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Vol 14, No 4 (2016)

Articles

Effect of cholinotropic agents to change the content of oxygen triplet forms of liver tissue and the ability of the liver homogenate to produce active oxygen in rat cooling

Tikhanov V.I.

Abstract

The method of polarographic analysis of elements in the tissue solutions of living organisms, and the method of checking the ability of the liver homogenate to produce active forms of oxygen are among the methods for assessing the content of triplet forms of oxygen in the tissue and the ability of the tissue homogenate to initiate lipid peroxidation (POL) after a cold load and administration of cholinotropic agents to rats. In the study, the content of triplet form of oxygen of liver homogenate and the ability of the liver homogenate to produce active oxygen in the period of 3 hour and 5 days cooling of experimental animals were determined. The effect of cholinotropic agent accumulating the endogenous acetylcholine in liver tissue, pharmacological agents that stimulate and block the work of muscarine-sensitive cholinoreactive structures of hepatocyte plasmatic membranes with the assessment of their impact on the content of triplet forms of oxygen, the ability of the liver homogenate to produce active oxygen in supercooling of animals were investigated. Neostigmine on the background of 3 hours cold exposure led to a decrease in the content of triplet forms of oxygen but increased the ability of the liver homogenate to produce active forms of oxygen. Pilocarpine and atropine on the background of cooling animals in 5 days period caused the manifestation of reciprocity as in 3 minutes, so as in 30 minutes of experiment for the determination of triplet forms of oxygen of the liver tissue. Besides pilocarpine and atropine reduced the ability of liver tissue to produce active forms of oxygen. The obtained results indicate the change in the content of triplet forms of oxygen in the liver tissue when pilocarpine and atropine administrated to animals on the backdrop of 5 days cooling. Additionally the results show that the injection of neostigmine to animals on the background of 3 hours cooling promotes the increase of active forms of oxygen.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):3-8
pages 3-8 views

Search for the new anti-inflammatory agents based on glycosylated polypeptide complex extracted from sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

Katelnikova A.E., Kryishen K.L., Makarov V.G., Vorobieva V.V., Pozharitskaya O.N., Shikov A.N.

Abstract

We performed the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of glycosylated polypeptide complex (GPC) extracted from sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in the model of acute bronchitis induced by endotracheal administration of 1% formalin solution in male Wistar rats. Animals of experimental groups were inhaled by GPC solution at 25, 50 and 100 mcg/kg, control animals – by the reference drug ambroxol at 3.6 mg/kg once daily during 7 days starting from the day of pathology induction.  24 hours after pathology induction GPC at 100 mcg/kg reduced the total leukocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by 34%, after 48 hours – by 61% compared with control animal group (р ≤ 0.05). If the normal number of goblet cells per 1 mm bronchial mucosa was 33.7 ± 1.7 and after formalin exposure – 67.5 ± 1.8, then after a course administration of polypeptide complex (7 days) at 100 mcg/kg – 55.7 ± 2.7. By the results of morphology and histology study we determined that mononuclear infiltration of bronchial submucosa layer by lymphocytes and macrophages, neutrophil leukocytes of mucosa and submucosa was significantly less than in control animal group (р < 0.05) affected by formalin without any pharmacological protection. Upon the results of the study, we determined the anti-inflammatory activity of glycosylated polypeptide complex at 25, 50 and 100 mcg/kg, which was not inferior to the similar activity of ambroxol (3.6 mg/kg).

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):9-15
pages 9-15 views

Cyclo-prolylalanine: the neuroprotective and antioxidative properties on the model of acute cerebral disease in rats

Deiko R.D., Shtrygol S.Y., Kolobov A.A., Simbirtsev A.S.

Abstract

The neuroprotective and antioxidative properties of the new neuroactive peptide cyclo-prolylalanine (DKP-9) were studied on the model of acute cerebral disease (ACD, irreversible bilateral carotid occlusion) in rats. Under the conditions of intranasal administration in the therapeutic mode at the doses 0.02 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg peptide DKP-9 has increased rats’ survival rate to 40% or 70% respectively. Increase of the DKP-9 dose to 1 mg/kg reduced the protective effect of it. Peptide DKP-9 has effective decreased the neurological and cognitive deficits in acute period of ACD (4 days) exceeding the reference drug semax (0.1 mg/kg, intranasally in same treatment mode). Under the conditions of open-field test the sedative properties of DKP-9 and also the ability of it to reduce rats’ stress-induced anxious reactions were established. Antioxidative properties of DKP-9 are followed by increase of the reduced glutathione level, normalize of the catalase activity, decrease of the level of lipid peroxidation products as well as increase of the brain neurons’ energy metabolism. The further investigation of mechanism of cyclo-prolylalanine (DKP-9) action on the pathogenic links of ischemic cascade is perspective.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):16-23
pages 16-23 views

Astressin, an antagonist of CRF receptors, reduces anxiety and fobial states in rats reared in social isolation conditions

Lebedev A.A., Pshenichnaya A.G., Bychkov E.R., Yakushina N.D., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

The influence of intranasal administration of astressin, a nonselective antagonist of CRF receptors, on delayed effects of chronic social isolation in the five first weeks after mother leaving on explorative and emotional behavior in rats was studied. Social exposures were applied from 21st to 93rd days of life. The rats reared in social isolation demonstrated higher level of motor activity compared with control in open field test. The assessment of both anxiety and fobial state and behavior in elevated plus maze revealed higher levels in anxiety and fear in isolated rats. Intranasal administration of astressin (1 µg/1µl, 20 µl, 10 µl in every nostrils) reduced significantly anxiety and fear levels in isolated rats. Therefore, both anxiolytic and antifobial effects of astressin, a nonselective antagonist of CRF receptors, were demonstrated in rats exposured to social isolation stress. The results support the idea taking into account the corticoliberin mechanisms in formation of social isolation syndrome and possibilities of using CRF antagonists to control the central stress mechanisms and dependence in ontogeny.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):24-31
pages 24-31 views

Vital stress causes long-lasting behavioral disorders and lipid metabolism deviations in female rats

Tsikunov S.G., Pshenichnaya A.G., Klyueva N.N., Vinogradova T.V., Denisenko A.D.

