No 9 (2016)

Articles

Method and pneumatic device for reduction of coalescence of drops in spray cones of liquid in plant protection

Kireev I.M., Koval' Z.M.

Abstract

To reduce the coalescence activity of drops in the slot spray cones of working fluid, a method of injecting of air jet by pneumatic device with subsequent transporting of air-and-drop flow to the plants is proposed. Reducing of coalescence of drops is proved by comparative data on the density of the covering of record cards using the developed method and traditional one. In case of the developed method, the spraying is carried out by means of pneumohydraulic devices at average unit speed of 19 km/h. In this case, the number of small and medium drops with trace diameters from 0 to 150 micrometers is increased, and the number of drops larger than 300 micrometers is decreased. With the average unit speed of 15.5 km/h and operating width of single pneumohydraulic device of 300 cm, the spray material consumption is 16.26 cubic decimeters on 1 hectare. In the traditional version of arrangement of sprayers on the boom at a pitch of 50 cm and motion speed of tractor unit of 14.8 km/h, the spray material consumption is 51.1 cubic decimeters on 1 hectare, which is by 3.14 times more than in case of the developed method. The advantage of the developed method of drops application on the treatment objects lies in the fact that the outer part of air jet emerging from the nozzle of pneumohydraulic device prevents the entrainment of drops into the environment. The results of these studies and laboratory tests are the basis for further research and practical application of economical, eco-friendly and high-performance technologies of use of pesticides in crop production.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):3-6
pages 3-6 views

Substantiation of installation angle of inclined wall of charging hopper of a root chopper

Savinykh P.A., Aleshkin A.V., Bulatov S.Y., Smirnov R.A.

Abstract

Tuberous roots obviously benefit in comparison with other feeds, due to the high level of specific volume energy, productivity and good digestibility. When they are mixed with other components, the palatability of finished mixtures for animals increases. The quantity of digestible nutrients in tuberous roots can reach up to 90%. To make the nutrients more fully digested by animals, the correct preparation for feeding is necessary, including chopping. One of the problems of roots cutting process is the increased exudation, which results in undue losses of vitamins. Therefore creation of choppers providing the required quality of finished product is a crucial task. The aim of the research is to determine the optimum angle of inclination of the wall of charging hopper depending on the size of tuberous roots and on the offset of horizontal knife of a chopper. Brief description of the developed chopper of tuberous roots is given, as well as the sources of information containing the detailed description of the installation and its operation principles. In the process of theoretical calculations, the scheme of all forces acting in the moment of tuber pinching between the wall of charging hopper and the horizontal knife is drawn; the chain of discourse and theoretical reasoning are shown in detail. As a result of calculations, the analytical dependences are obtained through which assigning the thickness of slices and sizes of chopped tubers, it is possible to calculate the desired inclination angle of wall of charging hopper. Under estimated values, the tuber does not roll over the cutting knife, and the deformation is minimal. Therefore the exudation decreases, and nutrients losses are minimal. On the basis of the derived dependence, the graphs and their analysis are given.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):7-10
pages 7-10 views

Experimental research of electro-hydraulic proportional valve of mechatronic control system of automatic gearbox

Tarasik V.P., Savitskiy V.S.

Abstract

To control the mechanisms of automobiles, tractors, building and road machines, the mechatronic automatic control systems are commonly used; one of their most important components is the electro-hydraulic proportional valve. Mechatronic systems allow to implement the sophisticated adaptive control algorithms, provide the high quality of functioning processes of controlled mechanisms and significantly increase the efficiency of production processes. The article deals with the experimental research of characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional valve and the optimization of parameters of its control implemented by the microprocessor controller. Such valves are applied in automatic transmissions for the control of gear shift and working organs. The key diagram of created valve is given; its interaction with mechanisms of mechatronic systems is shown. The system functioning in implementation process of its work algorithm under control of the microprocessor controller is described. The article describes the results of experimental research of the electro-hydraulic proportional valve and technical solutions that allow to improve significantly its performance. The static and transient responses of the valve and its components are obtained. It is found that the form of transient response of proportional solenoid depends on the power source characteristic. With the use of direct current source, the transient response corresponds to aperiodic link, but with the use of controller, it corresponds to oscillatory one. The oscillatory character of transient response is caused by the control action of current controller. Current controller parameters influence the relative overshoot and the delay time of current rise in the proportional solenoid winding. The optimal parameters of current controller settings are defined. Influence of oscillation of control signal on the hysteresis of static response of control mechanism is investigated. Parameters of electro-hydraulic proportional valve that allow to estimate the possibility of its application for the control of working organs of machines are described.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):10-18
pages 10-18 views

Experimental studies of characteristics of vibration protection elements for operator workplace of industrial tractor

Berezin I.Y., Pronina Y.O., Bondar' V.N., Vershinskiy L.V., Taranenko P.A.

