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Author Guidelines


I. Research article format

The research article should present a description of the results of an original study with a clearly hypothesis and the way of its confirmation or refutation. Manuscripts should demonstrate a new approaches to the discused issues. The research article manuscripts should contain the following chapters:

  • Title
  • Author names
  • Author's affiliations
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Main text of the article:
    • Introduction
    • Aims and tasks
    • Assumptions
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
  • Aditional information
    • Funding sources
    • Conflict of interests statement
    • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Information about the authors

II. Review article format

The review articles should present the results of joint work of the author or a group of authors on generalisation of a wide range of researches on the definite topic. Manuscripts may contain the comprehensive analyses on researches and studies suiting to the journal's topics. The structure of the review article manuscript is similar to that of the scientific one.


  • The manuscript should not exceed 20 pages and should be presented both in MS Word and PDF.
  • Page format – A4; all margins – 2.5 cm; indention – 1.25; line spacing – single; all chapters are separated with single spacing.
  • Font  − Times New Roman.

Text format on the manuscript structure

  1. Cover page
    • UDC (font 14, left justification).
    • Author (s): initials and family name (font 14, left justification).
    • Affiliations: organisation full names, then in round brackets – city, country (font 14, left justification).
    • Title of the article (font 14, upper case letters, boldface, centre justification).
    • Abstract (italics, boldface): further – regular font 12, upper case letter, full justification. The abstract should not exceed 250 words. Abstract of the research article should be structured and contain: Background, Aims, Materials and methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstract should not contain any links or abbreviations.
    • Keywords (italics, boldface): further – regular font 12, lower case letter, full justification. No more than 10 keywords should be present, reflected to the content of the article.
  2. Main text. Review article manuscripts and short communications can be not structured or their structure can be flexible and contain topic-scecified headings. The structure of the research article manuscripts should contain follow headings:
    • Introduction (Background).
    • Aim(s).
    • Assumptions.
    • Materials and methods.
    • Results.
    • Discussion.
    • Conclusion
  3. Additional information. This part of the article is obligatory and should be separated from the main text (should be past on different page). The information should include answears on follow questions:
    • Funding sources.
    • Authors conflicts of interests statement.
    • Acknowledgements.
  4. References. The numerated list of references should be located in the end of the text, in the order of referring, separated from the rest of the text by the word References (font 14, full justification), arranged in accordance with the examples (see below). References formating guidelines are presented on separate URL: 
  5. Author's info (font 12, full justification). In the end of the article (on a separate page) the information about the authors should be given: Full names, BioStatement (academic and scientific degrees, position, place of employment), E-mail; ORCID ID (can be observed on



It should be underlined that Abstract is intended to perform an informing function that it is independent from the text.  

Abstract  fulfills the following functions:

  • it helps to get the gist of the paper, determine its relevance and decide whether to read the full text of the paper;
  • it gives information about the paper and eliminates the necessity of reading the whole text of the paper in case the paper bears no value for the reader;
  • it is used in automatic informational systems for searching papers and information.

Mandatory requirements to Abstracts

Abstract should be:

  • informative (i.e. it should not contain any general words);
  • original (i.e. it should not be calque of the Russian abstract);
  • pithy (i.e. it should reflect the gist of the article and results of the studies);
  • well-structured (i.e. it should follow the logics of the text);
  • “English” (i.e. written in good English);
  • compact (i.e. within 200-250 words). 

A good help in writing abstracts may be National Standard 7.9-95 “Abstracts and Reviews. General Requirements” or recommendations given in Emerald Group publishers (Great Britain).

With its purpose, objectives and structure, Abstract is close to essay. It is a succinct summary of the paper, including major facts and conclusions of the paper described. The text of the Abstract should be succinct and free from non-essential information, and convincing. 


The succession of narration may be changed, starting with pointing out the results and conclusion of the work. The subject, the topic and the purpose of the paper are specified in case they are not clear from the paper title. The methods of the paper should be described in case they are innovative or interesting within the paper.

