I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald

A peer-reviewed scientific medical journal.


Roman E. Kalinin, MD, PhD, professor
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0817-9573



ISSN: 0204-3475 (Print) ISSN 2500-2546 (Online)


Is a periodical scientific journal of the Ryazan State Medical University.

Was founded in 1993 on the initiative of the famous biochemist academician E. A. Stroev.

The editorial board and editorial board of the journal are a team of eminent and actively working scientists from Russia, USA, Israel, Germany, Italy, India, Sweden, Ukraine, Tajikistan.

The mission of the journal is to introduce readers to the achievements of domestic and foreign biomedical science, to create a professional platform for the exchange of experience and scientific discussion, to publish the results of their own research in the field of fundamental and clinical medicine.

In the journal following article may be published: biology and genetics; morphology and pathological anatomy; biochemistry, physiology, biophysics and pathological physiology; microbiology, immunology, infectious diseases; pharmacology, clinical pharmacology; hygiene, ecology, epidemiology, healthcare organization, history of medicine; internal diseases; endocrinology; dermatovenerology; neurology, psychiatry, addiction medicine, clinical psychology; pediatrics; surgery; clinical and experimental oncology; ophthalmology; ENT-diseases; dentistry; rehabilitation medicine, physical education, exercise therapy and sports healthcare; obstetrics and gynecology; pharmacy.


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  • English
  • Russian
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Types of accepted articles

  • original study
  • case reports
  • reviews
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  • letters to the editor

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  • hybryd access (Open Access & subscription)
  • quarterly publishing of issues
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Vol 30, No 4 (2022)

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Original researches

The Role and Significance of Polymorphisms of Certain Genes in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Kalmykov E., Suchkov I.A., Kalinin R.E., Ne’matzoda O., Dodkhoev J.S.

INTRODUCTION: To date, many factors that influence the risk and course of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are not studied. Increasing significance in the etiology and development of AAA is assigned to the existence of some genetic polymorphisms, the role of many of them is not studied either.

AIM: To analyze the existence of association of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with some gene polymorphisms (GPs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 20 patients with AAA (study group, SG); 18 men (90%) and 2 women (10%), the mean age 68.1 ± 7.3 years), and in 5 patients without AAA (control group, CG; 4 men (80%) and 1 woman (20%), the mean age 64.2 ± 7.2 years). The frequency of concomitant diseases and risk factors for AAA were determined. The following GPs were studied: : Lys198Asn in the EDN1 gene; C-786T in the NOS3 gene; Leu28Pro in the APOE gene; Val174Ala in the SLC01B1 gene; Thr715Pro in the SELP gene; C807T in the ITGA2 gene; Ser447Ter in the LpL gene; Thr174Met in the AGT gene; Met235Thr in the AGT gene. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21, correlation analysis ― according to Pearson. The results were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: In the SG, correlation relationships were identified in Ser447Ter polymorphism in the LpL gene: direct relationships with Lys198Asn polymorphism (r = 0.63; р < 0.001) in the EDN1 gene, Leu28Pro (r = 0.70; р < 0.001) in the APOE gene and Thr715Pro (r = 0.63; р < 0.001) in the SELP gene; a reverse relationship with С786Т polymorphism (r = -0.35; р = 0.006) in the NOS3 gene. The same amount of relationships were found in Leu28Pro polymorphism in the APOE gene: besides with Ser447Ter in the LpL gene, there is also a direct relationship with Lys198Asn (r = 0.70; р < 0.001) in the EDN1 gene and Thr715Pro (r = 0.63; р < 0.001) in the SELP gene; a reverse relationship with С786Т (r = -0.35; р = 0.006) in the NOS3 gene. Thr715Pro polymorphism in the SELP gene, along with relationships with Ser447Ter (r = 0.63; р < 0.001) in the LpL gene and Leu28Pro in the APOE gene, has an additional direct relationship with Lys198Asn (r = 0.55; р < 0.001) in the EDN1 gene. Thr174Met polymorphism in the AGT gene has a reverse relationship with Leu28Pro (r = -0.35; р = 0.006) in the APOE gene and direct relationship with Val174Ala (r = 0.40; р = 0.002) in the SLC01B1 gene. With this, Met235Thr polymorphism in the AGT gene has a direct relationship with Val174Ala (r = 0.33; p = 0.011) in the SLC01B1 gene and reverse relationship with C807T in the ITGA2 gene.

