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No 2 (2021)



Kotov S.V., Raksha A.P., Guspanov R.I., Semenov M.K., Sotnikova T.N., Abdulkhalygov E.K., Iritsyan M.M., Survillo I.I.


Introduction. The study of the structure of strictures of various etiologies is an open and uncertain issue of modern urology. Aim. To evaluate the morphological and immunohistochemical structure of strictures of various etiologies. Materials and methods. The study involved postoperative tissue of a pathologically altered urethra of 110 patients aged 23 to 74 years who underwent treatment at the University Clinic of Urology, Russian National Research Medical University. N.I. Pirogova (2014-2018) with Ds: urethral stricture. Morphological study: Van-Gieson staining; hemotoxylin - eosin. Immunohistochemical study: mouse monoclonal antibodies to muscle and connective tissue markers (Smooth Muscle Actin, Vimentin, Calponin) and inflammation markers (CD45R, CD58, CD138, CD20, CD3) were used as primary antibodies in all reactions. Results. According to the revealed morphological changes, the material was divided into three groups: group I (n=27) - active inflammation; group II (n=33) - the predominant development of connective tissue with low activity of inflammation; group III (n=50) - mixed (chronic mild inflammation, an even amount of connective tissue). In a morphological study of idiopathic urethral strictures, it was noted that the multicolumnar epithelium was replaced by a multi-layer flat epithelium with a weakly pronounced keratinization. Inflammatory changes were mild, including the submucosal connective tissue and the spongy body. Spongiofibrosis is accompanied by a significant reduction in the vascular bed of both venous sinuses and arteries. The same changes were observed in the inflammatory genesis of urethral strictures. In the study of strictures with traumatic etiology, a restructuring of the cylindrical epithelium was observed. In cases with severe inflammation in the mucosa, the changes were atrophic-hyperplastic in nature with reactive cell atypia. Conclusion: urethral Strictures in men have a specific etiological factor, but the pathogenesis of urethral lesions can be divided into: post-traumatic and post-inflammatory.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):5-13
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Komyakov B.K., Al-Attar T.K., Guliev B.G.


Aim. To present the technical features and results of intestinal and appendicular ureteral replacement. Material and methods. From 1998 to 2020, a total of 196 patients aged 18 to 77 years (mean age 49.5 ± 1.2 years) were undergone to intestinal and appendicular ureteral reconstruction in our clinic. There were 123 women (62.8%). The most frequent indications for surgery were complications of open and endoscopic ureteral procedures, radiation-induced ureteral stricture, and iatrogenic injuries of the ureters during gynecological and surgical interventions (81.6%). In 165 (84.2%) patients, for ureteral replacement the ileal segment was used, while in 4 (2.0%) and 27 (13.8%) cases the colon segment and the appendix were chosen, respectively. Unilateral ileal ureteral replacement was performed in 131 (79.4%) cases, while in 34 (26.6%) patients a bilateral procedure was done. Partial and complete ureteral replacement was performed in 107 (81.7%) and 24 (18.3%) cases, respectively. Laparoscopic intestinal and appendicular ureteral replacement was performed in 44 (22.4%) patients, while two patients were undergone to robot-assisted procedure (1.0%). Results. Early postoperative complications were noted in 17 (8.7%) cases. The most severe included acute bowel obstruction, leakage of entero-ureteral anastomoses, necrosis of the ileal graft and bleeding in 10 (5.1%) patients. In all cases, repeat intervention was performed. There were no lethal complications. Late postoperative complications developed in 24 (14.3%) patients. Conclusion. Today our clinic has the world’s largest experience in intestinal and appendicular ureteral reconstruction, including original procedures, confirmed by 5 patents for inventions. The minimum number of postoperative complications, the absence of deaths and good long-term results provide the basis for the introduction of ileal and appendicular ureteral replacement into clinical practice.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):14-20
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Eremenko A.N., Eremenko S.N., Chernega V.S.


