Vol 11, No 2 (2013)

Articles

Clinical and psychological aspects of smoking among pregnant women

Kharkova O.A., Kiseleva L.G., Solovyev A.G., Chumakova G.N., Gryzunova Y.M.

Abstract

Analysis of foreign and Russian studies on the tobacco smoking consequences permit to sort out two main aspects: clinical and psychological. Clinical aspect is presented by studies on the tobacco smoking effects on the body of both pregnant women and fetus, and the subsequent development of the child. Psychological aspect is described mental and behavioral disorders of the mother and the child due to use of tobacco during gestation.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):3-7
pages 3-7 views

Hypoxia-inducible factor as a pharmacological target

Novikov V.Y., Levchenkova O.S.

Abstract

The review is devoted to the role of specific regulatory protein HIF-1α (hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha) in the mechanisms of the organism adaptation to hypoxia. Pharmacological influence on HIF-1α for a target upregulation of processes of immediate and delayed organism adaptation to hypoxia is discussed in the article. Such approach opens new possibilities of effective pharmacotherapy of oncological, rheumatic, cardio-vascular and other diseases which have hypoxia and ischemia in their pathogenetic state.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):8-16
pages 8-16 views

Neuronoprotective action of cortexin andcortagen

Shabanov P.D., Vislobokov A.I.

Abstract

The changes of both intracellular resting potential and action potential of the identified neurons of pedal ganglia of the mollusk Planorbarius corneus CNS registered by means of intracellular microelectrodes, and ionic currents of isolated neurons under fixed potential after administration of officinal peptide drug cortexine (cortexine 0.5–1000 µg/ ml and glycine 4–4000 µM), cortexine peptides (0.5–1000 µg/ ml), glycine (0.5 and 5 µM) and tetrapeptide cortagen (0.1–10000 µM) were studied. Both the drug cortexine and cortexine peptides were shown to modulate the electrical activity of neurons by the same manner: moderately changed the resting potential, the action potential and impulse frequency that was interpreted as activating action. Glycine activated neuronal activity as cortexine but in less degree. The mixture of cortexine and glycine (drug cortexine) did not inhibit and did not disturb the functional state of neurons of action, and the hyperpolarization was always observed after administration of peptides as well as the shortening of the action potential, increase of their amplitude and reduction of impulse frequency of neurons. Tetrapeptide cortagen in concentrations 0.1–100 µM also hyperpolarized neurons by 2–3 mV and reduced their spontaneous activity that indicated on its activating (neuronoprotective) action. Cortagen in concentration 1000 µM depolarized the neurons moderately (by 2–4 mV), the increase of impulse activity was registered, and in concentration 10 mM it depolarized neurons significantly and reversible, increasing the frequency and inhibiting the generation of the action potential. Cortagen activated neurons in more degree than cortexine. Cortagen in concentration 0.1 µM also increased the amplitude of slow efflux current by 3–5 %. We did not observe the increased amplitude (activation) of influx sodium and calcium channels after administration of cortagen. A dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of amplitudes of these currents began after administration of cortagen in concentrations 100 µM and more up to 80–90 % inhibition after peptide concentration 10 mM. The inhibition of sodium channels was more intensive than calcium channels. These effects of action of the peptide administered in high concentrations can be qualified as nonspecific and toxic ones.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):17-25
pages 17-25 views

Influence of new antihypoxant πq1983 on mice conditioned reflexes

Sosin D.V., Yevseyev A.V., Pravdivtsev V.A., Yevseyeva M.A., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

The dynamic of active avoidance reaction in consist of a defense conditioned reflex after intragastric administration of new selenium-containing metal-complex substances πQ1983 (100 mg/kg) possessing protective action during development of acute exogenous hypoxia in animal have been studied in experiments on mice. Timing data of the active avoidance reaction in experiments on formerly trained mice under action of this substance used in same doze were analyzed. It was established that substance πQ1983 blocks formation of conditioned reflex. In the group of trained mice antihypoxant πQ1983 increases a latent period of the avoidance reaction and decreases the avoidance time. All found effects provided by intragastric administration of the antihypoxant were short-term (15– 20 h) and reversible. The results were compared with effects of antihypoxant amthizole.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):26-30
pages 26-30 views

The role of neurotransmitter systems separate the hemispheres of the brain in action the new antiepileptic compounds AGB-31

Yarosh O.A.