CONCLUSION: The existence of direct correlations of some gene polymorphisms in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm has been established, which indicates their probable role in the development of this pathology and may be used as a screening test for determination of the likelihood for its development.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):437-445
pages 437-445 views
Variant Anatomy of the Right Ventricular Moderator Band in Human Heart in Early Antenatal Period of Development
Yakimov A.A.

INTRODUCTION: The information about the variants of the structure and topography of the moderator band (MB) that connects the interventricular septum with the anterior papillary muscle and the anterior wall of the right ventricle in the heart of a fetus and a newborn, is of great importance for cardiac surgery.

AIM: To establish the prevalence of the MB and describe the variants of its shape, structure and position in the right ventricle of the normal human heart in the early antenatal period of development.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Olympus SZX2-ZB10 stereomicroscope with 4.725X to 15X magnification, formalin-fixed hearts of fetuses and stillborns of 17–28 weeks were studied. The results are presented in the form of median, 25th and 75th percentiles, extreme values. Correlation analysis was performed. Significance of the difference of proportions was evaluated by one-sided t-test. The results are presented in the form of median (Me), 25th and 75th percentiles (Q25%–Q75%).

RESULTS: MB was found in 73 of 90 preparations (81.1%), in 48 cases (66%) it was bridge-like, and in 24 of 72 (33.3%) ― parietal. MB had flattened (crest-like) or cylindrical shape (62.5% vs 33%; p = 0.0002). The most common was flattened bridge-like variant. The length of MB was 2.2 (1.75–3.0) mm, width 1.35 (0.9–1.75) mm, thickness 1.0 (0.65–1.5) mm. The band mainly originated from the interventricular septum between the middle and apical thirds of the longitudinal axis, and the anterior and middle thirds of the transverse axis of the interventricular septum. It typically terminated with the attachment to the anterior papillary muscle (47.7%), or to the anterior wall of the right ventricle immediately in front of this muscle (38.5%). In 22.2% of cases, the MB had papillary muscles on it, and in 37.5%, the secondary trabeculae extended from it to the apex of the ventricle.

CONCLUSION: MB is a normal, but not obligatory structure of the heart in the antenatal period, its normal anatomy is variable and is manifested by typical and rare variants of the form, position, beginning and end, which in many cases can impede diagnostics and treatment of the pathology of the right ventricle.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):447-456
pages 447-456 views
Protective Effects of L-Arginine on Mitochondria of Rat Epididymis in Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Prolonged Methionine Load
Zvyagina V.I., Shumaev K.B., Belskikh E.S., Uryasyev O.M., Akhmedova S.R., Marsyanova Y.A., Shitikova A.M., Suchkova O.N.

INTRODUCTION: The study of markers of oxidative stress, metabolites of nitric oxide (II) (NOx) and the balance of carnitine fractions in mitochondria of rat epididymis, permits to evaluate the protective role of L-arginine in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia.

AIM: To study the influence of L-arginine on the parameters of energy metabolism, level of NO metabolites, oxidative modification of proteins and balance of carnitine fractions in mitochondria of the head and tail of rat epididymis in hyperhomocysteinemia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In animals of group 1 (n = 8), severe hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) was modeled by administration of methionine suspension at a dose of 1.5 g/kg twice daily for 21 days with addition of 1% methionine in drinking water; group 2 rats (n = 8) received suspension base without methionine; animals of group 3 (n = 8) were daily administered L-arginine solution at a dose of 500 mg/kg intragastrically against the background methionine load from day 11 to day 21; group 4 animals (n = 8) were administered L-arginine solution of at a dose of 500 mg/kg for 10 days; group 5 (n = 8) served as a control for group 4 and received drinking water intragastrically. Concentrations of total homocysteine and NOx were determined in serum. In the mitochondrial fraction of the homogenate of epididymis tissues, the level of oxidatively modified proteins (OMP), the concentration of NOx, lactate and carnitine fractions, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), H+-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were evaluated.

RESULTS: HHcy was accompanied by reduction of the level of NOx in blood serum and mitochondria of epididymis head tissues. In mitochondria of tissues of head and tail of epididymis, a marked reduction of all fractions of carnitine, activity of LDH, H+-ATPase, SDH, increase in the activity of SOD and in the level of OMP were observed. With modeled HHcy, L-arginine reduced the extent of hyperhomocysteinemia, prevented reduction of NOx level in the blood serum and epididymis head and reduced the content of OMP of the epididymis mitochondria.

