Vol 89, No 5 (2019)

General Meeting of the RAS Members
Countering technology-related, biogenic, social, and cultural threats, terrorism and ideological extremism, as well as cyber threats and other sources of hazard to society, economy and the state. Оpening Speech of the chairman of the priority council, vice-president of the RAS, academician V.P. Chekhonin
Chekhonin V.P.
Abstract

Оpening Speech of the chairman of the priority council, vice-president of the RAS, academician V.P. Chekhonin

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):423-424
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Countering technology-related, biogenic, social, and cultural threats, terrorism and ideological extremism, as well as cyber threats and other sources of hazard to society, economy and the state. Speech of the deputy minister of health of the Russian Federation S.A. Kraevoy
Kraevoy S.A.
Abstract
Speech of the deputy minister of health of the Russian Federation S.A. Kraevoy
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):425-426
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Development of a technological platfom for creating innovative anti-tb drugs effective against multi-drug-resistant strains
Danilenko V.N.
Abstract

This article tackles the issue of the growing morbidity and mortality caused by multi-drug-resistant (extreme drug-resistant) tuberculosis (TB). This issue is aggravated by the alarming rise of immunocompromized patients and immigration worldwide. In order to solve this problem, an interdisciplinary approach is needed. Here we offer to: (1) develop innovative diagnostic techniques for identifying dangerous lineages of TB with mutations and drug resistance genes; (2) develop antibiotics with new modes of action effective against multiple drug resistance and extreme drug-resistant strains of TB and HIV; (3) develop new genetically engineered vaccines; and, (4) develop new vaccine adjuvants based on probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium stains, with selective immunomodulatory activity.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):427-435
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Speech of academician of RAS V.G. Akimkin
Akimkin V.G.
Abstract
Speech of academician of RAS V.G. Akimkin
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):436-436
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Artificial intelligence and some issues of Russian security provision
Kokoshin A.A.
Abstract

Some cases of using Artificial Intelligence systems are analyzed in order to give reliable warning and optimal response to man-made and natural emergencies. The author considers the set of tasks of information and cyber security, of increasing the combat capability of the armed forces.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):437-439
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Speech of the director general of T-Platform V.Yu. Opanasenko
Opanasenko V.Y.
Abstract
Speech of the director general of T-Platform V.Yu. Opanasenko
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):440-441
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Effective chemical methods of fire control: new threats and new solutions
Varfoloveev S.D., Lomakin S.M., Sakharov P.A., Khvatov A.V.
Abstract

This paper discusses the prospective flame retardant systems for polymeric materials, while considering the environmental issues they create. Polymer nanocomposites with carbon nano-additives and layered silicates are presented as a new type of flame retardant system which exhibits a synergistic effect flame retardancy for traditional polymer thermoplasts. Particular attention is paid to the novel intumescent flame retardants based on the oxidized renewable raw materials, which can be successfully used in the manufacture of multi-purpose timber construction and polymer materials.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):442-448
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Speech of the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences S.M. Frolov
Frolov S.M.
Abstract

Speech of the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences S.M. Frolov

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):449-450
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Speech of the doctor of engineering sciences A.B. Sivenkov
Sivenkov A.B.
Abstract
Speech of the doctor of engineering sciences A.B. Sivenkov
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):451-452
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Priority of scientific and technological development "Transition to personalized medicine, hightech healthcare and health-saving technologies, including through the rational use of drugs, primarily antibacterial drugs". Speech of the deputy minister of health of the Russian Federation S.A. Kraevoy
Kraevoy S.A.
Abstract
Speech of the deputy minister of health of the Russian Federation S.A. Kraevoy
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):453-454
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Nature-like technologies: new opportunities and new challenges
Kovalchuk M.V., Naraikin O.S., Yatsishina E.B.
Abstract

The article dwells on the concept of creation of nature-like techno spheres in terms of the logical phase of scientific and technological development of a civilization. It reveals the problems and achievements encountered in the process of founding of the convergent NBICS technologies, which serve an instrument of creation of a nature-like techno sphere. It also describes the goals required to speed up the process of development of nature-like technologies in Russia.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):455-465
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Robot-assisted surgery
Pushkar D.Y., Govorov A.V., Kolontarev K.B.
Abstract

