Vol 64, No 3 (2019)


Influence of hydrous pyrolysis on distribution of carbon and hydrogen isotopes by organic matter fractions. The nature of oil generation in the calder of Uzone Volcano in Kamchatka

Sevastyanov V.S., Karpov G.A., Bychkov A.Y., Kuznetsova O.V., Fedulov V.S.


The process of oil seeps transformation from the Uzon volcano caldera under the influence of hydrous pyrolysis at a temperature of 350 °C in argon and oxygen was investigated. It is shown that carbon and hydrogen isotope type curves (ITC) reflect the processes occurring in organic matter during hydrous pyrolysis in oxidizing and neutral media. The similarity in forms between carbon ITC of the Uzon oil seeps, the Bogachevka oil and biota of hydrothermal sources is revealed. Hydrogen ITCs have a more complex form, apparently associated with exchange processes occurring in hydrothermal water. Based on the conducted studies, it was assumed that on the one hand oil seeps in the Uzon caldera can serve as a source for the formation of Bogachevka oil, and on the other hand, it is possible that the circulating hydrothermal water in the caldera of the Uzon volcano brings to the surface the organic matter of the Bogachevka oil formation.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):227-236
pages 227-236 views

The characteristic of acid melts which formed tephra of pleistocene-holocene eruptions of Ichinsky Volcano, Kamchatka (Results of melt inclusions study)

Tolstykh M.L., Pevzner M.M., Naumov V.B., Babansky A.D.


This paper presents the results of a study of melt inclusions in plagioclase, amphibole and pyroxene from Ichinsky volcano’s tephras of different age. Two types of melts have been identified, distinguished by different concentrations of potassium (K2O). Major and trace elements’ composition of these melts indicates that magma mixing was the dominating process in the Ichinsky magmatic system.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):237-262
pages 237-262 views

Mobility of dissolved palladium and platinum species under water-rock interaction in chloride media: modeling of PGE behavior under interaction of oceanic serpentinites with sea water derivates

Kubrakova I.V., Tyutyunnik O.A., Silant’ev S.A.


To elucidate the possibility of PGE transfer by highly-salt chloride solutions, the palladium and platinum behavior was simulated in the conditions of low-temperature hydrothermal transformation of serpentinites of the oceanic crust. In dynamic water-rock experiments using columns filled with crushed ultrabasic rocks of the ocean floor (harzburgite serpentinites of mid-oceanic ridges with different degrees of carbonatization), it is established that the efficiency of palladium transfer depends on the alteration (carbonatization) degree of peridotites and under the experimental conditions is 80–100%. It is assumed that the transport of palladium occurs as a result of the formation of a strong complex compound with thiosulfate ion, which is an intermediate oxidation product in the “sulphide-sulfate” system. Platinum, hydrolyzed at approximately neutral pH and not forming compounds with thiosulfate ion, is completely retained by serpentinites, possibly due to sorption interactions with silicates. Thus, the higher mobility of palladium during the low- temperature transformation of abyssal peridotites and the dependence of the character of its distribution in the studied rocks on the processes of serpentinization and carbonatization have been confirmed.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):263-272
pages 263-272 views

Trace elements sorption by bentonite in the presence of bacteria

Perelomov L.V., Sizova O.I., Atroshchenko Y.M.


Sorption of lead and copper by calcium bentonite, living and destroyed cells of gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, as well as in systems including the clay mineral and one of the biotic components in the concentration range of the elements from 25 to 250 μM was studied. The effect of acidity on the biosorption of trace elements was shown. The maximum biosorption of lead and copper was observed at pH 6 and reached 0.72 and 0.52 mM/g of dry matter, respectively. At pH 6 the maximum biosorption by the destroyed cells was also observed — 0.81 mM/g of lead and 0.71 mM/g of copper. Accumulation of trace elements by living and destroyed cells significantly exceeded their sorption by calcium bentonite. In the ternary systems, including bentonite and bacterial cells or bentonite and cell debris, there was an increase in the sorption of lead and copper compared to bentonite alone. At the same time, the sorption of trace elements by a mixture of bentonite and cell fragments was lower than the additively calculated sorption by the individual components for both lead and copper at all concentrations studied. A similar pattern was observed for the system of living cells and bentonite for copper and living cells and bentonite for lead at low metal concentrations.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):273-281
pages 273-281 views

Regularities of groundwater quality formation at the abandoned copper mines of Levikha ore field (Middle Urals, Russia)

Rybnikova L.S., Rybnikov P.A.


