Vol 89, No 1 (2019)

Science and Society
The international law and sanctions. Search for permissible limits
Khabrieva T.Y., Kapustin A.Y.

Abstract

The reinforcement of the sanctions policy of the leading world powers and their coalitions has highlighted the problem of doctrinal research inadequacy of the practice of international legal regulation of the use of international coercive measures. This study aims to determine the dominant approaches to the correlation between the categories “sanction” and “law” regarding municipal and international law, based on historical and comparative analysis of the positions of Russian and foreign legal doctrines. Despite fundamental differences in the systems of national and international law, both cases sanctions act as a coercive measure to observe the statutes of law, both regarding the implementation of international responsibility and non-responsibility relations. In addition, the study provides specific examples of unilateral coercive measures (sanctions) of regional international organizations that are inconsistent with the imperatives of general international law. In conclusion, the state of international legal regulation of the use of coercive measures is substandard; however, the primary reasons for this provision remain unclear. Furthermore, this study formulates a proposal for the development of a doctrinal model of criteria for the lawfulness of international coercive measures.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):03-09
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On the Rostrum of the RAS Presidium
The 100th anniversary of academician Boris Paton
Russian Academy of Sciences H.

Abstract

November 27, 2018, marked the 100th birth anniversary of an outstanding scientist, Boris Ye. Paton, a permanent president of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine since 1962, an initiator and the president for several years of the International Association of Academies of Sciences, the world-renowned specialist in the field of metallurgy and metal technology, the author of more than 1000 publications, and the founder and the head of a major scientific school. On his birthday, a meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held, and the ceremony was conducted in absentia of B.Ye. Paton, who has always been and remains a permanent friend and admirer of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Here we present a review of speeches at the meeting of Russian colleagues, close associates of B.Ye. Paton, who gathered to mark the remarkable anniversary of an outstanding man and a scientist, an excellent organizer of science.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):10-14
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The Russian Academy of Sciences and its responsibility to promote science
Zaikina G.A.

Abstract

The meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences held on September 18, 2018, discussed the tasks of the Russian Academy of Sciences toward promoting science. On this issue, the keynote address was made by RAS Vice President Academician A.R. Khokhlov, who highlighted the aims of such activities, measures being implemented, and cited several examples from the practice of educational work. This study focuses on the possibility of including activities to promote scientific knowledge in the government task of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addition, the speaker discussed the role of the RAS Commission on contesting pseudoscience and falsification of scientific research in diffusion of purely scientific ideas and popularization of the scientific perspective globally, proposing to create two separate commissions based on the existing one. A.R. Khokhlov emphasizes developing a program by the Russian Academy of Sciences to popularize science. Finally, this report presents an earnest dialog that took place on this topic. Here, readers are offered the presentation of the report and its discussion materials.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):15-23
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Review
The crisis in economics – nature and ways to overcome it
Nekipelov A.D.

Abstract

Recent decades have witnessed an upsurge in multiple alternative approaches to unraveling major economic problems, together with the mainstream economic theory, which in this study has been considered an indicator of economic crisis. In this study, we attribute institutional stasis, as well as methodological heterogeneity of its two constituent sections, micro- and macroeconomics, to the primary drawbacks of neoclassical economic theory. Overcoming the crisis of economic science correlates with the creation of a general economic theory on the principles of “pure science,” with elucidated functions of various socioeconomic disciplines. If “pure economic theory” intends to form an intellectual layout of the economic system, then the “realistic sciences,” also including modern macroeconomics in this study, are tools for analyzing specific socioeconomic phenomena and processes. As people with consciousness and interests act in the society, this study postulates the existence of a certain zone of ambiguity, which cannot be entirely covered.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):24-37
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Organization of Research
Science without borders: Siberian experience
Molodin V.I., Yermikov V.D.

Abstract

Today, Russian science has every chance of reaching a qualitatively new stage of development, which, perhaps, is impossible without an active international component. Thus, it would be appropriate to recapitulate the experience of the successful scientific collaboration of the institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences with organizations of Western countries at the turn of the century, the most difficult years of the systemic crisis in our country, which can be used under present conditions.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):38-48
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Point of view
Oldness as an interdisciplinary problem
Yurevich A.V.