CONCLUSION: L-arginine introduced in combination with methionine, reduces the extent of severity of hyperhomocysteinemia. The positive effect of L-arginine on increase in the concentration of NOx metabolites in blood serum and mitochondria of epididymis in conditions of methionine load was also confirmed. L-arginine exhibits antioxidant properties, reducing the severity of oxidative stress induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. Differences in the adaptive response to oxidative stress of the mitochondria of the head and tail of epididymis were demonstrated.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):457-470
pages 457-470 views
Changes in Metabolic Parameters of Rats in Different Age Periods After Prenatal Stress
Martyusheva A.S., Subbotina A.Y., Abramova A.Y., Alekseeva I.V., Pertsov S.S.

INTRODUCTION: Currently, biomedical specialists give special attention to studying the influence of stressogenic factors on an organism of a pregnant woman, the embryonic development of the fetus and the subsequent development of offspring in the early and late ontogenesis. It has been found in a number of studies that prenatal stress can lead to reduction of physical activity and hormonal disorders. The factors leading to disorders in regulation of immune and metabolic homeostasis have been identified. Despite considerable interest in the study of the consequences of prenatal stress, its impact on changes in metabolic intensity in different periods of postnatal ontogenesis in animals of different genders has not been sufficiently studied.

AIM: To study parameters of metabolism intensity in different age periods of postnatal ontogenesis in rats’ offspring of both genders after intrauterine stress load.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stress load was modeled in daily forced swimming of pregnant rats at 10–12°C for 5 min. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide excretion (ml/h/kg), and heat exchange (kcal/h/kg) in male and female rats were determined using a Phenomaster automated modular unit (TSE Systems GmbH, Germany) on the 21st, 30th and 60th day of the ontogenesis. Statistical significance of differences between the studied parameters was assessed using Mann-Whitney U-test for independent groups.

RESULTS: The study parameters of intact animals practically did not differ in the suckling (the 21st day) and infantile period (the 30th day), but significantly decreased in the juvenile period of development (the 60th day). It was found that the intrauterine stress did not lead to statistically significant changes in the absolute values of metabolic parameters as compared to the control, but affected the period of appearance of age-related variations of these parameters in male rats. In these animals, the volumes of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide excretion, and the level of heat radiation reduced as early as in the infantile period (as compared to 21-day-old rats) and reached the minimum level by the 60th day of the postnatal ontogenesis. In female rats subjected to intrauterine stress, changes in the study parameters in different periods of life were similar to those of intact animals.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, prenatal stress modeled by swimming of female parents in cold water, has a modulating effect on age-related dynamics of metabolic parameters of male rats, which was manifested by the decrease in these parameters in the earlier period of development.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):471-480
pages 471-480 views
Comparative Characteristics of Quality Parameters of Waters of the Oka River in Places of Water Intake of Utility and Drinking Water System in Ryazan
Litvinova A.A., Dement’yev A.A., Lyapkalo A.A., Korshunova E.P.

INTRODUCTION: Surface water sources play an important role in supply of large cities with water. Their waters are subject to anthropogenic pollution with different chemical compounds which may be significant risk factors for the health of the population. The article presents the results of comparative sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the water quality of the Oka river in places of water intake of utility and drinking water supply system of Ryazan. Being the only surface source of water supply, the Oka river provides 53% of the total water consumption of the Ryazan population, therefore a rational choice of the place of water intake can have a considerable impact on the effectiveness of water conditioning and purification and on the final quality of drinking water.

AIM: To give a comparative sanitary-hygienic characteristic of the water quality of the Oka river in places of the water intake of the utility and drinking water supply system of Ryazan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative evaluation of the water quality of the Oka river, as a surface source of water supply, was carried out based on the average long-term values of control parameters (organoleptic, microbiological, chemical) and the proportion of samples that do not meet hygienic standards in the sections of three water intakes in Ryazan in 2012–2019. The average parameters were compared by the method of variance analysis; for paired comparisons, Scheffe and Tamhein criteria were used, taking into account the results of Levene test. The statistical parameters were calculated in SPSS Statistics 19 program.

RESULTS: The chemical composition of the Oka river water was characterized by the greatest pollution with iron (2+) and aluminum. The water of Oksky and Borkovskoy water intakes was characterized by higher average concentrations of iron (2+) and ammonia, as well as greater contamination with generalized and thermotolerant coliform bacteria, compared with the water of Sokolovsky water intake.