Robot-assisted surgery is widely used in many fields of medicine, including urology. The paper (based on RAS plenary presentation from November 14th 2018) discusses advantages and disadvantages of robot-assisted operations, provides statistical data concerning the number of installed robotic systems and annually performed procedures in Russia and worldwide. Possibilities of robotic training, ways of furthering surgical robot development as well as perspectives of innovative Russian robot-assisted systems are also presented and discussed.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):466-469
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Genetic technologies for medicine: the demands of society and business
Morozov D.V., Ivanov R.A., Gershovich P.M., Pestova N.E., Petrova M.V.
Abstract

Genetic technologies play a key role in the development of new approaches to the diagnostics and therapy of diseases. Russian scientists who have already successfully developed effective drugs based on monoclonal antibodies are elaborating new products in the field of CAR-T-therapy and recombinant adeno-associated viruses-based gene therapy. In addition, implementation of gene diagnostics into practice allows increased efficiency of medical care through a personalized approach to the treatment of diseases. Successful implementation of new technologies and novel diagnostic and treatment methods is impossible without the cooperation of academic science and business. Companies that create favorable conditions for the cooperation with academic science and attracting specialists of various profiles are bringing the mass adoption of genetic technologies, and therefore, enabling victory over many previously incurable, socially significant diseases.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):470-474
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Could oncolytic viruses provide a breakthrough in oncology?
Chumakov P.M.
Abstract

Despite the long-term and intensive studies of the nature of cancer and the development of numerous anti-cancer drugs, the incidence of cancer is growing, and the five-year survival of cancer patients diagnosed at the advanced stages of the disease remains unacceptably low. The author examines the causes of the failures in cancer therapy, which are rooted in the very nature of malignant cells, as these cells can adapt and acquire resistance to almost any systemic therapy. In this regard, considerable hopes are associated with oncolytic viruses, which represent a distinct type of remedies capable of complex influences on the disease. In addition to their ability to directly kill cancer cells, oncolytic viruses can stimulate the natural processes of immune surveillance and elimination of cancer cells. Furthermore, oncolytic viruses can kill tumor-initiating cancer stem cells, that are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, and overcome the immune suppression of the tumor micro-environment. These features make oncolytic viruses unique anti-cancer agents that fight cancer cells by multiple natural mechanisms. To implement virus-mediated cancer therapy into broad medical practice the following are required: intensified studies on viral oncolysis are required and which would include a development of new advanced therapeutic viral strains; development of tests for predicting which virus strains from therapeutic panels are suitable for the patient; and, improvement of technologies for local and systemic delivery of oncolytic viruses to the tumor and metastases. Major changes would be also required in the practices of testing therapeutic drugs that accelerate the introduction of new viral strains into medical practice. Achievements in this direction help to overcome many old problems in the therapy of metastatic forms of malignant diseases.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):475-484
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General discussion on priority: speachs of academicians I.I. Dedov, G.T. Sukhikh, E.L. Choynzonov, Yu.V. Gulyaev
Dedov I.I., Sukhikh G.T., Choynzonov E.L., Gulyaev Y.V.
Abstract

General discussion on priority: speachs of academicians I.I. Dedov, G.T. Sukhikh, E.L. Choynzonov, Yu.V. Gulyaev

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):485-486
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Priority of scientific and technological development "Connectedness of the territory of the Russian Federation through the creation of intelligent transport and telecommunication systems, as well as the occupation and retention of leadershippositions in the creation of international transport and logistics systems, the development and use of space environment and airspace, World ocean, the Arctic and Antarctic". Speech of the minister of natural resources and ecology of the Russian Federation D.N. Kobylkin.
Kobylkin D.N.
Abstract
Speech of the minister of natural resources and ecology of the Russian Federation D.N. Kobylkin
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):487-488
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Territorial connectivity of Russian Federation: from statement of complex tasks to complex scientific and engineering projects formation
Pogosyan M.A., Strelets D.Y., Vladimirova V.G.
Abstract