Introduction. The length of the operation to remove urinary concernments has a marked effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications in the time of the postoperative patients in the hospital. A significant factor contributing to the increase in time is the clouding of the fragmentation region, which increases the operation time and the number of complications. Purpose: to develop a method of reducing the time of additional costs in contact lithotripsy with a holmium laser in order to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. Materials and methods. The paper presents the own results of in vivo measurements of time intervals spent on fragmentation of stone. Fragmentation of stones in kidney was carried out by a holmium lithotripter of Triple type with the help of semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes. In the case of severe clouding of the fragmentation region, the author ‘s technique of percutaneous micro-drainage of the kidney was used. The evaluation of the duration ofthe fragmentation procedure is based on statistical processing of the obtained measurement data using Excell Data Analysis tools. Results. In the process of analysis of literary sources and results of own studies it was revealed that with increase in duration of contact laser lithotripsy the number of postoperative complications significantly increases. In order to reduce the time of transurethral contact holmium lithotripsy, the author ‘s technique of percutaneous micro-drainage has been developed. By in vivo measurements and statistical processing of the data, it was found that by using the micro-drainage technique, the average additional washing time of the fragmentation region was reduced by an average of 4 times compared to the conventional technique. Conclusion. By further washing the fragmentation region, it is possible to reduce the time of additional crushing costs by at least 4 times and reduce the number of postoperative complications.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):21-26
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Kuzmenko A.V., Kuzmenko V.V., Gyaurgiev T.A.


Introduction. Currently, a-blockers (a-AB) and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (I-5-AR) are recommended as the drugs of choice for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, despite the clear advantages of combination therapy, at the initial stages of treatment, I-5-AR is either not prescribed at all, or added to therapy after a few months. The aim of our study is to study the effectiveness of early and various options for delayed combined drug therapy of patients with BPH using a-AB and I-5-AR. Materials and methods. The study included 90 patients with BPH, who were divided into three groups of 30 people. In group 1, monotherapy with drugs from the a-AB group was performed for 6 months, after which they were transferred to treatment with a combined drug. In group 2, monotherapy was performed for three months, after which they were also transferred to treatment with a combined drug. And in group 3, patients were prescribed combination therapy from day 1. Results. Early combination therapy with dutasteride was more effective than delayed Therapy for 6 months. There were no significant differences in the main parameters studied between patients who simultaneously started combination therapy and switched to it after 3 months, by the end of the 12 th month of treatment. However, early therapy is a combined drug made it possible to achieve a more rapid effect in relation to LUTS. Conclusion. Thus, the data obtained confirm the clinical recommendations regarding the expediency of early initiation of combined therapy with an а-adrenoblocker and a 5a-reductase inhibitor in patients with moderate and severe LUTS caused by BPH and the risk of disease progression. Postponing the transition to combination therapy for 6 months or more may lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of treatment of patients in this category.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):27-31
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Kulchavenya E.V., Brijatuk E.V., Kholtobin D.P., Cherednichenko A.G.


Introduction. The problem of chronic prostatitis is still to be resolved. Aim: to compare the frequency of the main symptoms (pain, dysuria, sexual dysfunction) in patients with chronic bacterial and abacterial prostatitis, as well as prostate tuberculosis (PTB); to determine the prevalence of latent infectious prostatitis in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis (CAP). Materials and methods. A total 73 men who were followed with a diagnosis of chronic prostatitis for at least two years and had a history of at least three exacerbations per year were included in the study. A microbiological study of expressed prostate secretions (EPS) was carried out using both routine and molecular genetic methods. Results. Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) was diagnosed in 27 patients (37.0%). 36.7% of pathogens were resistant to antibiotics. In 46 patients (63%) no microflora was not isolated at the first examination. In some patients with CBP, prostate tuberculosis (PTB) was diagnosed. Thus, in the total cohort of patients, only 17 (23.3%) had isolated CBP, and other 10 (13.7%) had CBP in combination with PTB. All patients with CAP received longidaza rectal suppositories for diagnostic purposes. In 23 men (50.0% of patients with CAP), uropathogens were isolated from EPS after administration of longidaza, and 56.9% of them were resistant to antibacterial drugs. Five patients from this group also had PTB, and 18 (24.6%) had CBP, which was not diagnosed by standard methods. There were no significant differences in the frequency of pain and urinary disorders. However, sexual dysfunction more often developed in patients with CAP and PTB (p<0.05); hemospermia, on the other hand, was not typical for patients with CAP, occurred in few cases with CBP and latent CAP, but was present in two-thirds of patients with PTB. Conclusion. As a mask of CAP, both latent CPB and PTB can present. Although CBP, CAP, latent CBP and PTB have a number of significant differences in the clinical manifestations, no pathognomonic symptoms have been identified for these subgroups of chronic prostatitis. Considering that half of patients with CAP actually have latent CBP, it is necessary to use rectal suppositories of the drug longidaza for diagnostic purposes with repeated analysis of expressed prostate secretions. To identify pathogens, molecular genetic diagnostics should be used along with routine methods. PTB can manifest as chronic bacterial or abacterial prostatitis. It is necessary to carefully study the patient's history, epidemic history, and, if indicated, to perform an appropriate examination to exclude PTB.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):32-39
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Ergakov D.V., Martov A.G.


