No 5 (2019)

Theory and Social Functions of Geography
People and money: incomes, consumption and financial behavior of the population of the Russian regions in 2000–2017
Zubarevich N.V., Safronov S.G.

Macroeconomic dynamics affects incomes of regions’ population and level of poverty: positive shifts in the distribution of regions in relation to these indicators slowed down in the 2010s and were replaced by a negative shift (more apparent in poverty rate) during the crisis of 2014–2017. Income dynamics had a stronger effect on consumption structure and less on population financial behavior. The share of food expenditures is declined in all regions until the 2014 crisis; the most developed regions have the lowest percentage. Structural shift in expenditures in favor of durable goods, including housing, is far from complete in most regions. The increase in the share of expenditures for services is largely due to the growth of tariffs for public utility services. Regional differences are small, with the exception of the Far North regions. The share of spending on human capital reproduction is low and varies slightly between regions. The population of “rich” regions prefers to spend money on recreation and entertainment, but these expenses are shrunken during the last crisis. Individuals' savings behavior is mostly developed in the largest federal cities. Overdue loans are higher in underdeveloped republics and in resource-producing regions, whose population seeks to maintain the level of consumption using loans. The main factor in change structure of consumption and financial behavior is the population incomes, but demographic, settlement and institutional factors must be considered to explain regional differences.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):3-17
Territorial Organization of Society
Renewal of small cities in European Russia (case study of Borovichi, Vyksa, Rostov)
Gunko M.S., Pivovar G.A., Averkieva K.V.

The current study is aimed at the analysis of local development with a focus on the renewal processes in small cities of European Russia. Renewal refers to the introduction of positive changes trough re-opening and re-imagining existing urban areas. Due to the lack of adequate statistical data, we access renewal using a qualitative approach, through the analysis of the material form – the cityscape, which is not only an indicator of the socio-economic situation in the city but also helps to understand the distribution of power relations within it. Empirical data were obtained in three small single-industry towns located remote from major centres – Borovichi (Novgorod oblast), Vyksa (Nizhny Novgorod oblast), Rostov (Yaroslavl oblast). The results of the study suggest that the zone of transformation, successful emergence of the new and change of the old in small cities, is each time unique. Transformation occurs since cities are in search of their own way out of the structural crisis, struggling not only to provide the economic minimum but also to change the cityscape and everyday life. The main actors of this process are private – from large to small business, as well as the local communities. While the role of the local administration due to the lack of resources is, most often, restricted to creating a functioning communication platform to address the interests of the main actors.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):18-31
The image of Kazakhstan in Russia in the media
Tokbulatova Z.Y.

The article is concerned with the revealing and comparing of particular images of Kazakhstan formed by five Russian print media (“Kommersant”, “Komsomol’skaya Pravda”, “Sovetskaya Rossiya”, “Novaya Gazeta” and “Zavtra”), supposedly covering the most of existing ideological and political preferences. The research is based on the database of articles collected using deep content analysis of the newspapers over two focus years (2001 and 2016). The differences in newspapers’ target audience determine the lack of common motives within proper images (in 2001 they shared only the differently interpreted motive of power concentration and in 2016 all highlighted the problems associated with the state development). At the same time, all newspapers showed the overall decline in interest to Kazakhstan and concurrent impoverishment of its image as well as the tendency to softening its negative aspects. While in 2001 Kazakhstan’s discourse in chosen newspapers was diverse, if not conflicting, at 2016 we witnessed either erosion of image (“Sovetskaya Rossiya” and “Navaya Gazeta”) or its reduction to an integral part of Russian responsibility’s space or Russia’s important partner within the EAEU (“Kommersant”, “Komsomol’skaya Pravda”, “Zavtra”). Among the chosen newspapers only “Kommersant” contributes to the formation of considered multifaceted perceptions of the state, which add up to relatively solid image, whereas in general Kazakhstan appears to be a mental unexplored country.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):32-42
Natural Processes and Dynamics of Geosystems
Modern changes of nutrients’ removal into the southern forest zone rivers of Volga basin
Dolgov S.V., Koronkevich N.I.