In Abstracts, which describe experiments, there should be given data sources. The results of the work should be described in detail and precisely. The main theoretical and experimental results, facts, discovered relations and regularities are specified. At the same time, new results and data of long-term significance, important discoveries, conclusions, which refute today’s theories, as well as data which according to the author, have practical significance, are especially preferred. Conclusions may come together with recommendations, evaluations, hypotheses, suppositions described in the paper.

The information in the title of the paper should not be repeated in the text of the Abstract. Unnecessary introductory phrases (e.g. “the author of the article considers…”) should be avoided. Historical references, unless they are part of the paper, and description of previously published papers or commonly known statements, should also be omitted.

In terms of syntax, the text of the Abstract should be written in the language corresponding to scientific and technical documents’ one. Complex grammar constructions (which are not applied in scientific English) should be avoided. This will simplify writing the Abstract in English. 

Brief recommendations on writing Abstracts

The text of the Abstract should contain terminology typical for special texts.  Consistency of terminology should be observed throughout the text of the Abstract. The Abstract should have meaningful words from the text of the paper.

Abbreviations and symbols, excluding commonly adopted ones (including those adopted in English special texts), are used only in exclusive cases with their definitions being given at first usage. The units of measure should be given in SI. It is acceptable to give units of measures used in the source text in italics alongside SI units.

Tables, formulas, drawings, figures and pictures, schemes, diagrams are included exclusively when necessary, and if they disclose the main content and enable shortening the length of the Abstract. The repeatedly given formulas may have ordinal numbering, and the numbering of the formulas in the Abstract may not coincide with that in the text.

The Abstract should not contain any links to volume of publication in the references of the paper. 

Excerpt from recommendations on how to write Abstracts by Emerald Group

  • Abstract  is short a summary of a larger scientific piece of work, which is published separately from the main text and therefore should be comprehensible itself, without referring to the paper itself.
  • The Abstract should report the essential facts contained within the document and not exaggerate or contain material which is not in the main text.
  • The Abstract acts as a reference tool (for a library, abstract databases) and enables the readers to understand whether or not to read the full text of the paper.
  • Abstract contains a succinctly stated purpose of the paper. Prehistory (history of the issue) may be given in case it contextually is connected with the purpose.

When briefly stating the basic facts of the piece of work, one should bear in mind the following:

  • it is obligatory to follow the chronology of the paper and use its headlines as guidelines;
  • non-essential details should be excluded;
  • you are writing the abstract for a competent audience, therefore you may use special terminology of your sphere, clearly formulating your ideas and bearing in mind that you are writing for the international audience;
  • the text should be cohesive with the words ”consequently”, “moreover”, “for example”, “the benefits of this study”, “as a result”, etc.) used in it, or the separately formulated statements should logically come out from each other;
  • it is obligatory to use active, not passive voice, e.g. "The study tested", not "It was tested in this study" (common mistake of Russian abstracts);
  • the style of writing should be compact, therefore the sentences are likely to be longer than usual.

The examples of how Abstracts should not be written are given on the Publishers’ website

( Long Abstract is not always a good one. On the website, there are also examples of well written Abstracts for various types of papers (research papers, viewpoints): 


Preprint version

Since the articles undergo editorial processing, it is important to carefully read the text of a preprint version of an article. PDF versions will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author for verification. All corrections are to be given in a separate letter. Preprint versions are sent to the corresponding authors given in the title of the article. Only the proofreader’s mistakes are to be corrected, whereas other corrections are not acceptable.


Usually, the articles are printed in accordance with the plans approved by editors in the order of their submission. Necessary details concerning the order and terms of publication of the article are provided to the author during the process of communication.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • Absence of plagiarism. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

  • Correct manuscript format. Manuscript file format is Microsoft Word (has the extension *.doc, *.docx, *.rtf). The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in "For Authors" section.

  • Cover letter. All the required supporting documents will be submitted together with the manuscript. Authors guarantee to upload scanned original of the filled cover letter in PDF. A cover letter signed by all authors.


Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


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