Introduction: Daytime and nighttime urinary frequency is a common complaint in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The most common reason for seeking elective surgery is an ineffective treatment with alpha-blockers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with tamsulosin 0.4 mg and mirabegron 50 mg in patients with BPH and predominant irritative symptoms. Materials and methods: from January 2018 to December 2019 in the outpatient department of the city clinical hospital named after D.D. Pletnev, a total of 64 patients with BPH with complains of frequent nighttime and daytime frequency and a desire to undergo surgery were followed. The patients underwent a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination, according to which 10 patients had indications for surgery, and they were excluded from the study. In 6 patients, the prevalence of nocturnal over daytime diuresis was revealed and they were also excluded. Combination therapy with tamsulosin 0.4 mg and mirabegron 50 mg a day was prescribed to 48 patients. The average duration of therapy was 15.4 ± 3.1 months. Patients underwent a follow-up examination to evaluate the efficiency and safety after 3, 6 and 12 months of therapy. Adverse events, possibly treatment-related, were recorded. Results: there was an additional decrease in irritative complaints according to the I-PSS, namely 2 points after 3 months and 4 points after 6 and 12 months. In addition, a decrease in the number of nocturnal urinations by one, a decrease in daytime urination by one after 3 months and by two after 6 and 12 months, as well as an increase in the average voided volume from 150 ± 33 to 240 ± 40 ml after 12 months of therapy was seen. The change in other parameters was not significant. Two patients stopped taking the drug due to non-medical reasons. In other 2 patients, the development of sinus tachycardia and a transient increase in blood pressure were noted, which did not require discontinuation of the drug. Conclusions: Combination therapy with tamsulosin 0.4 mg and mirabegron 50 mg reduces the frequency of daytime and night urination with the maximum effect after 6-12 months, improves the quality of life and has a good safety profile.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):40-45
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Berlizeva O.U., Amosov A.V., Aboyan I.A., Usenko E.E., Pakus S.M., Sasina E.V.


Objective: to study the effectiveness of methods of endovascular treatment of May-Turner syndrome and nutcracker syndrome as a cause of varicose veins of the pelvis in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Materials and methods: a comprehensive examination was carried out in 445 men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The patients’ age ranged from 20 to 68 years (mean age 39.5 years). The diagnosis of varicose veins of the pelvis was established in 49 patients, of which 25 had primary varicose veins of the pelvis, in 24 - secondary varicose veins of the pelvis (13 patients with May-Turner syndrome, 11 patients with nutcracker syndrome). The patients with the nutcracker syndrome underwent embolization of the testicular and pelvic veins using the combined sandwich technique. Patients with May-Turner syndrome underwent stenting of the left common iliac vein. Results: In order to assess the technical efficiency of endovascular treatment, control ultrasound was performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. In 100% of cases, throughout the observation period, the patency of venous stents was maintained; in all cases of embolization of the left testicular vein, there was no blood flow in the embolized vein. In order to assess the clinical efficacy of endovascular treatment after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. after it, patients were questioned using the NIH-CPSI scale and VAS. The most significant changes in clinical manifestations and ultrasound data were observed after 3 months. after endovascular treatment. Conclusions: Balloon angioplasty and iliac vein stenting in May-Turner syndrome and left gonadal vein embolization in nutcracker syndrome are minimally invasive treatments with a favorable patient safety profile.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):46-50
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Neymark A.I., Razdorslaya M.V., Neymark B.A., Nozdrachev N.A.


