Vol XXXIV, No 1-2 (2002)


Mechanisms of development of temporal lobe epilepsy: clinical and experimental studies

Balykova O.P., Shikhanov N.P., Inozemtseva V.S., Sosunov A.A., McKhann G., Chelyshev Y.A.


Among the many forms of epilepsy, one of the most studied is epilepsy of the temporal lobe (temporal lobe epilepsy) associated with the pathology of the limbic system, and especially the hippocampus. Sections of the limbic system are the source of epileptic seizures in this form of the disease, which is confirmed by electroencephalographic data, including those obtained using embedded electrodes [81], and the clinical effectiveness of surgery. Removal of certain parts of the medial temporal cortex, including part of the hippocampus, can heal or reduce the frequency and severity of seizures [92]. On the basis of structural changes, two main types of epilepsy of the temporal lobe are distinguished: 1) with the presence of a volumetric process (tumor, congenital pathology, blood vessel aneurysm, hemorrhage) affecting the limbic system; 2) without the presence of clearly verified volumetric changes in the medial temporal lobe [23]. In the latter case, the only structural manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis. The name reflects the most striking morphological manifestations of the disease - the loss of neurons primarily in the CA1 and CA3 zones of the horn of the ammonia and the development of replacement gliosis. Intravital brain imaging using functional positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magneto-encephalography confirms changes in the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy, usually in the form of a decrease in its volume [60]. There is also a positive correlation between intravital structural and biochemical (in particular, the number of AMPA-A receptors and the intensity of absorption of F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) changes in the sclerosed hippocampus and data from the study of surgical material [75].

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):51-59
pages 51-59 views

The structure of mental disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis

Matveeva T.V., Mendelevich V.D., Rechanik D.P.


Disorders in the mental sphere in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described since the moment of its isolation as an independent nosological unit. Unfortunately, insufficient attention was paid to these disorders, although they are one of the determining factors of the severity of the disease and the state of the patient's personal-environmental adaptation. MS patients have an extreme polymorphism of mental disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena - from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic conditions and epileptiform syndrome [4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 28, 34, 51]. Usually the latter do not go beyond the exogenous type of response [6], although more often the range of psychopathological phenomena in patients of this category is limited to disorders of the emotional and intellectual-mnestic spheres.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):60-64
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Some modern methods of diagnosis and pathogenetic therapy of multiple sclerosis

Stolyarov I.D., Bisaga G.N., Votintseva M.V., Ilves A.G., Nikiforova I.G., Nikolaeva N.V., Rudas M.S., Petrov A.M., Prakhova L.N., Totolyan N.A., Skoromets A.A.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects young people and quickly leads to disability. Until now, the pathogenesis of this neurological disease, which is the most expensive for society, has not been fully elucidated, and the drugs used to treat MS patients can only slightly suspend but not interrupt the development of the disease. At the same time, the possibilities of diagnosing and treating MS have expanded due to the active study and implementation of neuroimaging, neuroimmunological and neurophysiological methods, and the use of new immunocorrecting genetically engineered drugs.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):65-72
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Brief communications

Clinical and expert assessment of hospitalized patients with cerebrovascular pathology (based on materials from the neurological department of Yoshkar-Ola)

Mishakov A.G., Ismagilov M.F., Galiullin A.N.


To study the clinical course, outcomes and expert assessment, the case histories of 1028 patients were analyzed: women - 529 (51.24%), men - 499 (48.5%) with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), treated in the neurological department of the municipal hospital in Moscow. Yoshkar-Ola for 1999-2000 The age of the patients varied from 20 to 70 years and more (average age - 61.5 years). The overwhelming majority (74.8%) were aged 40 to 69 years, among them 38.5% of patients were from 60 to 69 years old.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):77-78
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Psychosocial aspects of personal reactions of schizophrenic patients to neuroleptic therapy

Semenikhin D.G.


