were investigated herein. Nine months after the oil spillage, an increased content of oil hydrocarbons (2.8 MAC) remained in the surface water downstream the place of the emergency release of oil-containing liquid. The detected high concentrations of iron ions (1.1–4.6 MAC) and copper (1.2–2.6 MAC) and the decomposition-resistant organic compounds (1.2–3.3 MAC) were typical for the background area, which certified their almost natural origin. The oil hydrocarbon content in the bottom sediments below the emergency release of oil in the water way exceeded the backgrounds one in 7–214 times. Zoobenthos is presented by 18 groups in the water ways of the region under consideration, out of which, 14 groups were detected in the contamination area. The modification of the zoobenthos structure and the reduction of its quantitative indicators of development were observed in the direction from the Vozeyshor creek. The dominance of entomostracans and oligochaete was detected in the bottom communities of the oil-contaminated areas.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):523-532
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Anthropogenic changes of hydrochemical and sanitary-microbiological indexes of water quality in tributaries of south Baikal (Listvennichniy bay)
Malnik V.V., Timoshkin O.A., Suturin A.N., Onischuk N.V., Sakirko M.V., Tomberg I.V., Gorshkova A.S., Zabanova N.S.
Abstract

Sanitary-microbiological and hydrochemical research of rivers flowing into Baikal in the area of Lystvyanka settlement was carried out from 2014 to 2015. It was found out that water quality in the mouths of such rivers as Bolshaya Cheremshanka, Malaya Cheremshanka and Kamenushka fell out of the standards of normative technological document in Russia, as well as abroad (US and Europe) based on such indicators as thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB), thermotolerant E. coli, enterococci. The quality of water in the mouths of B. Cheremshanka, M. Cheremshanka, Kamenushka rivers was far from standards of the above mentioned (Russia) by hydrochemical indices such as phosphates (PO43-). In June 2015, the standard by TCB group was exceeded more than 10 times in coastal water of Lake Baikal near B. Cheremshanka River mouth. Thus, the water quality sampled from the river mouths in comparison to river waters sampled above settlement was significantly poor. Moreover, in July 2015 when the number of tourists was maximal, high gradient between amount of fecal bacteria in river mouths compared to the water samples from the upstreams on background stations was found. To stop local damage of the ecosystem in Lystvyanka area the construction of wastewater treatment station here is urgent and reasonable.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):533-543
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The role of biotic and abiotic components of the aquatic ecosystem in the formation of ecological trouble of Tsimlyansk and Manych reservoirs
Nikanorov A.M., Khoruzhaya T.A.
Abstract

The relative importance of indicators of biotic and abiotic components of aquatic ecosystems of Tsimlyansky and Manych (Proletarian and Veselovsky) reservoirs is investigated in the process of formation of States of ecological trouble: “environmental stress, environmental emergency and ecological disaster”, which are provided by a number of existing normative- methodological documents. For this purpose, the shares of indicators as a percentage of their total number in the dynamics of negative changes in aquatic ecosystems were compared on the basis of long-term monitoring information of Roshydromet and data of own expeditionary studies in reservoirs on hydrobiological, toxicological and physico-chemical indicators. It is established that the role of the biotic component increases with the deterioration of the aquatic ecosystem of the Tsimlyansk reservoir, on the contrary, decreases in Manych. The role of the abiotic component is great and similar in all reservoirs; it increases already in a state of emergency environmental situation, but in an environmental disaster is somewhat reduced.

It is concluded that the proposed new approach to the analysis of the role of biotic and abiotic components in the development of negative changes in the ecosystem opens up new opportunities in the study of the water quality formation and the state of water bodies.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):544-554
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Different-scale changes of abundance and species diversity of metazoan microzooplankton in the coastal zone of the Black sea
Seregin S.A., Popova E.V.
Abstract

The short-term, seasonal, and interannual variations in the abundance and species composition of the Black Sea metazoan microzooplankton have been analyzed at the open coastal area and the mouth of Sevastopol Bay in 2009–2015. Whatever the time scale, the temperature factor played the main role in abundance variations. In particular, the coincidence of two-year periodicities in the sum of active temperatures and the abundance of copepod-invader Oithona davisae at the interannual scale have been demonstrated. Variations of wind speed and direction have been shown to be significant factors in the short-term variations of microzooplankton abundance. The total species diversity of the community was found to depend significantly on the abundance of the invader species.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(5):555-564
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