Aim: to evaluate the efficiency of the dietary supplement NefroBest in women with chronic cystitis. Materials and methods: On the basis of the Department of Urology and Nephrology of the Altai State Medical University and the urological department of the NUZ CH “RJD Medicine”, Barnaul, from September 2019 to August 2020 a total of 40 women with chronic cystitis were treaeted. Depending on the type of treatment, all women were divided into the main and control groups, each of 20 people. In the main group, patients received standard therapy and dietary supplements NefroBest. In the control group, patients were prescribed only to standard therapy. Results. The results were evaluated one and two months after the start of therapy. In the main group a more rapid resolution of symptoms and laboratory abnormalities were seen, as well as an improvement of the endoscopic picture and urodynamic parameters. Conclusion: The complex of biologically active substances in the dietary supplement NefroBest has an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effect, and reduces the risk of recurrence of chronic cystitis. Thus, the dietary supplement NefroBest can be recommended as a component of the complex therapy of recurrences of chronic cystitis, as well as a prophylactic treatment during relapse-free period.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):51-56
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Sokolov E.A., Veliev E.I., Veliev R.A.


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radical prostatectomy (RP) with nerve-saving technique (NST) in patients ≥ 65 years of age compared with a younger group of patients. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 117 patients ≥ 65 years old, the control group - 333 patients <65 years old, who underwent RP with unilateral or bilateral NST from January 2012 to December 2019. The analysis of pathomorphological results, complications rate, recurrence free survival (RFS) and the restoration of erectile function (EF) in both groups was performed. Results: The majority of older patients belonged to intermediate and high risk groups of biochemical recurrence. Extracapsular tumor extension was significantly more often observed in the group ≥ 65 years of age: 16.2% and 6.9%, p=0.028. There were no differences between the two groups in the frequency of serious postoperative complications (> III class according to the Clavien-Dindo classification): 2.55% and 2.7%; p=0.94. The five-year RFS after RP was 95.4% in the group <65 years old and 92.1% in the group ≥ 65 years old (p=0.31). There was a moderate tendency to a slower recovery of EF in older patients: sufficient EF after 6 and 12 months was observed in 21.9% and 59.4% versus 33.3% and 73% in the group <65 years old (p=0.12). Minimal differences in EF were observed 24 months after RP with bilateral NST (84.2% and 87.9%), and more relevant differences with unilateral NST: 53.8% and 66.7% in the study and control group (p=0.033). Conclusions: The performance of RP with NST in elderly patients is not associated with additional oncological risks, while the restoration of EF is somewhat slowed down in comparison with a group of patients <65 years of age. Bilateral NST provides high potency recovery results regardless of age.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):57-61
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Bozhedomov V.A., Shomarufov A.B., Bozhedomova G.E., Ohobotov D.A., Kamalov D.M., Sorokin N.I., Kamalov A.A.


Varicocele does not always lead to infertility; varicocelectomy does not always improve sperm. Objective: to evaluate the standardized effect (Es) of nutrient therapy, microsurgical and laparoscopic varicocelectomy for pathozoospermia. Study design: a multicenter case-control study with stratified randomization. Materials and methods: data of a clinical and laboratory examination of patients with clinical varicocele over a 3-month period in the groups: A) the observation/control group (n=33), B) the group treated with nutrients (n=63), C) the group of patients after microsurgical varicocelectomy with a subinguinal mini access (n=86), D) the group of patients following laparoscopic surgery (n=36). The ejaculate was evaluated according to WHO-2010, DNA fragmentation by chromatin dispersion in an agarose gel. Results. After 3 months, varicocelectomy leads to an increase in sperm concentration and motility: the median of the total number of progressively motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate in A is +0.4 million; B - +1.9 million; C - +17.1 million (p<0.05); D - +21.2 million (p<0.05). A clinically significant increase in this indicator after varicocelectomy was found in 2/3 of cases: 65% (B; p<0.05) and 67% (G; p<0.05) with 38% (A) and 42% (B). Varicocelectomy leads to a decrease in sperm DNA fragmentation by an average of 5.5% (p<0.05) with an improvement in 59% of patients, but a 3-month therapy with nutrients reduces DNA fragmentation in a similar way: 5.5% (p<0.05), 66% of improvement cases. The differences in effect between B and D are insignificant (p> 0.05). The laparoscopic surgery demonstrated higher Es than microsurgical operation (Es=0.70 and 0.44, with 0.29 in the patient receiving nutrients and 0.22 in the patients in the control group) Conclusion Varicocelectomy significantly improves sperm quality in 2/3 of cases, including 5.5% decrease in DNA fragmentation. Nutrient therapy produces similar DNA fragmentation improvement. Further research is necessary to identify who really requires varicocelectomy and who does not.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):62-68
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Kulchenko N.G., Myandina G.I., Alhejoj H., Azova M.M., Tarasenko E.V.


