Vol 85, No 5 (2018)


Innovative technology of reconstruction and remediation of forest shelter belts

Kulik K.N., Bartenev I.M.


Field protecting forest belts are nowadays destroyed and require reconstruction and remediation, which means that it is necessary to completely remove the disturbed rows, then prepare the soil and all subsequent silvicultural works, the performance of which with the use of technologies and machinery borrowed from forestry will not yield significant positive results. The technology based on modern achievements in the field of mechanization, including the transformation of the aerial part of the tree-shrub mass into chips and mixing it with the upper soil layer using mobile rotary type mulchers moving at speeds up to 5 km/h; removal of stumps remaining in the soil with a KND-1.1 continuous lifter; collection and removal of uprooted stumps by the picker skidder universal PTU-2.1 is proposed. The KND-1.1 uplifter cuts stumps, shakes them off the soil and leaves them at a speed of 3...5 km/h on the surface with a continuous movement at a speed of 3…5 km/h, 30 times higher than used at KSP-20 uproader. KND-1.1 and PTU-2.1 is a fleet of technical equipment linked to each other in terms of performance. A positive element is that KND-1.1 not only removes stumps, but at the same time prepares the soil for planting in a strip 1,1 m wide and 0,4...0,5 m deep, excluding the use of a plow, a cultivator or a harrow, thereby reducing metal intensity and energy intensity of stumping and soil preparation by 9 and 6 times, respectively.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):3-8
pages 3-8 views

Methods and devices for processing the stemstock of cereal crops harvested using combine stripper harvester technology

Bur'yanov A.I., Bur'yanov M.A., Chervyakov I.V.


The purpose of research is the development of methods and devices for the treatment of dense crop when harvesting grain crops with combines. Methods for utilization of dense crop are chopping with rotary shredders after threshing, cutting of recycled stalks into fragments during thrashing with tow, cutting of stripped stalks by a cleaning unit with its simultaneous laying in a roll. The development of methods was carried out taking into account the requirements for tillage carried out after the harvest of cereal crops on the fields, which should be prepared for the cultivation of subsequent crops according to the traditional, minimal and zero technology. For shredding the combed stems of cereal crops, a device has been developed that is mounted on the header and the inclined chamber of the combine, cutting the stems into parts of 140-170 mm and putting them into spreading. On the basis of mounted on the combine and trailed roller headers, equipped with an integrating conveyor, rotary feeder and chopper, schemes of a trailed harvesting unit are developed. These schemes provide the grinding and distribution of the material across the header's width. The possibility of collecting and loading the crushed material into the vehicle is considered. For harvesting straw for various needs from dense crop, a unit was proposed for harvesting grain crops with a nozzle with simultaneous cutting and gathering of the stems in a swath. Behind the cutting header, the cutting apparatus is hung, and on the left and right, side rakes are attached to the header and combine harvester, which feed the cut mass into the inter-track space of the combine. Cut stalks in the left and right front wheel tracks of the combine are retracted to the sides by special guiding devices. The proposed technical solutions are protected by patents of the Russian Federation for inventions.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):9-14
pages 9-14 views

Research of high-speed operation modes of a tractor diesel on alcohol-fuel emulsions

Lihanov V.A., Lopatin O.P.


