Vol 89, No 6 (2019)

150th anniversary of periodic table of chemical elements
 

Abstract

The United Nations declared 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements, coinciding with the 150th anniversary of the Periodic Law, opened in 1869 by the great Russian scientist-encyclopedist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834–1907).

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):561-562
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Report
Superheavy elements
Oganessian Y.T.

Abstract

Synthesis of superheavy elements predicted by microscopic nuclear theory is investigated. The heaviest elements with Z = 114–118 were synthesized by fusion reactions of actinide nuclei with 48Ca ions accelerated using the U-400 complex at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), one of seven laboratories that comprise the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) located in Dubna, Russia. The experiments were carried out in collaboration with physicists and chemists working at the Livermore and Oak Ridge national laboratories in located in California and Tennessee, respectively. Discovery of these elements allowed completion of the seventh period of the periodic table. The microscopic nuclear theory’s fundamental predictions about the possible existence of superheavy elements received the experimental confirmation. A new laboratory, i.e., the "STE Factory" associated with the JINR FLNR, has been established to research superheavy nuclei.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):563-570
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Exotic nuclei
Jonson B.

Abstract

One of the most interesting and intensively examined research directions in nuclear physics, i.e., the production and investigation of exotic nuclei in the vicinity of drip-lines is investigated. An historical overview of the development of research area is provided. Methods to produce such nuclei realized at the foremost research facilities in the world, e.g., CERN in Switzerland and GSI in Germany, are described. The critical change of the nuclear structure on approaching proton and neutron drip-lines, as well as the results of experimental studies of neutron- and proton-rich nuclei, the mechanism of neutron halo formation in neutron-rich isotopes of helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron, are discussed. In addition, medical applications of radioactive beams are discussed briefly.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):571-581
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Science and Society
Problems and prospects of education in the post-industrial information society
Betelin V.B.

Abstract

This article briefly discusses the features of the education system in the USSR, which was based on the mass natural-scientific training of personnel capable of creating new knowledge for technological application to the development of strategic industries. The liberal market reforms of 1990–1992 reoriented the education system in Russia to train users to become consumers of technologies and products that already existed in global markets. The education system’s modernization during the new millennium completed the tasks outlined in the 1990s. The reforms of recent years in the field of education have led to the final abandonment of the industrial economy based upon complex technical systems, in favor of a service economy which does not create material wealth. The obvious consequence of this failure is the complete destruction of the education system inherited from the USSR, and the loss of any hope for the restoration of economically and socially significant high-tech industrial production.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):582-592
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Review
Ecologically safe protective coatings for transport
Shevchenko V.Y., Shilova O.A., Kochina T.A., Barinova L.D., Belyi O.V.

Abstract

Ways to protect vehicles and transport infrastructure from the effects of negative climate impacts, corrosion, icing, radiation, marine fouling, and biodestruction are considered based on scientific developments of Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Silicate Chemistry. New methods and approaches to develop environmentally friendly protective coatings are considered.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):593-602
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Problems of Ecology
An assessment of the anthropogenic impact on water resources in Russia
Koronkevich N.I., Barabanova E.A., Georgiadi A.G., Dolgov S.V., Zaitseva I.S., Kashutina E.A.

Abstract

Based on the results of research carried out at the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Academy of Sciences of the USSR), and using data from other organizations, the impact of various types of economic activity on water resources in Russia and their consequences were estimated. There are indirect anthropogenic effects through relief, soil, biota (rain-fed agriculture measures, forestry, urbanized landscapes) and direct effects (hydraulic engineering, flow transfer, water intake, wastewater discharge). The impact of a complex of anthropogenic factors on the quantity and quality of water resources was assessed. Water use indicators in Russia and other regions of the world were compared. Methods for solving water resource problems are also outlined.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):603-614
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Bygon Times
A. YA. Kolpashnikov, an academic engraver
Smagina G.I.

Abstract

To commemorate the 275th anniversary of his birth, this paper presents a biography of Alexey Ya. Kolpashnikov (1744–1814), a copper-plate engraver, whose work was closely associated with the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. The main stages of this outstanding craftsman’s professional life are considered in the broader context of the history of one of the oldest departments of the Academy – the Engraving Chamber. His illustrations supporting numerous scientific writings contributed to popularizing Russian scientific achievements, and his portraits of statesmen and scientists became a noticeable phenomenon of Russian art.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):615-620
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Profiles
Main lady of russian paleontology. To the 165th anniversary of the honorary academician Maria V. Pavlova.
Bessudnova Z.A., Lyubina G.I.

Abstract

Maria V. Pavlova was the first Russian woman to achieve significant national and international success in her chosen specialty – vertebrate paleontology. She introduced the scientific world to a rich collection of Russian paleontological material, most of which she had collected and classified. In addition, she laid the foundation for programs to educate professional paleontologists, geologists, and biologists who would benefit from an understanding of biostratigraphic methods. Thanks to these and many other achievements, Pavlova is recognized as one of the founders of Russian evolutionary paleontology as an independent biological discipline.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):621-628
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The imperceptible, but zealous genius. To 150 aniversary of Charls Vilson.
Shcherbakov R.N.

Abstract

In the early part of the 20th century, the prominent English physicist and Nobel prize laureate Charles Wilson created a device that Ernest Rutherford, a prominent English physicist, described as the "most original and beautiful instrument in the history of science". This device, known as the Wilson camera, was instrumental in facilitating significant discoveries in nucleus, cosmic ray, and elementary particle physics. This article describes milestones in Charles Wilson’s life and describes his remarkable invention and its influence on the evolution of physical investigations in different countries, including the Soviet Union.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):629-636
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Reflections of a new book
Lysenko up close, but from afar, or lysenkoism from the xxist century
Konashev M.B.

Abstract

This paper reviews two books on Lysenkoism recently published outside of Russia. These two publications confirm the revival of interest in this phenomenon by the international scientific community. The first book, "The Lysenko Controversy as a Global Phenomenon", which comprises two volumes edited by William De Jong-Lambert and Nikolai L. Krementsov, integrates old and new approaches to studying and understanding Lysenkoism. The merits and demerits of the two-volume publication confirm the progress in the study of this subject. Loren Graham’s book, "Lysenko’s Ghost: Epigenetics and Russia", describes Trofim D. Lysenko's activities and their consequences for the development of science in Russia. Graham focuses on Lysenkoism under historical conditions and in the current Russian political context. In the reviewer’s opinion, the book has a debatable character and provides serious reasons to reflect on the fate of Russian science and the fate of the country.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):637-645
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In the world of books
V.B. Kuvaldin’s "The Global World", an exploration of global politics, economics, and social relations.
Chumakov A.N.

Abstract

The trends and features of modern global research are fully reflected in the new book by the well-known Russian historian and political scientist V. B. Kuvaldin.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):646-649
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Anthrax: actual problems of elaboration and introduction in practice of medical defense means
Kulichenko A.N., Buravceva N.P.

Abstract

The 2nd edition of the book “Anthrax: Actual Problems of Developing and Implementing Medical Protection Means” has been published under the editorship of RAS Academician G. G. Onishchenko, Professor I. V. Darmov and Corresponding Member of RAS S.V. Borisevich. The main reason for the release of the first edition was the increased attention to the anthrax problem after the terrorist attack in the USA in 2001 using Bacillus anthracis as a bacteriological agent [1]. These events have become a significant incentive for research in many countries, including Russia.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(6):650-652
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