About 30% of male infertility is associated with genetic abnormalities. Genetic polymorphisms increase the level of individual susceptibility to adverse environmental factors and affect human reproductive function. Aim. To study associations of glutathione S-transferase GSTP1(Ile/ Val) gene polymorphisms (A313G; rs1695) with the risk of pathospermia in men of the Moscow region. Materials and methods. We examined 138 men in the Moscow region (n=70 - proven pathospermia, n=68 - fertile men). We obtained genomic DNA from blood leukocytes and studied the gene polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase GSTP1 (Ile/Val) (A313G; rs1695) in real time. Results. In the analysis of the distribution frequencies of polymorphisms GSTP1 (Ile/Val) (A>G rs1695), we revealed the predominance of the AA genotype in fertile men and the predominance of the GG genotype (homozygous minor allele) in men with pathospermia. However, we found no significant difference in these parameters between the compared groups of patients (p=0.344). For GSTP1 (Ile/Val) polymorphism (A313G, rs1695), significant differences in the distribution of genotype frequencies in the subgroup of men with teratospermia (χ2=7.00; p=0.03) were revealed. The frequency of allele G in the subgroup of men with teratospermia is statistically significantly different from the frequencies of alleles in the control group: 52% versus 30% (χ2=10,004; p=0.0015). In subgroups of men with azoospermia and asthenospermia, we did not find significant differences in the distribution of genotypes of GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695) (p>0.05). Discussion: Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTP1) is a multifunctional protein that protects sperm cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics. The Association of GSTP1 polymorphism (Ile/Val) (A313G, rs1695) with teratospermia explains the main stages of the pathogenesis of male infertility in this category of patients. Conclusion. Gene polymorphism GSTP1 (A313G, rs1695) can be considered a genetic marker of susceptibility to pathospermia in men.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):69-73
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Kozyrev G.V., Manasherova D.T., Abdulkarimov G.A.


Objective: Our study aims to improve hypospadias in children by successfully correcting ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods: From 2014 to 2018, 424 patients with ventral penile curvature of 15-60 degrees were treated. All patients were divided into 3 groups depending on the form of hypospadias: Group I consists of 303 patients with subcoronal and midshaft hypospadias; Group II - 48 patients with midshaft hypospadias who earlier underwent urethroplasty; Group III - 73 patients with chordee without hypospadias. To correct ventral curvature in all cases - STAGE technique was applied. Results: No recurrence of penile curvature was noted in any of the three groups in the early and late post-operative follow-up of up to 1 year. Conclusions: Ventral curvature penile correction is important for the future sexual life of the patient. Attention should be paid to this stage of the hypospadias repair. STAGE technique allows to correct ventral curvature of15 - 60 degrees with minimal number of complications.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):74-77
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Soloviev A.E.


