Vol 13, No 2 (2015)


The Distortion of scientific information as a source of formation of tension in The society: the case of GMO

Daev E.V., Zabarin A.V., Barkova S.M., Dukelskaya A.V.


The current stage of development of society is characterized by extra traffic to each other of the scientific information, its complexity and associated with these distortions during its perception and transferring. Complex social public relations, specialization, lack of education and training lead to misunderstandings between people. Increased level of tension, mistrust, expressed in conflict situations, are creating obstacles to the use of new scientific discoveries and achievements for the benefit of society. The general causes and mechanisms of errors of perception of scientific information are analyzed. Some biosocial and psychosocial aspects of the formation of public opinion by the example of attitudes towards genetically modified foods are considered.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):5-20
pages 5-20 views

State regulation of the biotechnology (GM) agricultural products: analysis of different approaches in the world

Yakovleva I.V., Vinogradova S.V., Kamionskaya A.M.


Although GM crops are cultivated on 175 million hectares in 27 countries, the regulation of agricultural biotechnology is in its becoming. In the future, many countries, of course, will lead to market biotech products, and the main focus will be biosafety issues for humans and the environment. Some countries have special regulatory mechanisms, others do not have the original national regulatory system, but their actions are under the provisions of international treaties for the production and handling of GM products. What are the main components of a strict but not stifling regulatory system? What are the disadvantages of existing systems? The article presents an overview of the state regulation systems of biotech agricultural products in the US, the EU, Argentina, South Africa and Brazil.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):21-35
pages 21-35 views

Genetically modified microorganisms as producers of biologically active compounds

Padkina M.V., Sambuk E.V.


In the review the data on use of genetically modified microorganisms as producers of proteins of different organisms are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bacterial and yeast systems for heterologous genes expression are considered.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):36-57
pages 36-57 views

Transgenic farm animals: status of the current researches and the future

Zinovieva N.A., Volkova N.A., Bagirov V.A., Brem G.


The production of transgenic farm animals is of great interest of modern basic and applied researches. This article reviews methods for production of transgenic farm animals including pronuclear microinjection, nuclear transfer of genetically transformed somatic cells, retrovirus and lentivirusmediated gene transfer, the application of spermatogonia as a target for gene transfer. Using site-specific endonucleases (ZNF, TALEN, CRISPR/Cas9) as modern techniques allowing significantly to improve the gene transfer efficiency in farm animals are briefly described. The particular attention is focused on method for genetic modifications of chicken. The advances in various areas of genetic engineering domestic animals are discussed including creating animals with altered metabolism status to improve the quality and efficiency of production, which are genetically resistant to infectious diseases, producers of biologically active recombinant proteins, donors of organs for human transplantation(xenotransplantation) and animals-modelsfor translation biomedical researches. The innovative immune therapy assay as an example of practical application of transgenic animals-bioreactor technology is characterized.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):58-76
pages 58-76 views

Transgenic plants as bioreactors for the production of substances of medicinal and veterinary importance

Saveleva N.V., Burlakovskiy M.S., Yemelyanov V.V., Lutova L.A.


The use of plants as bioreactors has become of a great importance in the modern biotechnology. The transgenic plants are capable of synthesizing of many substances, including valuable pharmaceuticals. Plants possess a number of advantages compared to conventional bioreactors - microorganisms and animal cell cultures. The product safety and lower production costs are among them. One of the promising directions in plant biotechnology is the creation of “edible vaccines, plantibodies and adjuvants” based on recombinant antigens, immunoglobulins and immunoregulatory cytokines. Edible bioreactor plants can be administered as food and feed additives in medicine and veterinary avoiding expensive purification procedures. Interferons have antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor and immunomodulatory activity, and are implicated in the prophylaxis and therapy of diseases of different etiologies. Investigations concerning with obtaining of bioreactor plants synthesizing γ-interferons of mammals and birds are carried out in the laboratory of genetic and cellular engineering of plants St. Petersburg State University. Our recent achievements in the creation of inbreed tobacco line producing bovine γ-interferon are described.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):77-99
pages 77-99 views

Assessment of hybridization propensity between genetically modified oilseed rape and nontransgenic relatives

Mikhaylova E.V., Kuluev B.R., Khaziakhmetov R.M.


The lack of knowledge about the impact on ecosystems restricts the expansion of genetically modified plants. We review the potential gene flow into the environment due to the cultivation of transgenic oilseed rape. The problem is immediate for this crop on the ground of the widespread of its allogamous weedy relatives. The main difficulty in risk assessment is caused by fluctuation in hybridization frequencies depending on the transgenes used, crop’s line and population features and also the imperfection of current methods of molecular diagnostics. For minimization of such risks, preliminary investigation of cross-pollination, inheritance, expression and phenotypical effects of transgenes in hybrids with both wild and domestic relatives is recommended in all regions where GM-crops are going to be grown. On the basis of this data, specific measures and recommendations to prevent gene flow can be developed. Domestic GM-crop lines, properly tested in local ecosystems, can be grown without any environmental threat.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):100-117
pages 100-117 views

Naturally transgenic plants as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks of cultivation of GMOs

Matveeva T.V.


The development of genetic engineering raises the question of biosafety of transgenic organisms. The greatest concerns about the negative effects of GMO cultivation are reduced to possible leakage of transgenes through cross-pollination of non-transgenic closely related forms by transgenic pollen. Naturally transgenic plants are species which have been subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and retained the T-DNA-like sequence in their genomes. These species can be considered as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks associated with leakage of transgenes. The review is devoted to this problem.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):118-126
pages 118-126 views

Obtaining of transgenic alfalfa for improved phytoremediation the petroleum contaminated soils

Stepanova A.Y., Orlova E.V., Tereshonok D.V., Dolgikh Y.I.


Background. The possibility of using transgenic plants and their complexes with microorganisms to clean up soil from oil pollution is a topical area of researches. In our work the transgenic alfalfa plants with a gene rhlA, responsible for the biosynthesis of biosurfactant - ramnolipid, were obtained. Rhamnolipids help to reduce the surface tension of the hydrocarbon oil and its desorbtion from soil particles, thereby facilitating its recycling by microorganism. Material and methods. The protocol for agrobacterium-mediated transformation was optimized, transgenic alfalfa plants with a gene rhlA were obtained and their status was confirmed by molecular analysis. Results. Cultivation of the control and the transgenic alfalfa plants in soil polluted with 4 % oil showed the advantage of plants emitting ramnolipids: recycle oil was 71 % for 56 days and it was 20 % higher compared with the control plants. When used together, the transgenic plants and microorganism Candida maltosa increased the degree of degradation of the oil to 86 %. Conclusion. The results suggest promising application of transgenic plants and the complex “transgenic plants - microorganisms” to increase the efficiency of bioremediation.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):127-135
pages 127-135 views

The study of genetically modified soybeans mutagenic effects in drosophila and mouse

Barabanova L.V., Kovtun E.V.


The use of genetically modified soybeans (GM) as a food substrate during Drosophila reproduction, as well as the addition of GM-soybeans in the standard mice meal showed no mutagenic effect on criteria recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSPLM) and dominant mutations (DM) in Drosophila and abnormal sperm in mice.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(2):136-141
pages 136-141 views

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