# Vol 10, No 2 (2023)

**Year:**2023**Articles:**8**URL:**https://journals.eco-vector.com/2313-223X/issue/view/7923

## MATHEMATICAL MODELING, NUMERICAL METHODS AND COMPLEX PROGRAMS

### Description of the Simplest Non-Markov Process Using a Differential Equation for the Quantum State Vector

#### Abstract

The Jaynes–Cummings model with one atom and a photon is considered. A photon leaks out of the cavity (optical resonator). An atom can be in an excited and ground state. Usually, the dynamics of the probability of finding a photon in a cavity is considered using the basic quantum Lindblad equation, in which the density matrix acts as an unknown function. The Lindblad equation describes a quantum Markov random process. The article attempts to replace the equation from the density matrix with an ersatz of the Lindblad equation, which is a differential equation from the state wave vector. The quantum master equation involves the use of a matrix with a dimension equal to the dimension of the state space, which increases the complexity of the calculations, since it requires a quadratically large memory. For example, for the dimension of the main space equal to a billion, the memory required to solve the basic quantum equation will be about a quintillion, which is a problem even for supercomputers. Whereas a billion-long column fits easily into the memory of a personal computer and can be easily processed on a personal laptop. The ersatz of the quantum master equation, which we are constructing, cannot accurately describe the dynamics of the density matrix and therefore cannot serve as an exact replacement for the quantum master equation. Our ersatz will describe a special process of exchange with the environment.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):9-15

## AUTOMATION OF MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES

### Genetic Programming and Object Modeling of Manipulation Robots

#### Abstract

The application of a genetic algorithm to solve the inverse kinematics problem of manipulative robots is considered. The basic concepts of the method of finding solutions using a genetic algorithm are defined. A block diagram of a simple genetic algorithm is presented. It is justified to use multiprocessor computing systems (transputers) to calculate genetic operators. This will greatly increase the efficiency of genetic algorithms. Manipulation systems with three and four links are selected as examples. The problem statement consisted in determining the hinge coordinates of an industrial robot by the specified Cartesian coordinates of the position of the center of the tool (TCP – Tool Center Point) installed on its final link. The results obtained confirm the effectiveness of genetic algorithms in solving inverse kinematics problems of industrial (manipulation) robots. Based on graph theory, the genetic programming procedure is defined as a way to find optimal kinematic structures of robot manipulation systems. The use of genetic programming for modification of object models of manipulation robots is shown. The object representation of the dynamic model of manipulation robots is considered. It is noted that the recombination of objects corresponding to mathematical expressions having mechanical meaning requires kinematic correspondence of the objects used. It is proposed to draw up object diagrams using computer programs that automate this process based on the principle of visual programming (Low-code).

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):16-25

## MATHEMATICAL AND SOFTWARE OF COMPUTЕRS, COMPLEXES AND COMPUTER NETWORKS

### Analysis of the Algorithms of the Constituent Parts of the Compiler and its Optimization

#### Abstract

Program optimization arose as a response to the emergence of high-level programming languages, and includes special techniques and methods used in building compilers to produce sufficiently efficient object code. A combination of these techniques constituted in the past and are now an integral part of so-called optimizing compilers, the purpose of which is to create object code, saving computer resources such as processor time and memory. For modern supercomputers, the requirement to make proper use of hardware features is also added. In this context, issues related to compiler optimization deserve special attention, which may involve adapting the compiler to reduce runtime or object size, or both. In view of the above, the aim of the paper is to analyze the algorithms of the compiler constituents and outline ways to optimize it. The general technology of the compiler is briefly characterized. Particular attention is paid to the main functions of the algorithms, which are implemented at different stages of the compiler’s work. The possibilities of using machine learning to optimize compilers are also considered.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):26-35

## METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF INFORMATION PROTECTION, INFORMATION SECURITY

### Construction of a Reversible Full-cycle Transformation in a Threshold Basis

#### Abstract

The article describes a class of full-cycle transformations in the threshold basis, defined by matrices of coefficients of linear forms, and proves that the definition of the inverse transformation is carried out using a system of threshold functions, the coefficients of which form the transposed matrix with respect to the original one.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):36-41