The article analyzes on the example of the Linda river basin, the tributary of the Cheboksary reservoir, contribution of the main elements of its vertical hydrological structure (precipitation, surface and underground runoff, “verhovodka” runoff) in the formation of nutrients’ removal from rivers’ catchments in the southern forest zone of the Russian plain. The removal of nutrients from the Linda river catchment area with various elements of water flow for the year, its high-water and low-water periods was calculated. It is shown that due to the increased role of the changed hydro-climatic conditions, especially due to the increased flow of infiltration origin (underground and “verhovodka” runoff), the nutrients’ removal has increased in recent years. Anthropogenic component of nutrient leaching into the Cheboksary reservoir from Linda river catchment was identified. It is reduced in recent decades by the background dispersion in the catchment, diffuse nutrients leaching to surface and underground flow of natural origin.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):43-55
Monitoring of CO2 fluxes on Svalbard: land use alters the gas exchange in the arctic tundra
Karelin D.V., Zazovskaya E.P., Shishkov V.A., Dolgikh A.V., Sirin A.A., Suvorov G.G., Azovsky A.I., Osokin N.I.

The article summarized the results of long-term observations (2014–2018) of soil emissions and net CO2 fluxes (2017–2018) in natural and anthropogenically modified (AI) ecosystems of Arctic tundra on the territory of the archipelago of Svalbard (Barentsburg, 78°04′N, 14°13′E). Anthropogenic controls associated with local land use, during the period of their active impact may redouble the emissions of carbon dioxide from soil (0.111 ± 0.021 > 0.064 ± 0.011 gС m–2h–1). During the same period, the net C-balance at the sites with active land use is estimated as a source to the atmosphere. Self-recovering after human influence plots (II) demonstrate intermediate values of soil emissions of СО2 between unaffected tundra (I) and plots with active land use (III). With that they demonstrate the greatest net C-sink within the observed range of Photosynthetically Active Radiation as compared to (I) and (III). At the height of the vegetation period unaffected tundra ecosystems demonstrate a neutral net C-balance. The greatest contribution to soil emissions variance make spatial controls (they explain 56–66% of variance), whereas temporal factors are responsible for 3.8–5.5% only. Amongst spatial controls, the thickness of organogenic layer makes the greatest contribution. Inter-annual fluctuations of key factors, among which the most important are the soil moisture and temperature of the upper soil layer, both affect AI and natural ecosystems hence the spatial differences between them remain constant from year to year. According to preliminary estimates, unlike the carbon dioxide, the contribution of methane and nitrous oxide net fluxes in local ecosystems is insignificant and does not depend on human land use.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):56-66
Influence of climate on radial growth of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) In different habitats of Meshchera lowland
Zheleznova O.S., Tobratov S.A.

This paper is devoted to the patterns of radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in various topoecological conditions of the Meshchera lowland (Ryazan region, the East European plain). The generalized tree-ring chronologies are constructed for 16 habitats differing in features of a relief of a day surface and a bedrock surface. Despite the relatively low-contrast relief of Meshchera, the average radial pine increment within the study area differs by 2.5 times (1.5–3.9 mm per year). The correlation and cluster analyses revealed that the key factor influencing the width of annual tree rings of pine is the amount of the available soil moisture. Its surplus (in wetlands) and deficiency (in conditions of sandy outliers) negatively affects the radial pine increment. It is established that in the waterlogged habitats positive correlation of the radial pine increment with temperature and negative – with precipitation of autumn of the previous year is observed. The positive correlation of the radial increment with precipitation of autumn, May and with winter temperature is typical for a pine from arid habitats. The negative relationship between the pines’ growth and amount of precipitation and river discharge may occur with a lag of 1–4 years in conditions of wetlands. The positive relationship of the radial pine increment with the integral parameters of the current year’s moisture is more significant in conditions of relatively high hydrodynamics (for example, in conditions of sandy outliers).

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):67-77
Evolution of Natural Systems
Ladoga transgression and landscapes of the Holocene second half in the Southern Ladoga area (according to the study of the archaeological site Podolje-1)
Sapelko T.V., Gusentsova T.M., Kulkova M.A., Ludikova A.V., Denisenkov V.P., Korneenkova N.Y.

In Southern Ladoga area, we studied the new archaeological site Podolje 1, located 4 km from Lake Ladoga. Studies included archaeological, lithological, geochemical, pollen, botanical, diatom and radiocarbon analyzes. As a result, new data were obtained that specified the development of the Ladoga transgression in the second half of the Holocene in the Southern Ladoga area. The dependence of the formation of cultural layers on changes in the hydrodynamic conditions of its existence is established. The lower cultural layer was formed before the beginning of the Ladoga transgression. The upper cultural layer was formed after the transgressive stage. At absolute elevations from 10 to 12 m above Sea level in the Southern Ladoga area from 6480 to 4446 cal. BP peatlands were formed. In this case, 6480–5944 cal. BP there was a period of some humid climate. 4534–4446 cal. BP, the beginning of the Ladoga transgression is recorded on the territory of the site. The completion of the Ladoga transgression was marked at the beginning of the Subatlantic period.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):78-95
Natural Resource Use and Geoecology
Remote sensing and geochemical monitoring of soils and vegetation cover of industrial waste dumping site (Kursk region)
Zamotaev I.V., Telnova N.O., Kaidanova O.V., Borisochkina T.I., Suslova S.B.