Abstract

Summary. Female rats after the vital stress caused by experience of the circumstances of the death of a partner from the actions of the predator showed long-lasting behavioral disturbances, such as decreased locomotor activity, exploratory activity, increased anxiety and aggression. Indicators of lipid metabolism of rats were altered in comparison with control at different time after exposure. These changes through two months later a single stress and right after second psychogenic trauma were characterized by reduced total cholesterol and cholesterol of high density lipoproteins in serum and increased triglycerides in the liver. The severity of behavioral disorders and deviations from the control values of indicators of lipid metabolism in female rats depended on the phases of the estrous cycle. The revealed deviations are discussed in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):32-41
pages 32-41 views

About the Influence of Silver Nanoparticles on Living Organisms Physiology

Zeinalov O.А., Kombarova S.P., Bagrov D.V., Petrosyan M.A., Tolibova G.H., Feofanov A.V., Shaitan K.V.

Abstract

The production and properties of silver-containing products currently attract increasing attention due to the unique properties of silver. Specific properties of silver are considerably amplified when it is dispersed to the form of nanosized particles. Silver nanoparticles are several times more active than its other forms and many antibiotic and biocidal products. At the same time nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the protective barriers of living organisms and get directly into their tissues and organs. To be assured of safety of silver nanoproducts for human health and environment, it is necessary to study the influence of silver nanoparticles on the physiology of living organisms. This paper presents experimental data on effect of two nanosilver preparations (poviargol and argovit) on laboratory mice. Investigated preparations were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It was established that morphological express control of peripheral blood and biochemical analysis of blood serum of living organisms can serve for purposes of primary monitoring of the pathological conditions caused by silver nanoparticles.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):42-51
pages 42-51 views

Activation of V2 vasopressin receptors induces recovery of motor function in patients with stroke, Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism of different nature

Belokoskova S.G., Tsikunov S.G.

Abstract

In clinical trials have studied effectiveness of agonist of V2 vasopressin receptors, 1-dezamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (DDAVP) in correction of movement disorders in patients with stroke, Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism. Therapy received 15 patients with the stroke and 21 patients with the Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism. Positive effect of therapy was observed in 67% of cases of stroke and in 73% cases of parkinsonian syndrome. After therapy of DDAVP movement disorders were regressed in patients with light hemiparesis after stroke. In patients with a tremor-rigid shape and akinetic-rigid form of the disease major movement disorders: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and hypokinesia were regressed. Except the disorders of movements affective and cognitive abnormalities were decreased. There was established that DDAVP effective in correction of disorders of voluntary and involuntary component of movements function in patients with the focal vascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):52-60
pages 52-60 views

To the noradrenergic component of the mechanisms of stress-limiting and healing effects of dalargin

Zabrodin O.N.

Abstract

The article presents the facts of the stress-limiting and healing effects of a synthetic analogue of leucine-enkefalin dalargin (D), the analysis of literature data of the modulating effects of D on the activity of sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) in various extraordinary influences. D prevents: hyperactivity of SAS, associated development of dystrophic-destructive changes in the organs (heart, gastric mucosa, duodenum) and the exhaustion of catecholamine’s (CA) depot in the sympathetic endings. It is noted that similar protective effects against the development of neurogenic lesions in the organs (heart, gastric mucosa, liver and pancreas) have pharmacological agents with antiadrenergic component of actions (gangliolitiks and sympatholitiks, alpha - and beta-adrenoblokers). In the article mapped the healing effects of D in relation to the gastric mucosa destructions, skin incisional wounds, bone fractures with the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to stimulate reparative regeneration in various tissues (cornea. gastric mucosa, myocardium, liver, sympathetic reinnervation). It is concluded that the stress-limiting and healing effects of D have a noradrenergic component associated with modulating effect of D on the activity of SAS. In the conditions of extraordinary influences D suppresses SAS hyperactivity, keeping the reserves of CA in the sympathetic endings. In the implementation of reparative regeneration of tissues CA, and primarily sympathetic mediator noradrenalin, promote healing of damaged organs and tissues.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):61-66
pages 61-66 views

Temperature of animals and enhanced pressure of nitrogen-oxygen mixture

Luchakov Y.I., Vyotosh A.N., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

The rat thermoregulation in conditions of enhanced pressure in inhalation gas environment was assessed both experimentally and using mathematical model. All experiments were carried out on rats in barocamera, where the pressure of gas environment was increased gradually up to 4.1 МPа. The pressure enhancement of gas environment up to 2.1 MPa stimulated oxygen consumption in 1.7-fold, when pressure enhancement up to 4.1 MPa did it up to 2.3-fold. The thermoneutral zone of rats was gradually reduced in these conditions, e.g. with enhancement of preasure. Using mathematical model we have shown that pressure enhancement up to 2.1 MPa in barocamera increased thermodelivery in 1.9-fold whereas pressure enhancement up to 4.1 MPa did it in 2.6-fold.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(4):67-70
pages 67-70 views

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