Abstract

Reliability of results of computer simulation depends on the accuracy of specified dynamic characteristics of the elements of oscillating system. In this connection, identification of model parameters and verifying of its adequacy are of major importance. Bench tests of new elements of vibration protection of T-11 tractor cab and seat involving the hydropneumatic way of vibration damping were conducted. The equipment of test bench conforms with loading scheme of investigated elements and reproduces the cab and seat working conditions identical to these of tractor operation, in particular the impact of given random process and shock loading. The information-measuring unit provides the registration and processing of experimental data. Bench tests allowed to reveal the fundamental features of the dynamic characteristics of shock absorbing elements, determine the numerical values of parameters contained in them and substantiate a number of assumptions inherent in the mathematical model. Adequacy check of the model was made by comparing the simulation results with field tests of T-11 tractor. The layout of acceleration sensors at various points of the tractor allowed to describe quite adequately the overall picture of vibration loading of the system of «caterpillar truck - frame - cab - seat», and to reveal a number of regularities that correct the model and perform a comparison of simulation results and field tests. The laboratory tests of vibration protection elements for operator workplace increased the accuracy of simulation results. Field tests allowed to confirm the adequacy of calculation model. The possibility of substitution of the field tests for laboratory ones in case of determining a number of certification characteristics of vibration protection systems is substantiated.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):19-22
pages 19-22 views

Optimization of geometrical parameters of jet drive of cleaning centrifuges

Snezhko A.V., Snezhko V.A.

Abstract

Centrifuges with hydrojet drive were widely used in 1960-70 for oil cleaning in the engines. Nowadays some foreign companies apply them together with filters for oil cleaning in engines of vehicles and tractors. The most complex challenge in designing such centrifuges is the calculation of parameters of nozzle diaphragm. Its optimal solution depends on the specific technical requirements to separator under designing. Research objective is to substantiate the optimal geometrical parameters of hydrojet drive of cleaning centrifuges, and to develop its calculation method under different conditions of designing. Design parameters of hydrojet drive, such as nozzle diameter and its reactive arm, are calculated according to the condition of dynamic balance between the drive moment created by the liquid from nozzles, and the moment of resistance to rotation at the stable motion. Design, kinematic and power parameters of nozzle diaphragm that provide the driving kinetic moment of liquid are analyzed. The factors influencing on rotational resistance are determined. As a result, the equation of balance of specific energies is received: the energy spent for overcoming of rotational resistance, and the motive energy of fluid flow developed by hydrojet drive. The analysis of this equation allows to determine the optimal reactive arm and nozzle diameter. Formulas for calculation of minimal fluid consumption in hydrojet drive that provides the specific angular speed of rotor and the parameters of nozzle diaphragm corresponding to this consumption are received. With optimal design parameters of hydrojet drive, the coefficient of utilization of flow energy is maximal. The expression for calculation of the maximal efficiency coefficient of hydrojet drive is obtained. Results of theoretical researches are presented in graphic form. Design charts of optimal values of flow rate of liquid from nozzles, circumferential speed of nozzles, reactive arm, and also efficiency coefficient of hydrojet drive with its optimal parameters are given. A method and solution algorithm of two problems of hydrojet drive design are offered: the calculation of optimal design parameters of nozzle diaphragm for ensuring the maximal rotating speed of rotor, and also the calculation with the minimal power consumption of drive.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):23-28
pages 23-28 views

The use of term «sintered powder frictional material»

Il'yushchenko A.F., Leshok A.V., Rogovoy A.N., Sharipov V.M.