Complex scientific and engineering projects and full innovation cycle programs, ruled to be selected and formed by science and technology priorities’ councils, are to become key tools for Strategy in scientific and technological development implementation. In this paper, we present an approach to such programs and projects, developed by the “Territorial connectivity” S&T priority council, formation. We give the “territorial connectivity” term, separate it by categories and subcategories, characterized by specific social, economic, and administrative-and-managerial problems. We propose the set of steps, that is a goal-oriented movement from determination of main program implementation directions to specification of essential complex social and economic objectives within each direction, and then discuss the development of stated problems-solving research plans, scientific and engineering projects, and national policy action frameworks. We use a stage-gate approach in program formation, which allows us to make necessary corrections at every stage of its implementation, as well as organize efficient communication with potential customers and participants.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):489-495
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Priority scientific and technical tasks in the field of exploration and efficient use of outer space
Soloviev V.A., Kovalenko A.A., Soloviev S.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the main directions of development of cosmonautics, which have an impact on ensuring the connectivity of the territories of the Russian Federation. The key role of such areas of space activity as space navigation, space communications, remote sensing of the Earth, applied and fundamental research in space is shown. An analysis of the development trends of applied cosmonautics, existing problems and ways to solve them is conducted: increasing the scientific space and remote sensing group of the Earth, methods of improving the accuracy of positioning, availability, noise immunity of space navigation, etc.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):496-501
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Providing territorial connectivity of russian federation with usage of Earth’s remote sensing
Lutovinov A.A., Lupyan E.A., Pogosyan M.A., Shemyakov A.O.
Abstract

The authors presented a description, scientific and technical tasks, and development prospects of the System of objective remote monitoring of facilities and resources in Russia. The main task of such a system is to obtain objective operational information for assessing the current state of regions, their resource potential, planning the development of the country, as well as objective monitoring of the realization of infrastructure projects. The proposed system can become an integral part of complex scientific and technological projects and programs aimed at solving the problems of connectedness of the territory of Russia.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):502-508
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Russian oceanology and prospects of development of bioresources of the world ocean
Matishov G.G., Matishov K.D., Kirillova E.A.
Abstract

The author analyzes the current problems of providing research conducted by Russian scientists and oceanographers. Along with the retrospective, the prospects for the development of biological resources of world oceans are outlined. It is noted that it will be difficult to solve a wide range of problems associated with the presence of Russia in the world oceans, as well as food security of the country, without a modern marine scientific and fishing fleet.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):509-512
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Speech of the academician of RAS N.S. Bortnikov
Bortnikov N.S.
Abstract
Speech of the academician of RAS N.S. Bortnikov
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):513-514
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Speech of the RAS corresponding member V.D. Kaminsky
Kaminsky N.S.
Abstract
Speech of the RAS corresponding member V.D. Kaminsky
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):515-516
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Speech of the general director of the research and design institute for information technology, signaling and telecommunications in railway transportation, the Russian railways company, doctor of engineering I.N. Rosenberg
.
Abstract

Speech of the general director of the research and design institute for information technology, signaling and telecommunications in railway transportation, the Russian railways company, doctor of engineering I.N. Rosenberg

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):517-518
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Speech of the chairman of the Council of the Federation committee for agrarian and food policy and environmental management A.P. Mayorov
Mayorov A.P.
Abstract

Speech of the chairman of the Council of the Federation committee for agrarian and food policy and environmental management A.P. Mayorov

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):519-519
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Speech of the chairman of the priority council, the ras vice-president, academician of the RAS I.M. Donnik
Donnik I.M.
Abstract
Speech of the chairman of the priority council, the ras vice-president, academician of the RAS I.M. Donnik
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):520-521
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Scientific and technological development of land use with the application of digital technologies in agriculture
Ivanov A.L.
Abstract

The project "Digital Land Use" created on the platform of a unified federal information system for agricultural lands is assessed in the paper. The project should provide the creation and application of an intelligent system for planning and optimization of agricultural landscapes. The reasons which decelerate the development of agricultural production are considered. Among them are the following: the shortcomings of land legislation, the lack of control over the lands state and over the soil resources inventarization.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):522-524
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Speech of the governor of the Belgorod region, the corresponding member of the RAS E.S. Savchenko
Savchenko E.S.
Abstract

Speech of the governor of the belgorod region, the corresponding member of the RAS E.S. Savchenko

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):525-526
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Ecology safety crop production for obtaining high-quality products
Савченко И.В.
Abstract

The author considers the development priorities of crop production in Russia. Highly productive and ecologically safe crop production, based on the information technologies is the main priority of scientific development of Russia. In order to achieve this aim scientists constructed high productive and ecology safety kinds and hybrids of agricultural, medicinal plants, plant protection and cultivation technologies. These plants have tolerance to different climate conditions.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):527-531
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Highly productive, environmentally pure livestock and aquaculture with given indicators of product quality
Kalashnikov V.V.
Abstract