Abstract

Compound AGB-31, a monocarbamate derivative, is shown to possess a high antiepileptic activity. The mechanisms of antiepileptic action are connected with significant increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase activity in the left hemisphere of the brain, with trend of the glutamate content decrease in the left hemisphere and the tendency to increase GABA in both hemispheres. AGB-31 significantly (more than 3-fold) increases syntase nitric oxide activity in the left hemisphere and has a tendency to reduce the NO content in both hemispheres. AGB-31 significantly (by 63.4%), reduced glutathione peroxydase activity in the right hemisphere without changing it in the left, with a tendency to increase the activity of glutathione reductase in both hemispheres.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):31-35
pages 31-35 views

Search of markers of alcoholization among ghrelin derivatives

Khokhlov P.P., Bychkov Y.R., Roik R.O., Lebedev A.A., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

The quantitative determination of unacylated ghrelin in rat sera in the course of prolonged (chronic) alcoholization during 6 months followed by alcohol withdrawal (in 1 and 7 days) was made by means of the rat unacylated ghrelin enzyme immunoassay kit (SPIBIO, France). Unacylated ghrelin was revealed in all samples both in control and experimental groups. The row data were treated by means of parametric and nonparametric statistic tests. The level of unacylated ghrelin was shown to double reduce in the course of prolonged alcoholization in rats. Ethanol withdrawal recovered the polypeptide content gradually with maximal indexes in 7 days after alcohol abolition but lower than in control rats. The possibilities of the use of unacylated ghrelin as a biochemical marker of alcoholization and its consequences are discussed.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):36-40
pages 36-40 views

Energy metabolism in rat testis after 137Cs incorporation

Al Meselmani M.A., Yevseyev A.V., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

Testis tissue energy metabolism was investigated in experiments on albino rats by the polarographic method with using of Clark electrode upon 137Cs incorporation. Speed changes are revealed in all metabolic conditions such as oxidation under endogenous and exogenous substrates, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decrease share of the fatty acids role in testicular tissue energy production.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):41-44
pages 41-44 views

ECG of rat under action of new metal-complex antixypoxant πq1983 in acute hypoxia

Sosin D.V., Pravdivtsev V.A., Yevseyeva M.A., Yevseyev A.V., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

Fine changes of electrical activities in rat myocardium were studied after oral introduction of new selenium-containing metal-complex substance πQ1983 in dose 100 mg/kg before and after an acute hypercapnichypoxia (AH + Hc) development. A substance for comparison — metabolic antihypoxant amthizole was used by same way and dose. The substances were introduced 90 min before (incubation period) placing of animals into hypoxic chambers with 1.0 L free volume. ECG was recorded continually during both an incubation period and a hypoxic experiment. It has been established that the inhibitory action of the substance πQ1983 on electrical activity of rat myocardium manifests itself like a significant bradycardia. According with ECG data, rats protected with substance πQ1983 show the resistance level to the AH + Hc higher than ones that intake the antihypoxant amthizole. It was proved by peculiarities of early myocardial hypercapnic reactions, parameters of lifespan, and length of so called relative wellbeing period.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):45-51
pages 45-51 views

The human brain is working in the system of dual coding: a hypothesis

Bukinich A.A., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

How the human brain is working is up to now unclear. Using singular neuron as an object, and pharmacological agents as a tool the neuron activity in general in the mammalian CNS has been described. The basis of all investigations was the study of dimmer (heteromer) structures associated with G-coupled receptor proteins on the surfaces of neuron membranes isolated from the own usual circle. We can organize the recombinant movement by means of physiological concentrations of pharmacological reagents if these processes were lasting in the network neurons native brain. That is, the ideal conditions for the processes generation in the neural impulse were reconstructed.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):52-56
pages 52-56 views

Modeling of inflammatory and degenerative damages of paradont tissue for assessment of drugs and food supplements effect

Mokrenko Y.V., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

A rat model of inflammatory and degenerative damages of paradont tissue by means of administration of 2% solution of formaldehyde into paradont tissue with investigation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems activity for assessment of both local and systemic antiinflamatory effects of potential antiinflamatory drugs and food supplements in stomatology was developed. The separation of local and systemic components in antiinflamatory effect spreads the possibilities of this experimental model.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):57-59
pages 57-59 views

Axiolytics usage in complex treatmentof adaptation disorders in the former contract military officers

Davydov A.T., Zagrebelnyy I.A., Kononchuk V.V., Tyukavin A.I., Savchenko I.F., Rezvantsev M.V.

Abstract

The literature and own data on anxiolytics usage in complex treatment of adaptation disorders in the former contract military officers are reviewed in the article. The analysis of therapeutic efficacy for afobazol and phenibut can recommend them for treatment of adaptation disorders in the former contract military officers.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(2):60-67
pages 60-67 views

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