No 6 (2017)

Articles

How to effectively influence the soil during surface treatment

Rudenko N.E.

Abstract

Surface treatment includes soil presowing, steam, inter-row cultivation and is performed by cultivators or combined u machines. The applied working organs carry out one-way free action on the soil. This leads to a displacement, discarding of soil sections in one or different directions, depending on the shape of the flat surface of the working organ. The resistance associated with discarding the soil, giving kinetic energy is in a quadratic dependence on the speed S of the working movement. Therefore, most often there is a restriction not exceeding 12 km/h, thereby restraining ^ productivity growth. The absence of counteraction does not allow providing a high degree of crumbling and leveling of the soil surface. That is why when surface processing of soil in combination with soil cultivating paws discs, harrows, equalizers, rollers of different modifications on cultivators are installed. They carry out soil re-grinding and О leveling the surface. However, this significantly increases the specific material consumption of soil cultivating units. ^ It for some of them reaches 300-400 kg/m. This is an additional material and financial costs, in addition, there is a О reconsolidation of the soil, deterioration of conditions for the growth and development of plants. It is necessary to 1 analyze and test different ways of affecting the soil: multidirectional, constrained and concentrated. It has been established that in order to improve the quality of the surface treatment of soil, it is necessary to use a multidirectional, constrained or concentrated effect, using innovative technical solutions of soil cultivating working organs. As a result, stabilization of the depth of processing is ensured, removal of moist soil on the day surface is excluded, productivity is increased and energy costs are reduced.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):3-8
pages 3-8 views

Drying grain using solid fuel

Golubkovich A.V., Pavlov S.A., Marin R.A., Dadyko A.N.

Abstract

The use of alternative sources of liquid (gaseous) fuel to produce a coolant, including for grain drying, has been studied in contrast to burning conventional fuels, which hinders their use. A characteristic feature of the use of combustion units for burning plant waste is a sufficiently long ignition and preheating, preceding the drying. At the same time, a large amount of heat is accumulated in the furnace casing, which can be partially used for batch drying for the next batch of grain and completely for the latter, which will increase the efficiency of the process. Drying is one of the main operations in post-harvest grain processing, the fate of the crop depends largely on the quality of drying. Both flow and periodic drying are common in farms. Periodic drying, as a rule, uses the same dryers as for flow or specialized. The technology of this drying in dryers equipped with liquid or gas furnaces is well developed and does not cause difficulties - kindle the furnace, cyclically dry the grain to the conditioned moisture, cut off the fuel supply, cyclically cool and unload the dryer. The pause between the drying of adjacent lots without ignition and heating of the furnace is determined by the cooling time of the masonry to the temperature of stable ignition and burning of volatiles plus 150-200 °С, depending on the moisture content of solid particles of plant waste. The duration of ignition is a function of the mass of the furnace chamber, its heat capacity, the temperature of the flue gases and the heat transfer coefficient. At ignition of liquid fuel its duration is not less than 20 min. To dry the last batch of grain, the mass of the burnt chamber must be at least 0.7 times the mass of the grain in the dryer. The duration of heating the furnace is completed by stabilizing the temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the exhaust fan, but not less than 1 hour.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):9-15
pages 9-15 views

Functional capabilities of the experimental unit for introducing into the soil aqueous solutions of fertilizers

Dzhibilov S.M., Gulueva L.R.

Abstract

One of the ways to revive and preserve meadows and pastures in the mountainous zone is the in-troduction of liquid fertilizers to the sparse phytocenosis and exposed areas that have lost valuable forage species. To solve this problem, for the first time a new method for improving mountain meadows and pastures was proposed by the staff of SKNIIGPSKh, for the implementation of which, for the first time, a prototype of an aggregate that performs the application of liquid fertilizers to the soil of the planted area was created on the basis of the KGG-2,4 mining cultivator. According to calculations on the experimental sample of the unit, a tank of 240 liters is installed, which ensures continuous operation of the unit within one hour. The prototype of the unit, due to maneuverability, mobility and light weight, is quite suitable for working on sloping lands in farms for superficial improvement of mountain meadows and pastures with a slope up to 16°. This method opens the possibility of performing sowing operations even in the dry period, making the grass stand thicker, which prevents water and wind erosion. The unit was tested on the basis of the experimental workshop of the mechanization group of SKNIIGPSKh and on the experimental plot in the village of Dargavs of the Prigorodny district of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania on a total area of 300 m2 in triplicate. The aim of the research was to develop a prototype block module of a multifunctional aggregate for applying liquid fertilizers to the soil on mountain meadows and pastures, which provides an increase in the productivity of agricultural landscapes and the profitability of agricultural production by 15-20 %. The novelty of the unit is that for the first time a prototype of a block-module of a multifunctional unit based on a mountain chisel cultivator KChG-2,4 (designed by SKNIIGPSKh) equipped with working elements for introducing liquid mineral fertilizers and solutions of other preparations onto the slopes of meadows and pastures with Rocky protrusions on the surface, providing an increase in the productivity of agricultural land, reducing erosion processes and increasing the stability of agrolandscapes.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):16-21
pages 16-21 views

New resource-saving design of the sowing device for fodder crops

Lobachevskiy Y.P., Akhalaya B.K., Shogenov Y.K.