In the Urals region in recent decades, dozens of copper mines, which are the most dangerous in terms of environmental impact, have been closed and flooded. In many of them, acid mine waters continue to form, the concentrations of most components in which exceed the permissible values by several orders of magnitude. The formation of the chemical composition of acidic groundwater has a pronounced unsteady character: a sharp increase in the content of all components in the water after flooding and a gradual decline for many years. On Levikha copper mine (Sverdlovsk region) after filling the depression con in 2007, a site of concentrated discharge of groundwater was formed (technogenic reservoir-a failure in the zone of collapse and displacement). The concentrations of many components 10 years after the completion of flooding are higher than during the development. The analysis of regularities of non-stationary character of hydrogeochemical processes is made on the basis of the data of detailed monitoring and extended definitions of groundwater quality indicators. The main source of acidic water with increased mineralization is the collapse zone, within which the process of drainage for several decades formed technogenic sulfuric acid weathering crust enriched with secondary minerals. According to the data of numerical geofiltration modeling, in the hydrodynamic balance the lateral flow coming from the surrounding areas is 60%, its value is manifested in the dilution of the solution, which is formed in the collapse zone. The time of movement of this flow in the area of collapse is 6–8 years, extremely high values of almost all indicators in the man-made reservoir are observed during this period. According to the inverse physical-chemical modeling (program code Visual MINTEQ ver. 3.0 / 3.1 was used) the composition of rocks, as a result of dissolution-deposition of which underground waters in the area of the flooded mine can be formed, is determined. The duration of the process of formation of acidic groundwater is estimated at tens of years.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):282-299
pages 282-299 views

Transformation of the montmorillonite structure and its adsorption properties due to the thermochemical treatment

Krupskaya V.V., Zakusin S.V., Tyupina E.A., Dorzhieva O.V., Chernov M.S., Bychkova Y.V.


Complex studies revealed changes in the composition, structure, and properties of bentonite clays from the Taganskoye (Kazakhstan) and Dashkovskoe (Moscow region) deposits due to the thermochemical treatment. The leaching of cations from the interlayer and octahedral positions, protonation of the interlayer and OH-groups, leads to modification of the interlayer and 2:1 layer composition, which in turn contributes to significant changes in properties:-a decrease in the cation exchange capacity due to a decrease in the layer charge and increase in the specific surface due to destruction and partial amorphization. Bentonites from the Dashkovskoye deposit demonstrated higher resistance to thermochemical treatment than the bentonites from the Taganskoye deposit due to the protecting effect of the organic matter. Results of the work showed that even after quite intensive thermochemical treatment (13M HNO3, 90 °C, 5 hours), bentonite clays retain a significant part of the adsorption capacity.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):300-319
pages 300-319 views

Short communications

The structure of glasses of the LI2O-K2O-GEO2 system revealed by Raman spectroscopy

Koroleva O.N., Korobatova N.M., Shtenberg M.V., Ivanova T.N.


Glasses of the three-component system Li2O-K2O-GeO2 were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Peak-fitting of spectra on constituent lines is performed and the basic structural units formed in the system are determined. The conditions for the appearance of highly coordinated germanium atoms are determined, and non-statistical distribution of modifier cations in the studied glasses is found. It is shown that substitution of the lithium cations by potassium cations, firstly, results in a change of the coordination number of Ge atoms, and then a rupture of the Ge–O–Ge bonds with the formation of non-bridging oxygen atoms.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):320-330
pages 320-330 views

Dependence of the manifestation’s time of a hydrochemical earthquake forecast in the southern part of the Lake Baikal from their energy classes and epicentral distances

Semenov R.M., Lopatin M.N., Chechelnitskii V.V.


Have been studied the concentrations of dissolved helium in the water of a artesian well in the Southern Cis-Baikal region. It is established that on the eve of earthquakes they experience certain variations. Based on the obtained data, the correlation function lgτR (the logarithm of the time product of the harbinger of the seismic event at its epicentral distance) is calculated from the energy class of the earthquake. It is proposed to consider variations in the concentration of helium as a short-term precursor of earthquakes.

Геохимия. 2019;64(3):331-340
pages 331-340 views

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