Aim. To suggest new method of surgical correction of hypospadias in girls. Materials and Methods. For 50 years under our supervision there were 220 girls diagnosed with hypospadias of various forms. In the diagnosis used anamnesis, examination, catheterization and cystoscopy of the bladder, vaginoscopy, ultrasound and X-ray research methods. Results and Discussion. Of 220 girls with a diagnosis of hypospadias, vestibular (partial) hypospadias occurred in 201 girls, vestibulovaginal (subtotal) in 16, and vaginal (total) in 3. Of 201 girls with vestibular hypospadias, 37 suffered from urinary incontinence, 16 had vesicoureteral reflux, 21 had doubling, 5 had renal hypoplasia, and 12 had renal dystopia. The vulvovaginal form was manifested not only by the dystopia of the external opening of the urethra, but also combined with the underdevelopment of the sphincteral apparatus of the bladder. All children had daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence, vulvovaginitis. Cystoscopy revealed hyperemia of the urethra and bladder neck. X-ray urological examination revealed VUR in 6 children, ureterohydronephrosis - in 2. All children suffered from chronic pyelonephritis, 8 - day and night urinary incontinence. There were 3 girls (14-16 years old) with vaginal (total) hypospadias. All suffered from constant urinary incontinence, vulvovaginitis, cystitis, chronic pyelonephritis, all had VUR. The new operation for the vaginal (total) form ofhypospadias, proposed by us, restores the closure function of the bladder sphincter by suturing the defect in the posterior wall of the bladder neck. Conclusion. Hypospadias is rare in girls. There are vestibular, vestibulovaginal and vaginal forms of hypospadias. In most cases, the vestibular form does not require surgical treatment. With the vestibulovaginal and vaginal (total) form of hypospadias, surgical treatment is indicated.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):78-81
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Davidov M.I., Lyadov A.A.


The article provides a rare observation of a 34-year-old woman who, 12 years before admission to a urological clinic, a gynecologist installed an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). The subject migrated into the abdominal cavity, and after 10 years the patient developed dysuria and hematuria. In October 2017, ultrasound and cystoscopy revealed the migration of IUD into the bladder. A foreign body was removed from the bladder - an IUD of a T-shape with the formation of a stone on it with a maximum size of 4.5 cm. During a follow-up examination after 2 years, pathology was not established.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):82-85
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Yarin G.Y., Liuft E.V., Vilgelmi L.A.


Urethral destruction in women is a rare pathology which is result of traumatic damage of the urethra during pelvic fractures, sexual trauma, iatrogenic effects (operative vaginal delivery, prolonged catheterization of the bladder, complicated surgical interventions on the urethra, etc.). The main symptom of urethral destruction is involuntary urinary incontinence. The relevance and complexity of this problem are determined by the fact that the choice of surgical treatment for urethral destruction is still unsolved. This requires such kind of intervention, which will be aimed not only at restoring of the anatomy, but also at correcting urinary incontinence - often in several stages. This article describes two clinical cases of urethral destruction in women with iatrogenic damage to the urethra.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):86-89
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Gvozdev M.Y., Arefyeva O.A., Dzhuraeva M.D.


Clinical case. The article presents a clinical case of a 58-year-old patient T.N.V with enterocele following radical cystectomy with heterotopic neobladder.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):90-93
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Maiborodin I.V., Yarin G.Y., Vilgelmi I.A., Marchukov S.V., Maiborodina V.I., Onoprienko N.V.


Based on the literary analysis, the influence of cellular technologies on the results of implantation of mesh materials was studied. The scientific literature of recent years contains a large amount of data devoted to the study of mesh structures and the possibilities of their modification using multipotent stromal cells (MSC) for implantation into patients for correcting tissue defects and pelvic organ prolapse. However, the ideal implant has not yet been created. Additional studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to determine the most successful and safe methods and materials for the restoration of pathologically altered or lost tissues and the transition to clinical trials. It is also yet to come to an unambiguous understanding of the best sources of MSC, ways for stimulation of proliferation, preservation and delivery of these cells into the necessary tissues of the body, to thoroughly study the causes of inefficiency and the risks of developing various complications, especially in the long term. The progress of urological implantology in modern conditions, of course, will be associated with the introduction of modern materials and technologies, including the using MSC.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):94-99
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Petrovskij N.V., Krupinov G.E., Amosov A.V., Chinenov D.V., Gerasimenko N.A., Glybochko P.V.


An analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the predictors of prostate cancer recurrence are presented in the article. A deep analysis of both pathological and histological risk factors for progression was provided, as well as of laboratory and clinical predictors.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):100-105
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Kochkin A.D.