Abstract

The creation of a solid fodder base is based on the rational use of arable lands for meadows and pastures. In the system of measures to strengthen feed production, a selection of reliable, high-yielding fodder crops that can become a source of inexpensive and high-grade fodder, as well as the development and introduction into production of highly efficient agricultural machinery that provides the implementation of new technologies for sowing, growing, harvesting the process of harvesting quality forage, balanced on all elements of nutrients. A sowing device has been developed that allows without additional material and time costs to pass from the dotted sowing to the combined method without using additional sowing discs. The structural features of the device prevent seed from crushing and crumbling. The developed method and design of the pneumatic sowing device for the combined sowing of two crops in the same row with the same intervals between the seeds and their placement at different depths of the embankment allows to obtain savings in sowing areas, improve the environmental situation of the environment, by reducing the number of passes of the unit and obtaining a balanced feed for animal protein to simplify the design, making it easy to use and financially profitable. With such a sowing device it is possible to transfer relatively easily from the combined sowing to the dotted and, conversely, without additional costs (including temporary ones), which gives significant savings in terms of material and time indices. The seeder, equipped with pneumatic sowing devices of a new design, makes it possible to obtain fodder with the content of digested protein to 105-110 g, which increases milk yield per cow to 3000 kg per year.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):22-27
pages 22-27 views

Automation of the test bench for experimental research of the local air cooler of the vehicle driver

Mikhaylov V.A., Klimova E.V.

Abstract

The question of automation of the test bench for research and selection on the basis of experimental data of rational supply of L air by a local water evaporator cooler of a vehicle driver (tractor, car, road-building machine) is considered. In the design of an automated test bench made in the form of an open wind tunnel, along with an auxiliary electric fan, an electric heater of the treated air, a local air cooler and a human heat simulator Qh, there are elements for measuring and controlling the quantities L, Qh, the temperature t of the treated air and th - the body surface simulator. The imple- mentation of the control system with active computing devices, where the leading role is played by the STH0024UY-v3 thermostat with a remote temperature sensor DS18B20, containing a microprocessor and a control electrical relay. s Such modules for t and th are assigned the main function of automated control of the stand, and the personal computer provides execution of the program of automated control in the «pulse - pause - pulse» mode, and also performs the auxiliary task of collecting and storing information about the data of the research results. As a result of the automation of the test bench, the time is shortened and the laboriousness of the study is eliminated. At control experimental check of functional qualities of the stand it is established that in the manual control mode the stabilization of indications th, t and L at a given level is associated with a great emotional and physical load of the operator, as he must almost continuously monitor them and to some extent intuitively influence changing their mechanisms. At the same time, a considerable time is wasted to achieve the necessary result. Automated control can almost completely free the operator from unnecessary manipulation, and only at certain intervals (not more than 120 seconds) he controls the readings of the instruments without interfering with the work of the stand. This removes his emotional and physical load, and due to the exclusion of unnecessary manipulation of controls, the experiment time will be shortened.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):28-36
pages 28-36 views

The experimental setup for the study of soil-working bodies

Bozhko I.V., Parkhomenko G.G., Gromakov A.V., Maksimenko V.A., Kambulov S.I.

Abstract

The final verification of the performed calculations on the adequacy of the stated hypothesis on the phenomenon being studied is the experiment. Using the method of monographic examination of known bearing systems, the design of an experimental setup for conducting field experimental studies of the working organs of tillage machines was developed. When conducting experimental studies, methods of energy assessment, estimation of technical parameters in accordance with state standards, and methods of full-scale experiment using modern computer diagnostic tools and software are used. The experimental installation for studying the working organs of soil-cultivating machines of the proposed construction includes a frame, support wheels with the possibility of adjusting the depth of soil cultivation by means of a screw mechanism, the attachment mechanism, a hinged mechanism with the fastening of the test organ, the fixing mechanism of the measuring sensor and rigidly fixed to the frame of the apparatus working body to create conditions for the real technological process of functioning. When the system moves through the experimental section, the analog data of the traction resistance read from the measuring sensor is transmitted to the amplifier, from where it is fed through the channel to the analog-to-digital converter board, then the digitized data is fed to the personal computer. It is established that the relative error in the data of the experimental determination of the parameters and indices of the technological process of the working organs of soil-cultivating machines when using the proposed experimental installation with a measuring complex does not exceed 4 % of the results of theoretical studies. The experimental installation allows to carry out investigations in the field conditions with imitation of the real process of operation of the designed tiller machine.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):37-42
pages 37-42 views

The influence of morphological characteristics of winter wheat plants on the choice of operating modes of combing header

Bur'yanov M.A., Bur'yanov A.I., Chervyakov I.V., Kostylenko O.A.

