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Vol 14, No 1 (2016)

Articles
The genetic structure of populations of specially protected species Androsace kozo-poljanskii ovsz. in conditions of the south at the central Russian upland using dna markers
Snegin E.A., Snegina E.A., Novomlinskaya T.A.
Abstract
At the basis of DNA markers (ISSR) the state of the gene pools of ten populations (438 individuals) specially protected relict plant species Androsace kozo-poljanskii Ovsz. Seu Androsace villosa subsp. Koso-poljanskii Fed. in Southern Central Russian Upland was studied. The data demonstrated a low level of genetic heterogeneity of populations (Ish = 0,217 ± 0,011; He = 0,131 ± 0,007), as well as a slight degree of the genetic fragmentation (Фst = 0,136, Gst = 0,091), despite the strong geographical isolation. An analysis of multilocus genotypes (methods Chao1-bc and the 1st order jackknife) revealed the group with a potentially large number and low genetic combinations. There was a low correlation between the logarithms of the level of gene flow and geographic distances between populations (r = -0,276 ± 0,141), which constitutes a violation of the isolation by distance model and strengthening of the role of stabilizing selection. It has been hypothesized of preferential settling of the studied species in the past, along the river valleys. The effective population size (Ne), which calculated on the basis of index units and regression equations were in the range of 4.9-20.4 individuals.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(1):3-12
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Biochemical diversity of fatty acid composition in flax from VIR genetic collection and effect of environment on its development
Porokhovinova E.A., Shelenga T.V., Kosykh L.A., Sanin A.A., Kazarina A.V., Kutuzova S.N., Pavlov A.V., Brutch N.B.
Abstract
Background. In connection with climate change vary known patterns of environmental influences on the ratio of fatty acids(FA) in oil. Therefore,relevant data of modern geography test. Materials and methods. In work 24 lines and 3 commercial varieties of flax including 3 low linolenic (LL) accessions, grown in the Leningrad and Samara regions were used. FA composition was evaluated by gas chromatography for the ratio of palmitic (PAL), stearic (STE), oleic (OLE), linoleic (ω6,LIO), linolenic (ω3, LIN) acids, ω6/ω3 and iodine number of the oil (IOD). Results. The strongest differences are due to the level of LIN. It is lower in LL and gc-119 from India and higher in 3 lines carrying the gene s1 (deranged anthocyanin biosynthesis). In gc-119, contrast to LL, LIN decrease increase of OLE, instead of LIO. In lines with the gene s1 LIN increase due to the OLE reduction. Contrary to earlier publications the seeds of northern reproduction have more PAL, OLE, less LIN, IOD. 2F ANOVA revealed significant effect of genotype and reproductions place on PAL, OLE, LIN, IOD. LIO is affected only by genotype. Independence of ω6/ω3 is explained by strong abnormity of distribution due to LL. In high linolenic (HL) accessions group both factors influenced all characters except STE. Kruskal-Wallis H test (non-parametric 1F ANOVA analogue) show significant effect of genotype and place of reproductions on ω6/ω3. It reveals the impact of the reproduction place on LIN,no significant effect of genotype on OLE and IOD, which in the case of 1F ANOVA were significant. For characters of HL with normal distribution, comparing of both tests showed that in case of 0,01 < p < 0,09 conclusions concerning significance may vary,but in cases p < 0,01 or p > 0,10 they are identical. Conclusion. In our studies the geographical effect is less important than the weather in the year of growing. For abnormal distribution it is desirable to use both statistics and carefully make conclusions about the significance of differences in borderline probabilities.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(1):13-26
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Epistatic interaction of resistance genes to acaricides in interline hybrids of two-spotted spider mite
Sundukov O.V., Tulaeva I.A., Zubanov E.A.
Abstract
Background. Study of the genetic bases of pesticide resistance of arthropods for sustainable rational pest control is important. Materials and methods. The disruptive selection cycles were conducted with inbred arrhenotokous reproduction of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch. The resistant and susceptible lines of two-spotted spider mites to malathion, bifenthrin, abamectin and bromopropylate were obtained. The tests were performed by diagnostic concentrations of toxicants. Results. The resistant spider mites to malathion were crossed with resistant spider mites to bifenthrin, abamectin and bromopropylate. Mortality of interline hybrids in all variants of crosses were 2 times higher than mortality of spider mites with the gene resistance only to the current toxicant. Conclusion. The interaction of resistance genes to various toxic compounds in interline hybrids of spider mites is the type of epistasis. The resistance gene to the current pesticide in heterogeneous spider mites is hypostatic.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(1):27-33
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Contradictions teleology of Legal Policy of the Russian Federation in the field of genetic engineering
Medvedkina D.A., Tikhonova S.V., Mylnikov S.V., Matveeva T.V.
Abstract
The article deals with the analysis of Russian legal policy in the sphere of genetic engineering. Over the past ten years, the risks of genetic engineering in the Russian society are mythologized. At the same time attempts were made to change the model of the legal regulation of genetic engineering legislation to tighten it. They worried the scientific community. At the same time the legislative initiatives to tighten the model of the legal regulation of genetic engineering become frequent. This situation worries the scientific community. The authors explore the goals which the Russian legislator aims in the process of legal regulation of genetic engineering, and relate them to the needs of the development of science. The authors identified two problems in the teleology of the Russian legal policy in the field of genetic engineering. Firstly, the concept of national biosafety has not been created. This concept is necessary for specifying not only negative but also positive risks of genetic engineering, that is, for the purposes of definition the use of genetic engineering. Second, the degree of influence of the scientific community to the social representations about the risks of genetic engineering is weak.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(1):34-48
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On history of modern genetic terminology: What is a proper gender of term “allele”?
Sinjushin A.A.
Abstract
In modern Russian scientific literature, one may find usage of term “allele” in both masculine and feminine grammatical gender. Existence of “proper” usage is debatable and hence became a topic of the given paper. History of term in Russian language and grammatical bases of its gender are briefly reviewed. Basing on statistics of usage of this word in Russian genetic journals, one may conclude that its usage in feminine gender tends to decline and is attributed almost exclusively to Leningrad and Saint-Petersburg scientific schools. The word “allele” in feminine gender more suits the existing tradition of interlingual transition of words ending with «-el». Nevertheless, the modern Russian genetic literature obviously prefers using this term in masculine gender.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(1):49-54
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