Vol 59, No 1 (2019)

Marine Phisics

On advective model of the ventilated thermocline

Mirabel A.P., Vakulenko N.V.


A model of an advective thermocline is proposed for the case of continuously stratified Sverdrup circulation with a ventilated layer caused by the divergence of flows in the Ekman layer: an immiscible layer with homogenized vorticity and a layer of abyssal liquid, which applies to anticyclonic gyre waters. The results of calculations for the Atlantic Ocean (region 15-52°N, 00-63°E) made with this model are presented. With an abyssal density of 28.0, the values of the surface density and density of the unventilated layer grow to the north from 24.2 to 27.0 and from 27.8 to 27.9, respectively, with an almost zonal distribution, i.e. ventilation zones have latitudinal circles. From calculations of the depths of wind circulation, it follows that the ventilating layer is as deep as 900 m in the north-western region and raises to 250 m in the southern and eastern parts of the basin. The same tendency is traced for the depth of the gyre, but here there is an increase in depth from 500 to 1500 m. The active dynamics in the ventilating layer and the shadow area on the eastern border are noted. The structure of the thermocline is demonstrated with a typical zonal section, characterizing a much larger isopycnic increment for ventilated layers than in non-ventilated layers.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):5-11
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Wave climate of the Caspian sea. The input wind data for hydrodynamical modeling and some results of calculations

Lopatoukhin L.I., Yaitskaya N.A.


The main stage of modern approach to the calculation of the wave climate includes creation of a database from hydrodynamic simulation. The input data for hindcasting are wind information, represented in the global reanalysis data. The reanalysis, especially for extreme wave statistics estimation should be subjected to correction with due regard of regional atmospheric processes. The specific of any basins requires prior adaptation of hydrodynamic models to particular conditions, results of which are checked by comparisons of model results with the data of field observations. The results of calculations based on hydrodynamic models are summarized using a set of stochastic models of various classes.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):12-21
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Marine Chemiatry

Long-term variability of dissolved oxygen and temperature of the upper layer of the Black sea

Polonsky A.B., Kotolupova A.A.


The article provides an analysis of intra- and inter-annual variability of dissolved oxygen and temperature in the upper layer of the deep-water and north-western parts of the Black Sea in the period from 1923 to 2013. The analysis is carried using the archived data from the oceanographic database of Institute of natural and technical systems. Seasonal variability of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature is out-of-phase. In average, dissolved oxygen concentration is at a maximum at the N-W shelf in winter and is at a minimum in the open Sea in summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variations is about 50 µmol/l. In general, this is consistent with the published results on the seasonal variation in temperature. However, in some periods, lasting about 20 to 30 years, seasonal variation varies. It is due to quasi-periodical interdecadal variability of dissolved oxygen concentration which differs from one season to another and in various subregions.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):22-32
pages 22-32 views

Trace element uptake assessment in the planktonic biofiltration system

Budko D.F., Martynova D.M.


The concentration of trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, As) through the planktonic food chain of the White Sea have been studied by the experimental approach. The experiment included zooplankton sampled in a reference area feeding on a seston contained the different trace metals concentrations. Seston sampled in the st. Chupa was enriched by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, As, and Ni comparing to the seston from st. Kartesh (reference area). The differences in the concentrations of the suspended particular matter and of the indicator elements of a terrigenous admixture (Al, Ti, Zr) evidence on higher natural background of the trace metals’ content in the seston from st. Chupa due to higher contribution of the minerals. Zooplankton that fed on the seston characterised by higher trace elements’ content has accumulated Fe, Mn, and Cr, at a less degree, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cu; particularly, these were the elements which content were high in seston. Despite Mn content in seston did not differ between two treatments, this element was accumulated by the zooplankton, but had low content in faecal pellets. This tells about the highest Mn assimilation by the zooplankton; this element may become the most bioavailability. When comparing the trace element content between the seston and the faecal pellets, the concentrations of the most elements in faecal pellets are lower comprising as low as Zn – 72%; Mn – 24; Cu – 97; Pb – 62; Cr – 99; Co – 78; Ni – 87; As – 96; Cd – 65% of the concentration in the seston.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):33-44
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Marine Biology

Estimation of primary production in the northwestern part of the Sea of Japan by ship- and satellite-based observations

Zvalinsky V.I., Lobanova P.V., Tishchenko P.Y., Lobanov V.B.