The paper summarizes results of long-term remote sensing and geochemical monitoring of soils and vegetation cover influenced with abandoned industrial waste dumping site at the southern periphery of Kursk city. Analysis of prolonged image time series (1954–2018) has resulted in the reconstruction of natural landscape pattern in study area, mapping the expansion of waste deposit area under the period of active exploitation, delineation of five historic-functional zones of the dumping site. These zones are featured with different age and type of technogenic transformations in landscape structure, particular levels of heavy metals’ content and their distribution in soils and vegetation. Studies of spatial pattern and long-term (2000–2017) changes in contamination of soils and technogenic surface formations with heavy metals revealed that the maximum level of soil and vegetation pollution with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Sb) is fixed for the zone of excavation, mixing and secondary burying of industrial wastes in 2000s. Increased concentrations of Sb and Zn still persist in surface soil layers of chernozems outside the territory of abandoned dumping site.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):96-110
Estimation of noise pollution of Irkutsk by automobile transport
Novikova S.A.

The work is devoted to estimation noise pollution generated by vehicles on the main and secondary highways in the city of Irkutsk. For this purpose, video surveillance of traffic composition and intensity was carried out at night and daylight hours. By sound level meter “Testo-816” the measures of noise levels were conducted. Using the “Ecolog-noise” software complex, the noise propagation distance from the sources was modeled and the sound pressure level maps were created. The obtained results were compared with the current standards for permissible noise loads. An illustrative graph of the average daily noise level distribution shows that in Irkutsk there are two maxima (morning and evening) on all motorways. At the same time, night and day acoustic standards, set as maximum for both Russia and some European Union countries, are significantly violated. A possible set of recommendations is proposed to improve the existing urban transport system in order to reduce excessive noise and ensure the acoustic well-being of the population of residential areas adjacent to highways.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):111-120
View of a Geographer
On natural nihilism of analysts of the post-industrial society
Gladkiy Y.N., Sukhorukov V.D.

Attention is drawn to the serious miscalculations of well-known theorists of post-industrial society, which limited to sociological and economic analysis and underestimating the role of the geographical environment. Recognizing the need to create a “normal environment” (D. Bell), the theorists of “the society of the future”, in fact, abstract from the biosphere basis of Man, from the accelerating transformation of the age-old biogeochemical cycle of substances on the planet and dangerous damage to the “film of life”. This position is associated by the authors with geographical nihilism. They are convinced that the recognition of such main source of modern progress as knowledge, which can change the world around us, is not a reason to articulate future society in isolation from the natural world. No “post-economic society” can function without extractive industries, agricultural sector, natural recreation areas, etc. It is emphasized that the idea of a “non-natural society” is promoted by well-known authors without taking into account at least half of humanity, where poverty, disease, hunger and malnutrition continue to tear society “at the seams” and where the “golden billion” draws raw materials. It is concluded that the creation of a “knowledge society” in Russia is unthinkable without the use of abundant natural resources necessary for the multi-cost replacement of the main part of the production funds and the accumulation of budgetary funds.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):121-130
Results of the expedition to the North Pole on the icebreaker “50 let pobedy”
Matishov G.G., Kleshchenkov A.V., Kirillova E.E.

The article presents the results of the expeditionary investigations carried out from the “50 Let Pobedy” nuclear icebreaker to research the present physiographic conditions of the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean and estimations of the main features that may reflect the global climatic variability of the seas and oceans of the Arctic. The observations of the ice lanes, hummocks, puddles, icebergs, the thickness and closeness of ice allowed us to make a real picture of the ice cover in the second half of August 2017. The zonal distribution of drifting ice, air temperature, temperature and salinity of seawater is shown. The results of observations and conclusions presented in the article reflect the simultaneous situation of the most western part of the Central Arctic adjacent to the Norwegian-Greenland basin. The analysis of new data of the structure and distribution of sea ice and icebergs gives a reason to present a number of general conclusions about the variability of ice thickness and closeness, relative age, the ratio of the area covered with ice and pure water. Recommendations about the development of new satellite systems for a reliable assessment of the seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the area and thickness of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean are presented.

Izvestiya Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriya geograficheskaya. 2019;(5):131-140

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