CONCLUSION: A lower initial quality of the water in Oksky and Borkovskoy water intakes may be due to their location in the 'blind' river course characterized by the processes of eutrophication and slowed down water exchange. High concentrations of iron (2+) may be associated with supply of stream water from the underground sources or with anthropogenic pollution.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):481-488
pages 481-488 views
Intra-shift and Inter-shift Dynamics of Stress Index of Regulatory Systems in Medical Personnel of Mobile Emergency Medical Teams in Modern Conditions
Bolobonkina T.A., Dement’yev A.A., Minaeva N.V., Lapkin M.M., Kulagin P.A.

INTRODUCTION: In conditions of spread of the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), the work regimen and working conditions of the mobile emergency medical teams have changed, the range of occupational hazards has expanded, which led to unfavorable alterations in the functional state of the nervous system of workers.

AIM: To study the influence of the professional activity on the functional state of an organism of medical workers of mobile emergency medical teams in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parameters of the functional state of an organism of medical workers of mobile emergency medical teams were studied before, after the work and between shifts in the period from May to October 2021. The extent of centralization of the heart rhythm control was evaluated by use of strain index (SI) of regulatory systems. The sample included 67 workers of mobile teams (21 men and 46 women), 16 doctors and 51 paramedics. The average age of workers participating in the study was 36.28 ± 2.82 years.

RESULTS: By the end of shift, in more than half the medical workers of mobile EMT, SI grew by 74.75 units (p = 0,021). The age (÷2 = 6.467; р = 0.040) and length of service (÷2 = 6.069; р = 0.049) influenced the distribution of workers with different SI dynamics on the basis of the results of the work shift. By the beginning of the next shift, in 60.71% of workers included into the study, a significant increase in SI was recorded on average by 74.02 (р = 0.001) compared to the beginning of the previous shift. The influence of length of service on the distribution of workers with different dynamics of SI in the successive shifts into groups was recorded (÷2 = 7.313; р = 0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: The dynamics of the growth of the strain index of regulatory systems indicates low effectiveness of recovery of the functional state of an organism of workers in the period of scheduled rest. The greatest influence on the growth of parameters was exerted by length of service, which indicates the negative impact of working conditions on the functional state of an organism of workers.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):489-496
pages 489-496 views
Analysis of Causes of Sudden Death Among Russian Railway Workers
Zhidkova E.A., Gutor E.M., Gurevich K.G., Makogon N.V., Shugushev Z.K., Orlov D.O., Dzhioyeva O.N., Drapkina O.M.

INTRODUCTION: Health protection of railway workers of various professional groups increases the safety of railway transport, the prestige of the profession and reduces morbidity and mortality from the most common causes in this group of patients.

AIM: To analyze the risk factors of sudden death among Russian Railways workers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design of the study is made according to the ‘case-control’ type. Analysis was carried out of all cases of sudden death (SD) of employees of JSCo ‘Russian Railways’ (RR) in the period from 2009 to 2021 (n = 412). The comparison group consisted of 411 employees of RR who were undergoing periodical medical examination. The groups were formed on the basis of age, employment period, gender, profession. To assess the diagnostic significance of the quantitative signs in predicting a certain outcome, the method of analysis of ROC curves was used.

RESULTS: The chances of death for workers of RR increased in case of past myocardial infarction, and also depended on the type of intervention (p < 0.001). The threshold value of the BMI index in the cut-off point, which corresponded to the highest value of Youden index, was 27.1 kg/m2. In the group of sudden deaths, there were 1.8 times more smokers and 2 times less individuals with total cholesterol level exceeding 5 mmol/l than in the comparison group (p < 0.001). A prognostic model was developed by ROC-analysis to determine the probability of mortality. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 79.5% and 91.9%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: A prognostic model was developed to determine the probability of sudden death in Russian railway workers, with the sensitivity and specificity 79.5% and 91.9%, respectively. However, the present study did not permit to reveal predictors of sudden death specific of the workers of RR.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):497-506
pages 497-506 views
Peculiarities of Temperament and Character of Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric Pathology and Combined Dependence on Psychostimulants and Other Psychoactive Substances
Poplevchenkov K.N., Agibalova T.V., Buzik O.Z., Mischenko D.A.