## INFORMATICS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING

### IT Technologies in Health Care Institutions in Russia: Application with a Digital Interactive Map

#### Abstract

IT technologies are currently one of the priority areas for the development of the healthcare sector. In the context of global information and development of the digital economy, digitalization is able to ensure the availability and decent quality of services provided without increasing the cost. The purpose of this study is to study the processes of informatization affecting medical companies and determine the role of information technologies on the base of the applications in health care institutions in Russia. The object of the study is the medical institutions of the healthcare sector, and the subject of study is the information and digital technologies used in the practice of companies. The role of information technologies in the activities of a medical institution is determined on the example of application for distribution of ambulances from a distribution center (DC). Key elements of the digital transformation of healthcare institutions (development of the author of the study) are advised in the article. The use of digital technologies in the practice of managing a medical institution is not an end in itself. The analysis made it possible to make sure that the most important tool for improving the efficiency of management, the implementation of goals and purposes, a means of adaptation in the activities of medical institutions in the context of global informatization and digitalization of the economy is the active use of information and digital technologies.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):42-52

## NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOMATERIALS

###
Investigation of the Adhesion Properties of Ti, TiN and (Ti, Cr, Al)N Layers Successively Deposited on the WC_{92}–Co_{8} Hard Alloy Surface

#### Abstract

The energy of a three-layer coating on the surface of a hard alloy based on tungsten carbide WC_{92}–Co_{8} (technical name VK8) has been studied using computer simulation methods of density functional theory and pseudopotentials. The first layer is titanium; the second layer is titanium nitride; the third layer is a composite nitride (Ti, Cr, Al)N. The dependence of the energy of adhesion of titanium to the WC and Co surfaces on the thickness of the deposited titanium layer (from one to three atomic layers) has been studied. The adhesion energy of titanium nitride to the pre-deposited titanium layer is calculated. For four variants of the structure of the compound (Ti, Cr, Al)N, the adhesion energy of this compound to the TiN surface was calculated.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):53-59

### Prospects for the Use of Film-Ceramic Photocatalysts for the Cultivation of Microalgae

#### Abstract

There are many types of microalgae that can grow in sea and fresh water, having a high lipid content in their composition. Lipids in microalgae are used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, medicines and other products. This article is devoted to the assessment of optimal growing conditions for such microalgae, taking into account their individual spectral sensitivity in the maximum use of sunlight. This will make it possible to create film-ceramic composites that provide the greatest increase in biomass with minimal water consumption and time.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):60-69

### On the Possibility of Initialization of Synthesis in Small-sized Installations with Quadrupole Magnetic Systems with Spherical Сumulation of Shock Magnetic Waves in the Blanket Configuration of Plasma Discrets

#### Abstract

The article presents an overview of models for solving the problem of controlled nuclear fusion, including in small-sized installations, methods and technology for obtaining and forming electronically controlled plasma and ion flows in a magnetic field. The sizes of such an installation in the pilot version are up to 1.5 meters long, due to the grouping of flows by sampling with a frequency of about 1 kHz achievable for materials today, multi-passability in the synthesis chamber, in traps and setting the laws of following with feedback for ion flows in plasma layers in magnetic field systems with the large gradient. The shock wave causes rapid heating of the convection mixing region, triggering a process of constant energy exchange between the heated mixture ^{11}B–^{9}Be and the lithium shell and, passing through the layer ^{11}B–^{9}Be, reaches the geometric center of the magnetic trap, where a small spherical cavity will be maintained, necessary for unlimited spherical cumulation on the cavity. This leads to a rapid increase in temperature and pressure in the area of collapse of the bubble, and makes it possible to increase the temperature to 10^{8} K, which allows the launch of fusion reactions.

**Computational nanotechnology**. 2023;10(2):70-88