The necessity of using alcohol-fuel emulsions as ecological energy carriers for tractor diesel engines is proved in the work. At the same time, such renewable environmental energy sources as methyl and ethyl alcohols were investigated. With the aim of developing, determining and optimizing the composition of the alcohol-fuel emulsion for tractor diesel engine 4F 11,0/12,5 conducted its tests when working on diesel fuel, methanol - and ethanol-fuel emulsions. Experimental studies have established that for use in a 4F 11,0/12,5 tractor diesel engine environmental energy based on mixtures with alcohols were used emulsions of the following composition: alcohol (methanol CH3OH or ethanol C2H5OH) is 25 %, detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A - 0,5 %, water - 7 %, diesel fuel - 67,5 %. The results of experimental studies of power and economic parameters, indicators of toxicity and smoke content of the exhaust gases of the diesel operating on the ecological mixture of the above composition are presented. The transformation of the investigated diesel from petroleum diesel fuel to environmental energy allowed while maintaining the power factors to reduce the content in the exhaust gases when working on methanol-fuel emulsion - carbon black by 6,9 times, nitrogen oxides by 41,3 %, carbon dioxide by 6,7 %, carbon monoxide by 45,0 %; when operating on ethanol-fuel emulsion - carbon black by 5,2 times, nitrogen oxides by 50,2 %, carbon dioxide by 23,8 %, carbon monoxide by 25,0 %. The conclusion is made about the prospects of using such ecological energy carriers as ethyl and methyl alcohols in tractor diesel engines.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):15-19
pages 15-19 views

Calculation of the parameters of the corrector section of the speed characteristics tractor engine

Samsonov V.A., Lachuga Y.F.


One of the main indicators of the corrector section of the high-speed characteristics of the tractor engine is its torque adaptability factor. The article describes the method of General solution of the problem of calculation of this coefficient. The method is to minimize the difference between the two functions (optimality criterion): the first - the dependence of the denominator of the geometric series of gears on the coefficient of adaptability, the second-the dependence of the denominator on the tractor power range, that is, the ratio of the tangential thrust force in the last gear to the same force in the first gear. Taking into account the found coefficient of adaptability by the moment, the rotation frequency of the motor shaft at the maximum torque, the coefficient of adaptability of the engine by the shaft speed, the traction and speed ranges, the theoretical speed in the last gear are determined. The speed of the shaft at the maximum torque is determined from the condition that the engine load factor by power at the maximum torque is equal to 0,85. The power range is determined by the results of minimization of the optimality criterion, the speed range is equal to C-low. The speed of the tractor in the last gear is determined taking into account the given speed in the first gear and the found speed range. The generally accepted range of minimum values of the coefficient of adaptability, based on the time increase in traction resistance, is 1,15...1,20. In some modern tractor engines, this co-efficiency is greater than 1,2. The aim of the article is to optimize the interval of adaptability coefficient values greater than 1,2. The object of study - the engine of a wheeled tractor traction class 3. The initial material-nomi-nal traction and weight of the tractor, its traction range, the interval of theoretical speed in first gear. Research methods-nel programming using the minimization of the convex function; approximation of the linear function of the torque dependence on the current speed of the shaft. The main conclusion: given the accepted criterion of optimality, constraints, and the coefficient of variation moment of resistance of the optimum the coefficient of adaptability at the twisting mo-ment of tractor engines comply with the interval of 1,27 to 1,45.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):20-25
pages 20-25 views

Improving the design of the working body for layer-by-layer tillage

Bozhko I.V., Parhomenko G.G., Kambulov S.I.


Tillage is considered to be the methods of mechanical impact on the soil, contributing to the improvement of its fertility and the creation of better conditions for the growth and development of plants. Layerless processing without cover takes one of the most significant operations carried out during the preparation of the soil. This is confirmed by the fact that layer-by-layer processing promotes the accumulation of moisture inside the soil layer, the separation of the seam into layers, and the reduction of soil erosion. The aim of the research is to improve the design features of the main elements of the working body for layer-by-layer soilless tillage. Based on the methods of analysis and synthesis of research, as well as modeling, an improved design of the working body was proposed. It provides for the possibility of replacing almost all the main elements as they wear out, which in turn indicates a high level of wear resistance of the developed structure and a significant reduction in labor costs during its maintenance. In addition to the use of metal basic elements of various shapes (flat-cutter, curvilinear ripper) in the design of the working body, the use of ultra-high-molecular polyethylene inserts partially or completely replacing the main structural elements of the working body is also provided. Experimental studies have found that the traction resistance of the working body using a flat-ripper in the construction is 9,30 kN, with a curvilinear ripper 8,04 kN, which is 13,56 % lower than the flat-cutter. With the use of ultra-high molecular polyethylene inserts, a decrease in traction resistance of up to 7,6 kN was observed, which is 18,28 % lower compared to a flat-ripper. The proposed design allows layer-by-layer soilless tillage, carrying out at the same time a deep 25-35 cm and shallow 12-16 cm tillage, and also allows to obtain an aligned field background after the passage of the unit.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):26-31
pages 26-31 views

Flexible element in the composition of the working bodies of the rotary soil-cultivating ripping-separating machine

Syromyatnikov Y.U., Hramov N.S., Vojnash S.A.