Major advances in the treatment of mental disorders have been achieved through the use of psychotropic drugs. Medicinal pathomorphosis, in addition to generally favorable changes in the clinical picture of mental illness, increased the degree of social adaptation of mentally ill patients. At the same time, the spread of psychotropic drugs caused the appearance of negative problems, among which the main one is the problem of side effects of psychopharmacotherapy. Difficult to tolerate side effects of antipsychotics lead to refusal to take them in 25-50% of patients. More than 50% of patients with schizophrenia express an indefinitely negative attitude towards psychotropic drugs. The negative attitude towards psychotropic drugs is associated, apparently, not only with their side effects, but also with a negative attitude towards psychiatry in general. At present, the mass media have become the basis for the formation of social trends and the collective unconscious, and in Russia over the past decade they have often contributed to the creation of a negative image of psychiatry. A study of 318 publications in the central and local press for 1989-1998, devoted to psychiatric issues, revealed that 75% of them relate to the negative aspects of the treatment of mentally ill patients.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):79-79
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Mental disorders with voice disorders

Galiullina L.K., Mendelevich D.M.


The first mention of the relationship of voice disorders with the mental state of a person was made back in 1890 by F.E. Ingals, who viewed aphonia as a form of hysteria. R. Jane in 1920. in his work "The main symptoms of hysteria" he considered "sudden paralysis or loss of voice" as one of the "salutary ways out of the situation", when patients can show "a perverse attitude towards reality through the demonstration of their incapacity." D.K. Wilson (1990) notes the influence of a person's mental state on such parameters of a voice as loudness, pitch, pitch variation and voice quality. Curtis (1967) considered one of the causes of voice disorders in children to be poor adaptability to the environment and poor relationships between parents and children, lack of mutual understanding in interpersonal contacts. According to Andrews (1988), when testing patients with vocal disorders, a significant increase in the so-called cases of "conflict in expressing one's feelings through speech" was found.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):80-81
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Experience exchange

Possibility of using transcranial magnetic stimulation for diagnosing ischemic brain damage

Smirnova Y.V., Smirnov K.V.


Cerebrovascular diseases, different in etiology and pathogenesis, are manifested by similar clinical symptoms of cerebral ischemia, in which there is an organic lesion of neurons in the epicenter of the focus with the formation of reversibly damaged neurons along the periphery of the zone, experiencing deep inhibition.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):73-74
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Socio-economic problems of patients with multiple sclerosis

Kondratieva O.S., Matveeva T.V.


The social and economic significance of a disease is determined by the damage it causes to the health of the population and the country's economy. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe organic disease of the nervous system, which is characterized by a number of features that allow it to be classified as a socially significant problem. The increase in the incidence and prevalence of MS with the expansion of geographic zones, observed throughout the world, undoubtedly determines the social significance of the problem. The inevitable and rather early disability of young people of working age creates many problems for patients with MS: withdrawal from social and work activities, economic costs due to the need for repeated courses of treatment, family problems, the inability to raise children and, finally, family breakdown. All this leads to a decrease in the quality of life of patients with MS. Abroad, there are whole programs for the adaptation of patients with MS, the purpose of which is medical and social rehabilitation, issues of ethics and deontology; a large amount of literature is published to help patients and their relatives. In our country, almost no attention was paid to this problem. There are only data on the incidence, prevalence and disability of patients with MS.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):75-76
pages 75-76 views

Original article

Clinical and MRT analysis of different variants in the Konovalov-Wilson’s disease

Zalyalova Z.A., Bogdanov E.i.


Seven patients with Konovalov—Wilson’s disease are presented and also materials concerning clinical and MRT analysis of the disease different variants are given. Multiple neurologic manifestations correlate with characteristic MRT picture — hypointensive in T1-images and hyperintensive in T2-images and there are foci in basal ganglia, thalamus and dentate nucleus in the form of «giant panda mouth», ventricle dilatation, diffuse, cerebral and cerebella atrophy. In akineticorigid syndrome absence of changes or slight ventricle dilatation are characteristic, in dystonia — bilateral hull damage; in intention tremor and dysmetria — atrophic or focal cerebellar changes.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):5-10
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Pathometric algorythm in multiple sclerosis differential diagnostics

Makarov S.V.


A significance of some immunological indices has been studied, used for differential diagnostics of multiple sclerosis and similar nervous system diseases. They had been studied on the basis of pathometric algorythm. 89 patients aged from 17 to 52 were examined which had been diagnosed for multiple sclerosis. In groups of comparison there were 34 patients with encephalomyelo-polyradiculoneuritis and 52 patients with noninflammatory neurologic disiases. The revealed difference in aminoregulation processes in subpopulation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killers predecessors evidences their smaller functional activity and smaller participation in immunological processis in encephalomyelo-polyradiculoneuritis compared to that in multiple sclerosis. High discrimination properties of immunologic indices, chosen by pathometric algorythm are based on marker expression changes in lymphocyte membranes when performing test systems with monoamines. It has been most vividly shown in comparison between multiple sclerosis group and noninflammatory neurologic diseases group. Diagnostic tables have been developed, necessary for practical use as an additional clinico-laboratory method in multiple sclerosis diagnostics and in autoimmune character revealing in encephalomyelo-polyradiculoneuritis.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):11-15
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Clinical and MRI peculiarities of chronical forms of cerebral circulation disorders in men and women with arterial hypertension

Zabbarova A.T., Bogdanov E.I., Ibatullin M.M.