The article reports the most important steps toward the development of domestic livestock and aquaculture, involving the production of environmentally-friendly products with desired qualities. Methods for increasing the rate of animal breeding and aquaculture with the latest technologies using modern intellectual systems are considered. The most important steps on the way to a system of normalized nutrition and animal productivity management are discussed. It is shown that the mobilization of the export resource of domestic livestock, the problem of the preservation of biological resources and long-term storage of reproductive material of wild animals. The issues of the relevance of the development of genomic technologies and the biologization of the means of protecting animals, poultry and aquaculture are reports.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):532-535
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Smart technologies and robotic means in agricultural production
Izmaylov A.Y.
Abstract

A necessary condition for a sharp increase in production is the introduction of digital smart technologies. With the use of digital technologies, it is possible to achieve a significant increase in labor productivity and crop yields, reduce energy and material costs. Digital machine technologies should be used in crop production, animal husbandry, power engineering, storage and processing of agricultural products. The effective production development requires a comprehensive system of management of agricultural enterprises, which, based on the obtained data, will ensure timely and correct processing.

In digital machines and agricultural technologies, four main areas can be identified: monitoring of environment and parameters of processes; transmission and storage of information; artificial intelligence and cloud technologies; implementation of management decisions by robotic technical means. The main objects of monitoring are soils, plants, animals, weather and climatic conditions, technical means, and technological processes. Ground and air monitoring tools receive and transmit real-time data to the cloud platform. Artificial intelligence optimizes technological operations and gives a command to the actuators using the monitoring data.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):536-538
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Modern approaches to storage and effective processing of agricultural products for obtaining high-quality food products
Galstyan A.G., Aksyonova L.M., Lisitsyn A.B., Oganesyants L.A., Petrov A.N.
Abstract

In the modern world, the problem of providing the population with high-quality food products is reaching a critical point due to the increase in the population of the planet, mediated by an influence on the growth of food consumption; globalization processes, thereby contributing to fundamental changes in the structure and patterns of nutrition i.e., insufficiently effective principles of agricultural raw materials processing, etc.

Today, food independence is a strategic component of a country's security, which is enshrined in a number of regulatory documents, including: the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation; the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation; the Strategy for Improving the Quality of Food Products in the Russian Federation until 2030; and, others. The stated goals are: updating the priority tasks of group and individual products identification, including on biological and geographical features; unification of evaluation criteria and objective principles for expanding their field; traditional technologies transformation, the potential of which doesn't have the possibility of unlimited replication, etc.

It is predicted that the growth of production volumes, processes and consumption systems optimization will be based on the application of a number of basic principles: “lifetime” formation of raw materials composition and properties; development of highly efficient production technologies and deep processing of agricultural products; implementation of algorithms for structuring logistics, storage and processing/disposal of food and waste; increasing energy efficiency of production processes, etc. At the same time, the strategic vectors of technology development are specialized and personalized nutrition, cross-border cooperation, food quality and safety, minimization of negative environmental impact, traceability of the food chain “from field to consumer,” etc. A priori, to achieve all this it will require the introduction of widespread modern technologies, including digital ones, as well as the modernization of traditional and the creation of new methodological and process decisions.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):539-542
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Speech of the head of the administration of the Tambov region A.V. Nikitin
Nikitin A.V.
Abstract
Speech of the head of the administration of the Tambov region A.V. Nikitin
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):543-544
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Speech of the chairman of the supervisory board of the group of companies "Belaya dacha" V.A. Semenova
Semenov A.V.
Abstract
Speech of the chairman of the supervisory board of the group of companies "Belaya dacha" V.A. Semenova
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):545-547
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Speech of the academician of RAS S.D. Karakotov
Karakotov S.D.
Abstract
Speech of the academician of RAS S.D. Karakotov
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):548-548
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Speech of the head of the department of the president of the Russian Federation on scientific and educational policy I.P. Bilenkina
Bilenkina I.P.
Abstract

Speech of the head of the department of the president of the Russian Federation on scientific and educational policy I.P. Bilenkina

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):549-549
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Speeches of the participants of the scientific session of the general meeting of the RAS members
Scherbakov I.A., Nigmatulin R.I., Lebedev M.P., Shutkov A.A., Spartak A.N.
Abstract
Speeches of the participants of the scientific session of the general meeting of the RAS members
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(5):550-553
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