Surface tillage for growing crops is carried out with the purpose of crushing its upper layer, grinding crop residues, destroying weeds and leveling the field surface. The purpose of the research is to determine the quality indicators of an experimental soil-cultivating rotor ripping-separating unit using a flexible working body in the form of a cable. Authors studied in field conditions the physicomechanical properties of the soil after autumn plowing, early spring harrowing and cultivation with lancet paws to a depth of 0,12 m. There was analyzed the structural-aggregate composition of the soil obtained after the passage of device, depending on the frequency of rotation of the rotor and the presence of a flexible element in the form of a cable. Studies have been carried out on an experimental soil-cultivating loosening and separating plant on a layer of soil, which, after processing, is stratified into two sublayers: the upper superseed, the lower layer in the seed embedding zone. In the lower soil layer there is a significant advantage of the working bodies with a flexible element in the form of a cable. Increasing the rotor speed from 1,1 to 2,3 s-1 contributes to an increase in the coefficient of soil structure in the lower layer by about 10 %, and in the upper layer by no more than 2,3 %. With the use of a flexible working body in the form of a cable in the composition of the working bodies of the experimental soil-cultivating rotary ripping-separating installation, the coefficient of structure is about 1,5 times higher than the working bodies without it, which provides more favorable conditions for embedding seeds in the soil. It was found that tillage using an experimental soil-cultivating rotary tillage-separating installation as part of the working bodies of which a flexible element in the form of a cable was applied allows us to improve the methods of pre-sowing tillage to improve its agrotechnical qualities.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):32-39
pages 32-39 views

To determine the optimal tilt angle of the lattice holes of the bottom of the inclined chamber

Ozhereliev V.N., Nikitin V.V.


According to the results of laboratory experiments, the optimal angle of inclination of the holes of the lattice bottom of the inclined chamber of the combine harvester is established, which provides maximum separation of free grain from the combed grain heap before it enters the grind chamber. This allows you to minimize the intake of free grain to the threshing device, securely eliminating the probability of crushing the working bodies grind. Studies were carried out on wheat varieties «Moscow 56». The grain moisture content was about 12%. The speed of the conveyor 3 m/s and the angle of inclination to the horizon of 45° correspond to similar parameters for most modern combine harvesters. The angle of inclination of the lattice bottom opening had seven levels of variation within 0-90°. The feed of the combed grain heap was about 10 kg/s with a content of 80 % free grain. The length of the removable grating bottom was 0.95 m, and its rectangular holes had a size of 160×8 mm. To eliminate the effect on the output parameter, the area of the «live section» of the holes of the lattice bottom in all series of the experiment was taken the same. Thus, results of scientific researches, increasing of the angle of inclination amounts of free grain passed through the holes of the bottom lattice is reduced, and the number came down from his grain, on the contrary, increases. The maximum separation of free grain 68,7 % corresponds to the angle of inclination of the holes equal to 0°. To ensure complete separation of free grain from the combed grain heap, the length of the separating surface must be at least 1,18 m. This technical solution can be implemented, for example, in the inclined chamber of the grain harvester KZS-1218 «Polissya GS-12», which has a length of about 1,3 m.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):40-46
pages 40-46 views

Vibration analysis of diesel turbocharger for agricultural use

Kaminsky R.V., Kovaltsov I.V., Kostyukov E.A., Sibiryakov S.V., Filippov A.S.