This manuscript provides an overview of the available literature about unilateral combination of nephrolithiasis and renal tumor. Analysis of publications has shown that ipsilateral staghorn calculus and kidney tumors are an extremely rare combination. The majority of these infrequent papers describe case reports where the method of treating such patients is limited by the capabilities and competence of the surgeon or clinic. Despite some messages of favorable outcomes of combined interventions, the effectiveness of simultaneous laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and pyelolithotomy has not been studied, and the technique of this procedure, tactics and criteria for choosing this method are not defined.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):106-108
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Kogan M.I., Ivanov S.N., Naboka Y.L.


A growing body of research indicates an upward trend in the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) around the world. Acute pyelonephritis (AP), which is dangerous by the development of complex, life-threatening conditions, is no exception. Today the demographic portrait, as well as the characteristics of the causative agents and predisposing conditions of this disease are a global issue for the entire scientific community. In order to assess the data available in the global literature on the issues of epidemiology, etiology and predisposing factors for the development of AP, the search for publications was performed in the medical literature databases The Cochrane Database, MEDLINE/PubMed Database, eLIBRARY, ClinicalKey. The presented material includes, among others, 43 sources over the past 10 years, of which 31 publications over the past 5 years: the largest and most representative studies reflecting the current situation with AP in the population among patients in certain areas and under various exogenous and endogenous conditions. This study opens a series of three reviews on the problem of AP, involving discussion of key aspects of pathogenesis AP. Analysis of the literature indicates fragmentation and limited data when comparing the incidence of AP in different countries and different periods of time. The complexity of the intranosological structure of the varieties of acute pyelonephritis today dictates the advisability of updating approaches to research in this area, and the disease itself dynamically evolves along with its etiological agents, the nature of social behavior of people and environmental conditions in general.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):109-115
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Pavlov V.N., Tarasenko A.I., Papoyan A.O., Alekseev A.V., Kabirov I.R.


COVID-19 is an acute respiratory viral disease that primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other organs, including the kidneys. Damage to the kidneys can be caused by direct effects arising from the invasion of the virus into kidney cells, or it occurs secondarily due to immunological, hemocoagulation and ischemic disorders. Given the importance of preserving kidney function during illness and after recovery, this review aims to investigate the impact of novel coronavirus infection on the kidney and its role in the development of acute kidney injury.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):116-119
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Borisov V.V.


The information about the founders of studies of the bladder function in our country, the features of the nervous and humoral regulation of the lower urinary tract activity, the cholinergic and adrenergic effects of mediators are presented in the article in the form of a clinical lecture. The pathogenetic features of detrusor dysfunction in overactive bladder and the principles of choosing drug therapy are described. Special attention is paid to the comparative characteristics of modern M-anticholinergics.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):120-127
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Kutia S.A., Radkovskij V.A., Astafurov D.D., Lugin I.A., Yarovaya O.Y.


Bulbourethral glands are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system, the leading function of which is associated with ejaculation and includes both the neutralization of the acidic urine residues and environment of the female vagina, and friction reduction during the sexual intercourse. These glands play the role of immune barrier for urogenital infections, and also synthesize important autocrine and paracrine factors for the male urogenital system development. Gland’s pathologies usually have a subclinical course, however they can also lead to the functional disorders of the human urogenital system. The list of the most common diseases include cuperitis and syringocele. Usually their duration is asymptomatic and they are nearly impossible to diagnose; as a consequence, it is quite difficult to evaluate the real incidence of morbidity and importance of the bulbourethral gland pathology. In recent years, the vast majority of the bulbourethral glands researches are dedicated to the features of X-ray diagnostics and pathology detection, as well as to the description of rare clinical cases. Authors have analyzed the various available scientific data in order to review of morphological, physiological and clinical aspects of the Cowper’s glands.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):128-134
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Shodmonova Z.R., Gafarov R.R., Allazov S.A., Giyasov S.I.


This article discusses the physiological mechanisms of erection and the pathophysiological basis oferectile dysfunction. Parameters characterizing the features of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs from the group of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are presented. The clinical efficacy and possible adverse effects of the most significant PDE-5i are considered. These include sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, udenafil, avanafil. There are also data on less known PDE-5i, which include lodenafil and mirodenafil.
Urologiia. 2021;(2):135-140
pages 135-140 views

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