Abstract

Powder frictional materials are widely used in frictional couplings and brakes of tractors, automobiles and agricultural machinery. Today various terms are applied for these materials, such as: "ceramic-metal frictional material", "powder frictional material", "sintered frictional material". The term "ceramic-metal frictional material" is the most frequently used in scientific literature. Long-term experience of development and use of frictional materials indicates that the listed terms are not exact. There is the following definition of metal ceramics. It is the artificial material having heterogeneous composition of metals and alloys with nonmetals (ceramics). In modern sintered powder frictional materials the quantity of nonmetallic components could range from 10 to 30% of volume, including graphite, oxides, nitrides, sulfides and other components. For example, the volume of the most widespread composition of MK-5 sintered powder frictional material based on copper contains 23% of graphite that does not interact with the bronze base. According to earlier formulated definition of "ceramic-metal frictional material", the graphite should be qualified as ceramics, which is absolutely incorrect. When studying a microstructure of MK-5 sintered powder frictional material based on copper, it is established that graphite is uniformly distributed across the section surface. It does not interact with the components of frictional material and has the form of isolated particles. Therefore, it is incorrect to define this material as metal ceramics. For these materials it is suggested to use the term "sintered powder frictional materials" that indicates their application and production technology.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):28-30
pages 28-30 views

Influence of reinforcement of ploughshares surface on their thickness wear

Kozhukhova N.Y., Sinyaya N.V.

Abstract

Wear intensity of working surface of a part is the major factor influencing its durability. To reduce the wear of parts of working organs of tillage machines, a number of processing methods of their hardening is created; one of them is welding reinforcement. The assessment of ploughshare thickness wear and of influence of its surface reinforcement on wear intensity is carried out. Ploughshares in as-delivered condition and ploughshares after reinforcement according to three processing methods are used as objects of the research. Wear of reinforcing beads height and wear of ploughshare thickness between them are determined. Attrition of the beads occurs unevenly along the length of sock because of the high pressure of soil on ploughshare sock. It is also necessary to consider the fan-shaped soil movement along the ploughshare sock. It is shown that reinforcing beads essentially slow down the abrasive wear of ploughshare thickness between them. That is related to the fact that riffles create the conditions for the formation of fluidized layer between them, and thereby less soil particles get into contacting area. The quantity of abrasive particles contacting with working surface and their pressure on ploughshare body are decreased. When attrition of welding bead is flush with working surface, the composite surface is formed; thereon the maximum hardness is observed, which contributes to the increase in abrasive wear resistance. Traces of reinforcing beads with high degree of hardness also have a positive effect. Due to breaking-in of surface and forming of composite surface, the wear intensity decreases.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):31-34
pages 31-34 views

Efficiency of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping

Bur'yanov A.I., Goryachev Y.O., Bur'yanov M.A.

Abstract

Grain harvesting on most farms in Russia lasts up to 25-30 days, because of the deficit of combines; that results to 30% harvest losses. With introduction of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping, the performance of harvesting units is increased by 1.5-2 times, which allows to cut down the harvesting duration and to reduce the fuel consumption by 35-45%. But grain losses after passing of harvesting units are increased and the haulm stand appears on field, which stimulates moisture accumulation. Additional operation for haulm stand treatment is required, such as disk harrowing or chopping and spreading on field. According to the state standard no. 53056-2008, the efficiency of mechanized technologies and machine complexes is defined during formation of optimal structure of machine and tractor fleet for a typical farm, on the criteria of minimum of total costs. The paper deals with efficiency evaluation of technology of grain harvesting by means of combine stripping and of a traditional technology through comparing the total costs of work performance by means of optimal machine and tractor fleets of a typical farm. For that, earlier designed mathematical model and algorithm-program complex are improved. Investigations are performed on the example of a typical farm of the south of Rostov region with 5000 hectares of cultivated area. According to their results, it is found that for such farm the total costs are 31 499 thousands rubles in case of grain harvesting by means of stripping with duration of 10 days, and 35 325 thousands rubles in case of traditional technology with duration of 13 days.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):34-39
pages 34-39 views

Robotics technology and agrochemical support of plant cultivation

Sychev V.G., Afanas'ev R.A., Godzhaev Z.A., Grishin A.P., Grishin A.A.

