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Vol 12, No 4 (2014)

Articles
Influence of phytoecdysteroids and plants steroidal glycosides on the lifespan and stress resistance of drosophila melanogaster
Shaposhnikov M.V., Shilova L.A., Plyusnina E.N., Volodina S.O., Volodin V.V., Moskalev A.A.
Abstract
Background. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of effects of the active substances of plant adaptogens is a topical area of researches. Materials and methods. We studied the effect of herbal substances containing phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone and inokosterone) of Serratula coronata L. or steroidal glycosides (dioscin and protodioscine) of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on the expression level of stress response genes (genes of heat shock proteins, DNA repair, antioxidant defense and apoptosis), stressresistanse (paraquat, starvation, hyperthermia) and lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Results. The studied herbal substances upregulated genes of antioxidant defense mechanisms (Sod1), but downregulated the DNA repair (XPF and Rad51) and apoptosis (Hid) genes. At the same time herbal substances induced weak adaptogenic and antiaging effects. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that the herbal substances containing phytoecdysteroids and steroidal glycosides change the expression level of stress-response genes and activate mechanisms of hormesis.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(4):3-14
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Molecular phylogeny study of Xamilenis Raf. recognition as the segregate genus in the tribe Sileneae
Mikhaylova Y.V., Krapivskaya E.E., Rodionov A.V.
Abstract
Background. Xamilenis is oligotypic genus recognised in tribe Sileneae sinse 2001. Conception of the Xamilenis recognition as small segregate genus was examined by molecular phylogeny methods. Materials and methods. We analyzed nuclear (ITS1-5,8S-ITS2) and chloroplast (gene trnL intron) sequences obtained from several species of the genus from different localities and compared with other Sileneae species. Phylogeny trees were constructed via neigbor joining and bayesian approaches. Results. ITS p-distances within Xamilenis genus were similar to those between Xamilenis and Silene species. Xamilenis species did not form monophyletic clade in the ITS tree. They were closely related with Silene species from subgenus Siphonomorpha. Synapomorphicindelsspecific for Xamilenis were not observedin intron trnL. Conclusion. Conception Xamilenis as the segregate genus is not confirmed by molecular phylogeny data.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(4):15-24
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Morphogenetic analysis of populations of Helix pomatia L. (Pulmonata, Helicidae) on the south-eastern and eastern part of the current area
Snegin E.A., Artemchuk O.Y.
Abstract
Background. This article is about evolutionary processes in populations of small mobile species in the urbanized landscape. The evolutionary processes of a small mobile species in the urbanized landscape are considered in this article. Materials and methods. The morphological and genetic variety of the Helix pomatia L. populations was studied by the morphometric method and the polyacrylamyd gel electrophoresis method. Samples were collected from twelve landscape urbanized populations from south-eastern and eastern part of the current Helix pomatia L. area. Results. According to the data, the majority of the study populations of this mollusk have the satisfactory condition. The most populations are characterized as high level of heterozygosity, the low inbreeding and the large effective size values of the population testify to this. The structure of the gene pools in the populations snails in the study area is determined by the origin of these populations, the genetic-automatic processes and the microclimatic conditions of the urban environment.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(4):25-37
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Association of GSTM1 (del),GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms and smoking in the family with congenital malformations
Shatalina I.V., Gareeva Y.V., Gordeeva L.A., Voronina E.N., Sutulina I.M., Filipenko M.L.
Abstract
Background. The association of GSTM1 (del) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphisms with congenital malformations (CMs) actively studied. However, the results of various studies are conflicting. This study aims to investigate the association of GSTM1 (del), GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms and smoking in the family with congenital malformations in the newborn. Method. We studied 94 newborn with CMs and 125 healthy newborn. Null genotype of GSTM1 was identified through multiplex real-time PCR, and GSTP1 gene (Ile105Val) polymorphism was determined through TaqMan-real-time PCR. Results. The study showed that polymorphic loci of GSTM1 (del) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genes were not associated with the risk of congenital malformations in the newborn (P = 0,46 and P = 0,47). When comparing the frequencies of genotypes the GSTP1 (Ile105Val) gene in newborn with CMs in the families of smokers with those of healthy newborn in non-smoking families statistically significant differences between them were found (P = 0,02). The genotype Ile/Val in children was associated with CMs (ORg + f = 2,59; 95 % CI: 1,05- 6,35), while the homozygous genotype Ile/Ile in newborn was associated with a protective effect to CMs (ORg + f = 0,30; 95 % CI: 0,12-0,72). Possibly, the association of the homozygous genotype Val/Val did not reach statistical significance due to a small number of children surveyed. Conclusion. The smoking in the family increases the risk of CMs in the newborn with genotypes of GSTP1 gene (Ile105Val) polymorphism.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(4):38-43
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I walked in the editorial office and in galoshes... (or how not to write scientific articles)
Dayev E.V.
Abstract
Several typical cases of improper use of scientific term shave been reviewed. The problem of the proper use of language in scientific articles by researchers has been discussed for better understanding the author’s ideas, the significance of their findings and the adequacy of their interpretation.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(4):44-49
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