INTRODUCTION: According to official statistics, there is an annual increase in the production and consumption of various psychostimulants, and as a result, an increase in the number of patients with addiction of psychostimulants. At the same time, there are no effective methods of treating such disorders within the framework of a modern personalized approach to therapy.

AIM: To study peculiarities of the temperament and character of patients with combined dependence on psychostimulants and other psychoactive substances (PASs) and with comorbid psychiatric pathology to increase the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods in personalized therapeutic approach.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 325 patients (ethnic Russian men and women aged from 18 to 50 years) with the diagnosis: ‘dependence on psychostimulants’ and ‘dependence on psychostimulants in combination with comorbid psychiatric pathology’, who signed the informed consent. R. Cloninger method of assessment of the temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI-125) was used.

RESULTS: Patients were divided to groups depending on PASs used by them and the existence of comorbid psychiatric pathology. Of temperament dimensions, the ‘novelty seeking’ predominated in all the groups (up to 15 points; р < 0.002) in comparison with ‘harm avoidance’ (up to 10 points; р < 0.112), ‘reward dependence’ (up to 9 points; р < 0.442) and ‘persistence’ (up to 3 points; р < 0.226). This combination of temperament dimensions corresponds to antisocial personality disorder. High ‘cooperativeness’ (17 points; p < 0.005) was observed in patients with a full course of rehabilitation and remissions up to 12 months. The maximal ‘self-transcendence’ (10 points; p < 0.02) corresponded to psychiatric pathology.

CONCLUSION: On the basis of the results obtained, personality profiles of patients were determined. Patients of the first profile with dependence only on psychostimulants with minimal ‘novelty seeking’ dimension of the temperament along with high ‘cooperativeness’ character trait were more communicative, adapted to the treatment and rehabilitation program, and had longer remission periods. Patients of the second profile with a combined dependence on psychostimulants and other PASs with maximal ‘novelty seeking’ dimension in the temperament along with minimal values on the character scales required the maximal effort of the specialists to keep them in the treatment and rehabilitation program. Patients of the third profile with dependence on psychostimulants and comorbid psychiatric pathology with maximal ‘novelty seeking’ dimension in the temperament together with maximal ‘self-transcendence’ were characterized by suspiciousness and required a special gradual establishment of psychotherapeutic contact to involve them in the treatment and rehabilitation process.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):507-518
pages 507-518 views
Comparative Analysis of Personality-Related and Value-and-Meaning-Related Characteristics of Narcological Patients and Healthy Individuals (Abstainers) in Terms of Tertiary Prevention
Korduban V.V., Buzik O.Z., Agibalova T.V.

INTRODUCTION: Achievement of absolute sobriety, its maintenance and preservation are the main tasks of the stage of tertiary prophylaxis of narcological patients.

AIM: To perform a comparative analysis of personality- and value-and-meaning-related characteristics of narcological patients with syndrome of addiction to psychoactive substances, with similar characteristics of healthy individuals without significant experience in use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances (absolute and relative abstainers).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The age, gender, level of education, experience in use of nicotine in the past and present, leading coping strategies, levels of religiosity and magic thinking have been studied.

RESULTS: Two diametrically opposite images of abstainers were identified: on the one end individuals with higher level of education and lower levels of religiosity and magic thinking, and on the other — individuals with lower level of education, but higher levels of religiosity and magic thinking. The group of abstainers is in general characterized by absence of the experience in nicotine use.

CONCLUSION: Taking into account personality- and value-and-meaning-related characteristics helps more accurately determine the goals and directions of psychotherapeutic and rehabilitation measures, to differentiate patients according to rehabilitation programs, increases the level of motivation and adherence to treatment, which in turn leads to a longer and stable remission.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):519-529
pages 519-529 views
Potentials of Minimally Invasive Technologies in Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer
Dylenok A.A., Rybachkov V.V., Malashenko V.N., Kashin S.V., Shybin L.B.

INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of oncological morbidity and mortality.

AIM: To determine the effectiveness and safety of wedge resections of stomach in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) in comparison with endoscopic intraluminal treatment methods.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assessment of the immediate and long-term (5 years) prognosis of 164 patients with EGC who underwent wedge resection of stomach and endoscopic intraluminal interventions was performed. One hundred twenty eight patients were operated on in the volume of endoscopic intraluminal mucosal resection or submucosal dissection (the mean age 68.5 ± 9.2 years; men 53.7%). In 36 patients (the mean age 65.3 ± 7.8 years; men 66.7%), according to gastroscopy in combination with chromogastroscopy, narrow-band magnification endoscopy, the tumor dimensions exceeded those recommended for endoscopic methods. Due to contraindications for classic resection interventions in such patients, wedge resections of the stomach were performed.