Environmental, efficiency and economic requirements for diesel engines are being constantly toughened, thus requiring engine modernization. Increasing the degree of diesel boosting is one of the ways to meet these requirements. However, this leads to an increase of the load on various parts and components of the diesel engine. The turbocharger, as one of the most important engine units, undergoes a high vibration load due to the high rotor speed. As it is known from the practice of the manufacturer, this is one of the most common causes of failure of turbochargers. So the evaluation of the vibration load of the plain bearings in modern turbo-charging units requires careful research, which is the purpose of this work. To measure vibrations in the turbocharger, there was used a three-axis vibration transducer AR81, which was mounted on the turbocharger in such a way that the sensor axes coincided with the axes of the turbocharger. This is necessary to determine both the magnitude of the vibrations, and their direction. According to the measured values of vibration acceleration, it can be concluded that the turbocharger is technically in order, predicted a possible failure and, consequently, taken a decision on the required set of measures or make changes to the design documentation in the case of significant deviations. The study was undertaken in two stages: on a specialized balancing machine and on a gas-dynamic non-motorized bench. During the tests there were detected harmonic and non-harmonic components, resonances associated with an increase in the rotor speed. The values of vibration acceleration along the rotor axis of the turbocharger have been measured, perpendicular to the rotor axis in the horizontal plane, perpendicular to the rotor axis in the vertical plane. According to the results of the experimental data, there have been drawn the conclusions that allow to note the following: to reduce the vibrational loads on the running part of the turbocharger, it is necessary to design the compressor stage in such a way that in all modes of engine operation there would be a substantial margin up to the surging limit; the radial load is significantly higher than the axial load, so the radial bearing must have a significant margin of safety to increase the reliability of the turbocharger.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):47-55
pages 47-55 views

Low-cost, eco-friendly diesel with a thermally insulated combustion chamber

Merzlikin V.G., Makarov A.R., Smirnov S.V., Kostukov A.V., Gutierrez M.O.


The performance of a diesel engine has been studied using well-known types of ceramic thermal insulating HIC or thermal barrier TBC coatings. This problem is relevant for a diesel engine with low thermal losses of the combustion chamber, in which the intense radiant component (in the near-IR range) reaches ∼ 50 % of the total heat flow. In this paper, the authors continued to study these coatings, but as translucent (SHICs or STBCs) with bulk absorption of penetrating radiant energy. The spectrophotometric modeling of the optical parameters of these coatings made it possible to estimate the characteristics of the temperature field being formed with a reduced near-surface temperature gradient (compared to opaque coatings), causing a significant decrease in heat loss through the heat-insulated piston. A translucent STBC coating based on partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ ceramics ZrO2 + 8 % Y2O3) was chosen, determining the formation of the optimum temperature profile in the piston head. For bench testing was used experimental single-cylinder tractor diesel. With a rotation frequency of n > 2800 1/min, the heat loss did not exceed 0,2 MW/m2 through the bottom of the piston with the heat-shielding layer. The tests performed showed a lower specific fuel consumption of ∼ 2-3 % in comparison with the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with an uncoated ceramic piston. At the same time, torque and effective power increased by ∼ 2-5 %.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):56-68
pages 56-68 views

Some results of experimental modeling cylinder and piston group oil supplay conditions of the low-sized four-cycle diesel engine

Putintsev S.V., Biktashev A.F., Pilatskaya S.S.


