Criminological and legal value of the highest position in the criminal hierarchy as characteristics of the social status of the subject of the crime and the personality of the criminal

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Abstract


The appearance of article 210.1 in the criminal law caused an active discussion in the scientific community and many critical comments. Supporting the idea of the legislator about the need to strengthen the fight against organized crime by criminal legal means, the author notes the failure of the wording used in this norm, the complexity of its practical application, and the violation of the fundamental principles of legality, justice, and guilt. These criticisms are analyzed using the criminal legal approach, which allows projecting the provisions of the criminal law on the criminological plane. Thus, the highest position in the criminal hierarchy, being a special feature of crime, characterizes its social status within the framework of criminal interactions. In addition, the status and role characteristics of the subject have the value of the criminal’s personal characteristics. Given the criminological doctrine of the criminal, the author formulates the concept of the individual special subject of the crime as a specific sociocriminological personality type characterized, as a rule, a high degree of public danger, which is based on the relationship between the social status and role of the offender with criminal threats, a wide range of victimization, criminal commitment, legal nihilism, and capabilities and skills to counteract the preliminary investigation. In support of this definition, the author analyzes the features of the sociodemographic and value-normative subsystems of the personality of a special subject of crime and argues for the relationship with the personality of the criminal as a private with a general one. Justifying the typologization of the personality of a special subject of crime into «socialized» and «non-socialized» types, the author refers to the second person who occupies the highest position in the criminal hierarchy.


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Iulia S. Karavaeva

Higher School of Economics

Author for correspondence.
Email: IUSKaravaeva@hse.ru
SPIN-code: 6690-1648
ResearcherId: Z-1624-2019

Russian Federation, 614000 Perm, Studencheskaya St., 38.

candidate of law, associate Professor of the Department of civil and business law

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