RESULTS: In the comparison groups there was no postoperative mortality, however, in the group with use of endoscopic methods, complications were noted (perforations of the stomach and bleeding). All the complications were eliminated endoscopically. In the group of wedge resections, there were no postoperative complications, but in the long-term result, the five-year survival rate was lower than in the group of endoscopic treatment (75.0% versus 92.2%; χ2 = 8.10, p = 0.004) due to a more severe comorbid pathology in the patients of wedge resection group.

CONCLUSION: Safety and equal effectiveness of wedge gastric resections was established in the long-term oncological result in patients with EGC in comparison with intraluminal endoscopic methods.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):531-538
pages 531-538 views
Experimentally Justified Choice of Optimal Antiseptic Solution for Hygienic Care of Oral Cavity and Dentures
Rozov R.A., Trezubov V.N., Vagner V.D., Urakov A.L., Reshetnikov A.P.

INTRODUCTION: The range of antiseptic agents used in clinical practice, is rather wide. However, only single studies are devoted to comparative characteristics of their effectiveness in the conditions of the oral cavity.

AIM: To choose the optimal antiseptic dental cleaner by experimental study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An aqueous solution of Furacilin® (0.02%), chlorhexidine bigluconate (0.05%), Miramistin® (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), Iodinol®, Rotokan®, distilled water were used as washing liquids for elimination of dental plaque. The model of the dentition was created from quartz plates with an imitation of fresh plaque. Biomaterial imitating dental plaque included two solutions: 1) a strong fresh infusion of black tea leaves, cooled to +25°C; 2) oatmeal jelly with temperature from +60°C to +65°C. The authors’ method of screening dental cleaners was used, based on comparing the transparency of the laboratory model of the dentition before and after exposure to the test solution by determination with an amperemeter of strength of the electric current in the photosensor device from the oxyhemograph sensor after white light emitted by a mini-emitter passed through biological material and plates and fell on it.

RESULTS: The cleaning capacity of distilled water is the lowest (p < 0.05–0.001). Rotokan®, Furacilin® and Iodinol® have a low cleaning capacity, and Iodinol® can cause a burn of the gingival cuff in case of high reaction to it, and allergic reactions. Hydrogen peroxide has an average degree of efficiency, but it dries the oral mucosa. Chlorhexidine bigluconate has the highest cleaning effect, Miramistin® and cetylpyridinium chloride are slightly inferior to it (p > 0.05). By the cleaning capacity, chlorhexidine bigluconate solution is significantly superior to hydrogen peroxide (p < 0.05), Iodinol® (p < 0.02), Furacilin® (p < 0.02), Rotokan® (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: The described method received the patent for invention of the Russian Federation No. 2019121293. Experimental studies have shown the best cleaning effect of 0.05% solution of chlorhexidine bigluconate.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):539-546
pages 539-546 views
Analysis of Recorded Morbidity, Prevalence and Hospital Mortality of Patients with Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma in the Ryazan Region for 10 Years
Bolotin S.G., Zenina M.S., Solov’yeva A.V., Pristupa A.S.

INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease whose substrate is plasma cells; it is characterized by the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Epidemiology of MM in Russia is insufficiently studied. Of interest is a study of dynamics of the main epidemiological parameters of multiple myeloma in the context of a poor epidemiological prognosis for oncological diseases in the Russian Federation and in the world in general.

AIM: To analyze the main epidemiological parameters of symptomatic MM in the Ryazan region for 10 years (2010–2019).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 343 medical records of patients with symptomatic MM were analyzed, of them 146 men (age median — 65 years), 197 women (age median — 64 years). The patients underwent inpatient treatment in the hematology and chemotherapy department of Ryazan Regional Clinical Hospital from 2010 to 2019. The epidemiological analysis consisted in evaluation of the parameters of the registered morbidity, prevalence and hospital mortality. The criterion for inclusion in the study was the existence of symptomatic MM in the patient. For statistical processing, Microsoft information and analytical system, Office package was used.