It had been performed a correlation of clinical and MRI characteristics of hypertonic angioencellopathy of cronical forms in men and women. It was done for the purpose of investigating sexual factor significance in cerebrovascular pathology. 50 men and 35 women who had clinical manifestations of discirculatory encephalopathy have been examined. It was revealed that in men paresis development is manly determined by total volume of brain substance lesion and by presence of large cortical-subcortical infactions, striocapsular infarctions and edge-zone infarctions; in women — cognitive disorders are determined by total volume of brain substance. Diffuse forms are spread in men with accompanying ischemic heart disease, in women — with prolonged arterial hypertension and with high level of arterial pressure. Ischemic heart disease in women is a result of the disease focal form.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):16-21
pages 16-21 views

Clinical characteristics of myofascial pain-disfunction syndrome in patients with cerebral hemiparesis

Zinnatullina E.S., Takhavieva F.V., Bogdanov E.I.


Myofascial pain-disfunction (MPDS) syndrome, proceeding in patients with cerebral hemiparesis hinder rehabilitation therapy. Revealed peculiarities in formation and localization of MPDS can be used in rehabilitation programmes development for patients with postinsult hemiparesis and hemiplegia.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):21-23
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Dosage of hypoxic stimulations in epileptic patients

Starykh E.V.


It is supposed that by the way of brain hypoxic stimulations a determinant can be created alternative to that of epileptic focus. An optimum length of hypoxic stimulations course was found, when alternative determinant has already been formed but has not yet turned into a pathological one. It was revealed that during hypoxic adaptation increase of main rhythm spectral capacity of EEG can be observed, and maximum effect is being achieved to the 20th session of adaptation process. After 25 sessions of trainings their capacities become somewhat lower. And this evidences some depression of bioelectric activity. So, the optimum hypoxia adaptation terms for epileptic patients should not exceed 20 sessions.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):24-27
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Rehabilitation of ischemic insult patients by a referent bioadaptation method

Rudnev V.A., Bykov J.N., Okladnikov V.I.


Optimization possibilities of rehabilitation process have been studied for patients, who had suffered a cerebral ischemic insult. In particularly the effectiveness of referent bioadaptation method, used in complex of rehabilitation procedures, had been investigated. Results of treatment of 30 patients having had an ischemic vertebrobasilar insult were given: 15 patients were treated by a referent adaptation method (the first group), 15 — by traditional medicaments (the second group). The referent agents were light and sound impulses, their frequency rates being selected individually. A comparison analysis of rehabilitation outcomes for both groups was done. It was shown that usage of referent bioadaptation method in rehabilitation of cerebral ischemic insult patients was effective, It was proved an expediency of outer light, sound or sound-light stimulation, used in the complex of rehabilitation treatment of patients, who had suffered an ischemic insult in vertebrobasilar region of brain.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):28-31
pages 28-31 views

Neurologic and neuropsyhologic manifestations of specific learning disorders in children

Kalashnikova T.P.


There were studied clinical and neuropsyhologic specific learning disorders of secondary school children from the 1st to the 5th forms with the aim of finding out the main prognostically unfavourable factors of disgraphia and dislexia development. The specific learning disorders are stable. Regress of symptoms up to the 5th form took place only in 4 children. 50% of schoolchildren got secondary neurotic complaints. The prognostically unfavourable learning disorders are the following symptoms: phenomen of reflecting writing (observed in 1-2 forms of school), disorders of space impression, of aural perception (including phonematic hearing). Most patients had a combination of residually — organic lesions of brain, family hystory with dysgraphia and unfavourable social factors.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):32-36
pages 32-36 views

A systemic approach to alcoholic women: system «а women — an environment»

Shaidukova L.K., Latfullin S.E.