Experimental results on direct visualization of cylinder and piston group (CPG) interacting surfaces oil supply in a high-speed four-cycle engine are presented and discussed in the article. The relevance of this work is connected with an insufficient examination of lubrication processes, in particular, deficiency of experimental data concerning to four-cycle engine with traditional crank-and-rod mechanism (CRM) CPG oil supply. The purpose of the research was experimental supervision of processes of oil delivery to interacting surfaces of coupling «cylinder-piston» in a four-cycle internal combustion engine. Attainment of the assigned purpose has been carried out by means of experimental modeling lubricating system operation with the special breadboard setup supplied an independent drive of the oil pump and optical transparent cylinder and piston. The received results have allowed to specify the CPG oil supply behavior, and also to identify the new function of the piston consisting in transfer of disintegrating oil stream onto the interacting surfaces of the piston and cylinder. During experiments earlier stated hypothesis about existence of anomaly of quantity of the lubricant arriving on the thrust and anti-thrust side of the cylinder has been confirmed. The presented experimental information can be used for operational development and modernization of any combined type lubricating systems serving four-cycle piston engine with traditional CRM.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):69-75
pages 69-75 views

Prospects for the development of undercarriage systems of modern mobile energy devices for agricultural purposes

Godzhaev Z.A., Pogozhina A.M.


The final stage of the cultivation of crops is harvesting. The quality of the operation depends on the annual result of the effectiveness of all previous work. It is important not only to harvest well, but to preserve the fertility of the soil and avoid soil compaction. The problem of compression is becoming more acute due to the massive use of heavy wheeled tractors and combines. The degree of soil compaction depends on the type of propulsion unit, the weight of the tractor and the number of passes of the units across the field. The negative impact of undercarriage systems on the soil should be considered when creating new machines based on new layout schemes, to reduce the structural weight, taking into account the dynamics and distribution of the center of mass of the variation in hook load. To reduce pressure and evenly distribute it is possible through the creation of more advanced propulsion and suspension systems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the most promising designs of the mobile agricultural machinery undercarriage systems, which can reduce the specific pressure on the ground, improve the throughput of agricultural machinery and provide a more comfortable planting and harvesting. At the moment, the following main directions of development of agricultural machinery undercarriage systems can be distinguished: pneumatic tracks, twin wheels, half-track, installation of rubber-reinforced tracks (RRT) and torsion as an elastic suspension element. The tests carried out confirmed that the installation of a changeable tracked propulsion unit can reduce the degree of soil compaction by 17-46 %, and the use of twin wheels showed an increase in pulling force by 20 % and a decrease in gauge depth by 40 %. The use of pneumatic trackers allows to increase the permeability of the transport vehicle on soils with a weak bearing capacity and at the same time minimize the damage that it can cause to the supporting base. Recently it is popular to operate the agricultural machinery, which uses rubber-reinforced caterpillar. Its caterpillar operational cycle if higher of 4-5 times comparing to those from metal. In addition, it allows to reduce vibration load and do the work at wet soil conditions. RRT is put both in the all-track version, and in the form of a wheel-caterpillar. This propulsion unit has a triangular shape of rubber tracks is mounted instead of wheels. Currently, individual torsion hangers of track rollers are widely used on tracked tractors. The advantages of the new torsion-balance suspension made it possible to increase the reliability and durability of tracked tractors undercarriage systems.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):76-84
pages 76-84 views

Method of determining the rational composition of arable unit

Bojkov V.M., Starcev S.V., Pavlov A.V., Nesterov E.S., Lavrent'ev A.V.


Using the technical characteristics of the PBS-10P trailed single-furrow plow and the results of tractor tests made by the Nebraska Tractor Test US laboratory, the value of towing tension of Case Magnum 340 (239 kW), New Holland Т9020 (213 kW), Challenger MT 835 (271 kW), John Deer 9120 (182 kW), Versatile 375 (226 kW), Versatile 400 (247 kW), New Holland Т9030 (310 kW) tractors and traction resistance of the PBS-10P plow at appropriate speeds were determined. The analytical dependencies of the traction force of the tractors and the traction resistance of the plow on the speed of movement are determined. The method of determining the rational composition of the arable unit is described, including: experimental determination of the plow traction at different tillage depth and speed; determination of the tractor force at the maximum traction power of the tractor; approximation of the obtained results in the form of empirical formulas; building graphical dependencies by empirical formulas and determining the optimal speed of the arable unit, which is used to calculate the productivity of the arable unit.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2018;85(5):85-88
pages 85-88 views

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