Abstract

The purpose of the research is to determine the degree of influence of morphological features: the length of plants, their stems, ears of winter wheat grown in the southern subzone of the Rostov Region, and the choice of operating modes for combing headers. The problems arise from the discrepancy between the parameters and operating modes of the combing devices for the characteristics of the harvested grain, and also because of the lack of knowledge of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the crop plants currently cultivated. When harvesting with streaks, it is necessary that only the ear of the plant gets into the working zone, the parameters of which are determined by the diameter of the combing drum, the gap between it and the fairing, their mutual arrangement, and the position of the header relative to the field surface. Compliance with this condition is necessary, but not sufficient for cleaning with a streak without loss of grain. When modeling on the mathematical model of the process of combing grain crops realized by a combing header in a specific field, knowledge of more than ten physico-mechanical characteristics of the harvested plants is required. Data on the characteristics of plants of winter wheat, cultivated in the conditions of the south of Russia, was accumulated by us for six years. The data on the non-uniformity of plant characteristics of five varieties of winter wheat are obtained. Measurements were carried out within the field to be cleaned, individual plots and grown in one bush. Geometric characteristics of plants, such as their height, length of stem and ear can be estimated with a certain degree of accuracy with a small number of measurements and visually, with the selection of the most different sites on the harvested massif. This article illustrates the influence of the geometric parameters of the plants of the crop being harvested on the quality of the process being performed and the possibility of controlling it by regulating the operating modes and controlling them.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):43-51
pages 43-51 views

The choice of universal measuring instruments for monitoring the cylinder liners of the engine during selective assembly

Leonov O.A., Antonova U.Y.

Abstract

The issues of ensuring the quality of single and small-scale machine-building production, including machine repairs, are currently relevant due to a number of objective and subjective factors that are related to the culture of designing and manufacturing machines. The purpose of the research is to study the influence of the measurement error on the formation of the scattering of the cylinder liner sizes of the YaMZ engine during selective assembly, taking into account the number of incorrectly received and incorrectly rejected parts, as well as determining the probabilistic value of the output of the measured parameter for each tolerance limit for incorrectly accepted products. The choice of measuring instruments to ensure the necessary accuracy is a complex task and should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of GOST 8.051-81 and RD 50-98-86. To analyze the formation of the size distribution in the process of selective assembly of the cylinder liners of YaMZ engines, the indicator gauges were selected with a value of 0,001 mm, the first was adjusted for the end measures of class 1 (error of 6.5 micrometers), and the second was tuned to the mounting rings ). An analysis of the data obtained on the scattering of dimensions indicates that the process of processing the liner can be considered unsatisfactory, since there is a correctable defective products of 4 % and an unrecoverable defective products of 2 %, the scattering zone is shifted toward corrected defective products, which characterizes the good qualifications of the workers performing this operation. When using a caliper with an accuracy of 6,5 micrometers number incorrectly, or out-of band defective parts on more than 4,95 %, and the number of incorrectly received parts of 4,7 % more than when using a caliper with an accuracy of 4 micrometers. Thus, when choosing a measuring instrument to control the quality of the cylinder liners of YaMZ engines under the conditions of a single, small-scale and repair production, the most precise one should be used from the proposed nomenclature of universal measuring instruments of linear dimensions, with a sampling unit 0,001 mm in value for setting rings. This will lead to a significant decrease in the number of incorrectly accepted groups and incorrectly left from the group or rejected parts, which in turn will affect not only the quality of the subsequent assembly of the connection, but also the economy of the enterprise.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):52-57
pages 52-57 views

Technical characteristics and agrotechnical indices of work of tillage machines

Nesmiyan A.Y.

Abstract

The study presents the results of analysis of the characteristics of modern tractors and tillage tools. The data obtained make it possible to assess the energy, economic, technical and shunting indices of the relevant aggregates, and can be used as a starting point in calculating the rational composition of the ma-chine and tractor fleet of agrarian enterprises. It is established that the dependencies and masses of trac-tors and the power of their engines on traction can be described with high accuracy by linear equations. On average, the mass of tracked tractors is 11 %, and the engine power is 27 % smaller than that of the cor-responding wheeled tractors. However, with a higher traction coefficient and low pressure on the soil, caterpillar tractors are less maneuverable, universal and, most importantly, less ergonomic, which hampers their wide application. With rational aggregation, such characteristics of the work of soil-cultivating units as working speed, specific fuel consumption, the utilization factor of the shift time do not actually depend on the traction class of the tractor. With an increase in the traction class of the tractor, the specific metal consumption of the implements being mounted with it increases. The difference is especially noticeable in the case of combined guns and «craters», for which a hypothetical transition from a class 1.4 tractor to a class 8 tractor led to an increase in the estimated specific material consumption by 3,7 and 3,4 times, respectively. The increase in productivity with the increase in the tractor class in most cases occurs with a delay. This allows us to conclude that the only advantage of introducing wide-angle aggregates is the reduction of the required number of operators. For the rest of the parameters, the machine with a wide-cut implement has no advantage over a group of machines with tools of identical total width.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(6):58-64
pages 58-64 views

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