For the purpose of systemic study of enfluence of hereditary, environmental and situational factors on formation and course of female alcoholism 240 patients had been examined. It was revealed that there are certain types of alcoholism formation — autochthonously-dominating and a situational one. In autochthonously-dominating type the leading role played hereditarily-biological and social factors, in situational type — situational and personal ones. In all types of course of alcoholic disease there were revealed different manifestations of personal stigmatization of patients, which evidence the significance of correlation «a women — a society, which interferes into course of a disease and hinders therapeutic contact. The latter should be cousidered during psychotherapy of female patients.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):37-41
pages 37-41 views

Correlation between severity of disease, aggressive illegal behavior of mental patients, feeling jealous and clinico-psychopathological peculiarities of the disease

Mendelevich B.D., Mendelevich V.D., Jakhin K.K.


The results of clinico-psychopathological study of 80 mental patients are given. The above mentioned patients made offence on the ground of jealosy. The correlation was established between psychopathological peculiarities of the disease clinical symptoms and severity and direction of aggression. Some specific facts in relation to adultery, peculiarities of decision-making for doing offence were described; and they depended on the main psychopathological syndrome and its nosology. It was found that the most significant parameter is the structure of psychopathological syndrome, but not its nosologic belonging.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):42-46
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Lerivon in tension headache therapy, occuring after slight craniocerebral trauma in early age

Izmailova I.G., Belopasov V.V.


Dynamic clinical and neuropsychological investigation in 30 children aged from 12 to 16, which have had tension headache after slight craniocerebral trauma made it possible to determine a high therapeutic effect of tetracyclic antidepressant «Lerivon». As compared to the therapeutic effect of tricyclic antidepressant «amitriptilin», lerivon showed better tolerance to the drug and quick development of clinical effect.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):47-50
pages 47-50 views


Food and headache attacks. A comparison of patients with migraine and tension-type headache (Panminerva Med. — 2002. — Mar. — Vol. 44(1). — P. 27—31: англ.)

Savi L., Rainerо I., Valfre W., Gentile S., Lo Giudice R., Pinessi L.


The direct relationship of the onset of pain with the intake of certain foods is still a subject of debate. According to numerous studies, the cause of migraine attacks can be the use of alcohol, coffee, chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits and some other types of food. Recently, there has been evidence of headache attacks from food (nutritional supplements) intake.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):82-82
pages 82-82 views

Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice (Ann. Intern. Med. —2002. —Mar. 5. — Vol. 136(5). —P. 374—383: англ.)

Kaptchuk T.


Traditionally, acupuncture is based on ancient theories, consistent with the concepts of Confucianism and Taoism. Ideas such as the teaching of Wu-Xing, the theory of the five primary elements, YIN-YANG, are used for practitioners in East Asian countries, the concept of using this method of treatment for many diseases.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):82-83
pages 82-83 views

Atypical symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome — treatment and results (Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr — 2002. — Jan. — Vol. 70(1). —P. 46—51: нем.)

Sakhel J., Ahlhelm F., Schwerdtfeger K., Steudel W., Kelm J., Loew C., Nabhan A.


In the present study, patients with typical carpal tunnel syndrome were additionally found to have atypical clinical symptoms, the possible causes of which (except for the compression of the median nerve that caused the tunnel syndrome) were absent, which was confirmed by clinical and instrumental examinations.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):83-83
pages 83-83 views

Gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of stroke: the eurostroke project (J. Epidemiol Community Health. — 2002. — Feb. — Vol. 56 Suppl 1. —P. 25—29: англ.)

Bots M., Salonen J., Elwood P., Nikitin Y., Freire D., Concalves A., Inzitari D., Sivenius J., Trichopoulou A., Tuomilehto J., Koudstaal P., Grobbee D.


Alcohol abuse is one of the possible etiological factors in the onset of acute cerebrovascular accidents. The fact of alcohol dependence can be established by using special questionnaires, but there is a more reliable method: a blood test for the presence of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-HT), which is a marker of alcohol consumption.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):84-84
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Brain function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Brain. — 2002. — Jan. — Vol. 125 (Pt 1). — P. 4—13: англ.)

Anderson J., Head S., Rae C., Morley J.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the second most common genetic disorder in humans. The type of inheritance is recessive, linked to the X chromosome, the population frequency is one in 3300 newborn boys.

Neurology Bulletin. 2002;XXXIV(1-2):84-85
pages 84-85 views

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