RESULTS: The highest amount of new cases of MM were identified in 2018 (4.19 per 100,000 population), the lowest — in 2012 (1.83 per 100,000 population). In the analyzed period, the number of cases of newly diagnosed MM per year increased by 30.3%. Most patients at the time of diagnosis were in the age group of 60−69 years. Morbidity with MM in the age group of 30−49 years was comparable in men and women, however, among the patients ≥ 50 years women predominated. Over 10 years, the index of MM prevalence in the Ryazan region increased 1.43 times: from 6.71 to 9.6 per 100,000 population, index of hospital mortality — from 1.4% to 3.3%.

CONCLUSION: The growth of the registered mortality and prevalence of MM in the Ryazan region in 2010−2019 was identified, which corresponds to the dynamics in other regions of the Russian Federation. Also, during the analyzed period, an increase in hospital mortality of patients with MM was observed in the region.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):547-554
pages 547-554 views

Clinical cases

Case Report of Development of Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome in Pregnancy
Smirnova E.A., Kurtikova O.V.

Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an ultra-rare (orphan) disease with a progressive course, which is a systemic thrombotic microangiopathy resulting from uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway. There exist the so called ‘obstetric’ thombotic microangiopathies (pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome) which are considered as triggers causing development of aHUS in pregnancy in genetically predisposed female patients. Here, the main peculiarity of these pathologies is the improvement of the condition of the puerpera after delivery. In case of ‘non-obstetric’ thombotic microangiopathies, delivery does not lead to regress of symptoms, on the contrary, microangiopathic process progresses with rapid development of multiorgan failure. The development of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and aHUS in pregnancy may induce physiological changes in the organism of a pregnant woman. There occurs a build-up of the activity of von Willebrand factor with a parallel reduction of the activity of ADAMTS 13 enzyme (metalloprotease that cleaves its super-large multimers). This is probably a physiological adaptation of the body to minimize blood loss during childbirth. As a result of the imbalance, the risk of developing thrombotic microangiopathy increases by the end of II — beginning of III trimester. The concept of chronic uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway implies a genetic defect of regulatory proteins with increased formation of C5 convertase, increased release of C5a — a strong chemoattractant, and of membrane–attacking complex C5b–C9, which leads to damage to endothelial cells, exposure of the subendothelial layer and thrombosis. The currently used drug eculizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the complement C5 protein and suppresses the activation of complement-mediated cell lysis. The article presents a clinical case of the development of aHUS in a patient during pregnancy, the main stages of diagnostic search are considered, routing is determined and the therapy used is justified.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):555-562
pages 555-562 views


Achievements and Prospects for Vascular Surgery in Treatment of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
Kondaraki A.V., Chupin A.V., Alekyan B.G., Kul'bak V.A.

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) remains an important problem in the modern medicine since approximately every fourth cerebral infarction occurs in the posterior circulation of the brain. These strokes are accompanied by severe consequences and a high risk of repeated events. The article presents the current concepts for surgical treatment of lesions of the subclavian (ScA) and vertebral (VA) arteries responsible for the development of VBI. In the open surgical treatment of symptomatic lesion of the ScA, primarily of occlusion one, extrathoracic interventions prevail in the form of carotid-subclavian bypass and carotid-subclavian transposition. According to our analysis, the results of carotid-subclavian transposition prove to be more preferable. In the endovascular intervention on the ScA, balloon angioplasty is used with possible stenting. In the analysis, we found no differences in the long-term patency between angioplasty and stenting, although the extent of technical success was higher in the group of stenting. In case of stenosis of the ScA, the world medicine gives priority to endovascular methods. To date, there are no sharply defined criteria permitting to choose between the open and endovascular interventions for treatment of the ScA occlusion, although a probable technical failure of endovascular revascularization and higher long-term patency give priority to open surgery. As for symptomatic stenosis of VA, to date there is no evidence of the advantage of stenting over conservative therapy. Thus, surgical intervention should rather be used in case the drug treatment is ineffective. The same can be said about the open reconstruction of the VA, except for the cases of contraindications for stenting of the VA, for example, its tortuosity.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):563-574
pages 563-574 views

Letter in edition

A Conceptual Framework for the Development of Chatbots Addressing COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
Neog D.R., Grover R., Ransing R., Ramalho R.

Aim of this letter is to review Chatbots that answer questions of vaccine-hesitant people, their utility, and their limitations in addressing psycho-social determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The authors propose a conceptual framework that could guide the development of artificial intelligence-based Chatbots and summarise the salient features of the four Chatbots discussed in the literature today, developed to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2022;30(4):575-580
pages 575-580 views

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