Abstract

This study focuses on the social and psychological factors of aging, along with related psychological characteristics. The study emphasizes that old age is only the beginning to be understood, as aging conceals crucial reserves. Thus, exploring psychological mechanisms of aging constitutes a a new area that merits attention. In conclusion, modern society needs a special ideology of old age, which could include economic, social, and psychological aspects.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):49-55
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Problems of Ecology
Adaptation as the principal technology for the development of subarctic territories of Russia
Osipov V.I., Aksyutin O.E., Ishkov A.G., Grachev V.A., Sergeev D.O.

Abstract

Warming of the Earth’s climate necessitates the adaptation of human economic activities to these changes, especially in regions of permafrost soil (PS). This study proposes adaptation as an effective mechanism for environmental management, enabling the preservation of nature and concurrently increasing the resistance and immunity of the infrastructure to climate change. The adaptive model of the economic development of subarctic territories encompasses the implementation of a series of sequential measures based on the comprehensive knowledge of the laws of the cryosphere development, estimating temperature variations, and the state of the PS. This study provides examples of the use of adaptation technologies in unraveling economic issues in the subarctic zone of Russia.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):56-63
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Profiles
Karl Marx as a philosopher of science. On the 200th anniversary of the birth
Blukher F.N.

Abstract

This study discusses the primary components of the Karl Marx doctrine, including the dialectical method, concept of the materialist philosophy of history, and political and economic ideas, and analyses the reconstruction of the class theory. The author considers Marxism as a philosophy of science, on par with those that subjugated at the end of the nineteenth century, neo-Kantianism and positivism, traces the role of Marx in the development of the historical approach, and assesses the implication of his work for the development of subsequent methodological approaches in social and human sciences, especially systemic and activity-theoretic research. Furthermore, the study briefly describes the fate of Marx’s ideas after his death.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):64-72
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Life is a relentless creativity. On the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician N.A. Semikhatov
Belsky L.N., Gorkunov E.S., Deryugin S.F., Lukin N.A.

Abstract

This study introduces the milestones of academician N.A. Semikhatov, an outstanding scientist and designer, who substantially contributed to the creation of our country’s nuclear shield, including ballistic missiles, for the world’s most potent nuclear submarines, Typhoon, are equipped with control systems developed under his leadership. Semikhatov focused on the training of scientific and engineering personnel, headed the department of radio engineering faculty of the Ural Polytechnic Institute for over 20 years, was one of the initiators of the Institute of Machine Science of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where he later worked as a permanent member of the Joint Scientific Council on Mathematics, Mechanics, and Computer Science at the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, and a member of the Presidium of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Of note, this study was also drafted using the memories of his colleagues, relatives, and friends.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):73-82
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Bygon Times
The first scientific journey in Siberia. On the 300th anniversary of D.G. Messerschmidt’s expedition
Sobolev V.S.

Abstract

On November 15, 1718, Tsar Peter I signed a decree appointing D.G. Messerschmidt as a leader of the first scientific expedition to Siberia. The expedition lasted for 8 years, and its findings remain historically unparalleled in terms of the extent of the tasks performed and the volume and value of the information collected. This scientific journey marked the beginning of several subsequent remarkable expeditions organized by the Russian Academy of Sciences. This study was prepared on the basis of materials of the original expedition journal kept in the St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):83-88
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Times and Mores: Memoirs, Letters, Diaries
“As long as we are alive, we must keep our heads and… live”. Letters of soviet geneticists to F.G. Dobrzhansky
Konashev M.B.

Abstract

This study presents a small part of the epistolary heritage of an outstanding biologist, geneticist, and evolutionist, F.G. Dobrzhansky, which is of interest for not only geneticists but also anyone interested in the history of our country. In the correspondence of Feodosiy Grigorievich with B.L. Astaurov, D.K. Belyaev, R.L. Berg, N.N. Vorontsov, G.F. Gauze, B.M. Zavadovsky, N.P. Dubinin, G.D. Karpechenko, Yu.Ya. Kerkis, G.A. Levitsky, Zh.A. Medvedev, N.N. Medvedev, N.I. Vavilov, S.Ya. Paramonov, M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov, A.S Serebrovsky, V.N. Soifer, Yu. A. Filipchenko, I.I. Shmalgauzen, A.V. Yablokov, and other scientists, significant events have been discussed, which took place in Russian and foreign academic and university science of the 1960s and 1970s, as well as the fate of Russian immigrants in the United States.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(1):89-98
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