Abstract

The article provides an overview of methods for monitoring of crop condition and variability (diversity) of soil fertility in the field. Two ways of their implementation having fundamental importance to robotic technologies are marked, namely the remote and at-ground ones. Remote methods for identification of diversity of soil fertility and crop condition are infrared spectrometry of crops by means of helicopters, quadcopters, drones and other low-altitude vehicles capable to shoot the condition of targets by means of attached camera, and also the radar-photometric remote sensing which allows to mark the field areas with different agrochemicals properties in real-time mode. Among the at-ground methods of agrochemical investigation of soils and crops special attention is payed to the mesh method of soil sampling with the use of automated samplers equipped with navigational devices, the usage of relation of soil fertility with its topography and the scanning of electrical conductivity of soil. The article presents a variant of identification of field contours of soil fertility during the automatic determination of productivity of crops (principally grain-crops) in harvesting process. A block diagram of implementation of this method is given. The obtained data is used for the construction of field productivity map, which allows to divide the areas (contours) on levels of productivity. A tracked chassis with hybrid power plant, motion control equipment and machine vision device is described. The chassis serves as the practical basis for development of robotic technologies in plant cultivation, including the fertilizer distributor that will become the base robotic unit in case of full robotization of agrochemical support of plant cultivation based on unmanned mobile power units.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):40-43
pages 40-43 views

Technology of solid mineral fertilizers application by means of STA-5TM transport-technological unit as part of specialized Ural-432065 vehicle chassis

Shkel' A.S., Kozlovskaya M.A., Dzotsenidze T.D.

Abstract

The research of process operations for transport-technological unit is of particular interest for the assessment of economic efficiency of operation. Features of process operations are studied on the example of the transport-technological unit with STA-5TM replaceable technological superstructure for solid mineral fertilizers application based on specialized all-wheel drive Ural-432065 vehicle chassis. Common methods of scientific organization of labor serve as theoretical basis for the development of process technology of mechanized operations in agriculture, by analogy with the technology of performance of various works in industrial plants. During solid mineral fertilizers application special attention is payed to the proper organization, full mechanization of work, observance of deadlines, application rate and uniformity of fertilization. The STA-5TM technological superstructure provides application of the established rate with adjustment interval of 0.05 t/ha and motion speed of the unit up to 12 km/hour. Before the operation, the transport-technological unit should be prepared and adjusted for qualitative performance of the process. Setting value of fertilizer application rate is determined with the use of a slide rule and depends on the fertilizer grade, grasp width, operating speed, standard rate of fertilizer usage. For standard application rate, the desired position of main slide gate of batcher and the speed of conveyor belt are determined. Calculation results of kinematic characteristics of the transport-technological unit during mineral fertilizers application for various ways of movement are presented. The technology of solid mineral fertilizers application by means of STA-5TM transport-technological unit as part of specialized Ural-432065 vehicle chassis provides the ability to improve the operation efficiency with the growth of labor productivity and reduction of cost of the final product.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):44-48
pages 44-48 views

Influence of technology level of fuel on the efficiency of operation of internal combustion engines of motor-and-tractor vehicles

Kerimov M.A., Safiullin R.N., Marusin A.V.

Abstract

The effect of energoinformational field created by Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on the fuel and on fuel supply system of internal combustion engines leads to the improvement of operational performance of motor-and-tractor vehicles. Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles is a centrifugal-vortex source creating a stream of particles in vertical direction. The stream of particles affects any device in its area of influence. The principle of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles is based on the energoinformational concept of the structure of matter and on effects generated by gravity waves. Today the mechanism of this interaction in terms of classical science is understudied. Studies carried out on an automated test bench system in Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering are aimed at quantitative and qualitative assessment of the effect occasioned by bombardment of fuel and internal combustion engine with heavy particles stream. The obtained results show a positive effect of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on operational parameters of internal combustion engines. Primarily it’s the increasing of fuel efficiency and reducing of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The comprehensive research will allow to form conceptual framework of the effect of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles on the technology level of used fuel, as well as assess the impact of this level on the efficiency of motor-and-tractor vehicles in general. The aim of further researches in the subject area is to study the systemic effects that occur during the operation of Kozyrev’s generator of heavy particles.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2016;(9):49-52
pages 49-52 views

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