In this paper, we analyzed data of POI FAB RAS cruise (No. 33) held on «Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev» vessel in the northwestern part of the Japan Sea in May 2004 and compared them with satellite derived data from Climate Change Initiative Ocean Colour (CCI-OC) and Ocean productivity databases. The following in situ data were used for the analysis: CTD-data, assimilation number, nutrients (P, N, Si) and chlorophyll a (Chl). Ship assessments of Chl in the first optical layer were in average 0.5±0.58 mg/m3, while satellite Chl were nearly twice more – 0.95±0.36 mg/m3. Ship assessments of primary production (PP) were 1870±900 mg C/m2day that is 1.5 times larger than satellite derived data - 1226±432. Vertical profiles of nutrients, temperature and Chl showed that main mass of Chl was concentrated in a layer from 20 to 45 m, where the main production is formed. According to values of assimilation number, main production formed in a layer of 0-55 m in the south of the region and 0-30 m in the north. Weak correlation between ship and satellite PP values found in this paper may be explained by low accuracy of satellite derived estimation.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):45-55
pages 45-55 views

Hydrological and hydrochemical underpinnings of primary production and division of the Russian sector in the Gdansk basin of the Baltic sea

Kudryavtseva E.A., Aleksandrov S.V.


The distribution patterns of absolute and specific values of primary production in the upper 10-m layer depending on the physical and chemical condition of the marine environment (temperature, salinity, depth, bottom topography and configuration of the coastline, and nutrient concentrations) were distinguished in the Russian sector in the Gdansk Basin of the Baltic Sea based on long-term research data (2003–2015). Based on the results, the considered water area was divided into five regions: Cape Taran, the base of the Curonian Spit, the plateau of Rybachy, the open sea, and the Gdansk Bay (northeastern part). These regions are characterized by higher correlations of primary production and parameters of the marine environment compared to regression analysis for the regions distinguished by bathymetry. Primary production is the most closely correlated with temperature over the entire water area and with nutrients concentrations in seaward regions.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):56-71
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The structure and distribution of autumnal zooplankton in the South-Eastern part of the Baltic sea in 2015

Polunina J.J., Lange E.K., Krechik V.A.


Were found peculiarities of the structure and distribution in the autumn plankton of the South -Eastern part of the Baltic sea (SEB) in October 2015 taking into account hydrological and hydrochemical data. There were no changes registered as to the taxonomic composition of phyto- and zooplankton, including no increase in the number of the stenothermic and stenohaline species, as well as no significant differences in the hydrological parameters in comparison with the long-term analogous data. Thus, there was no influence of the winter Major Baltic Inflow in December 2014 on the plankton SEB next autumn. The level of phytoplankton vegetation in the upper homogeneous layer (125±39 thous. cells/l, 664±143 mg/m3) was higher compared to the long-term data. The abundance and biomass of zooplankton (5.1-16.8 thous. ind/m3 and 49-143 mg/m3) were within the typical value for autumn in the studied area. Peculiarity of zooplankton spatial distribution were related to trophic resources and the thermohaline structure of the water column.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):72-81
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Yeso scallop population under climatic and anthropogenic changes of environment in Amursky bay of the Sea of Japan

Silina A.V.


At the study area of industrial and domestic sewages into Amursky Bay at the coasts of Vladivostok city, three main stages in a development of the scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis population and community of endo- and epibionts of its shell were revealed for 1981–2016. During the first stage lasting until the beginning of 90th, the scallop growth rates and lifetime had decreased, but scallop mortality and degree of the shell bioerosion performed by endolithic polychaeta Polydora brevipalpa had increased. It was a period of an intensification of anthropogenic pollution of Amursky Bay. Further, at the middle of 90th, at a transitional period, the decline in the scallop growth rates had stopped. It was a period of a reduction of the pollution of the water and bottom sediments related to the decrease of sewages due to degradation of industry. During the second stage lasting until the middle of 2000th, the scallop growth rates had increased, but the degree of bioerosion and abundance of epibionts of the scallop shells had decreased. It was a period of the gradual natural depuration of the Bay. Later, during the third stage, which goes on to present day, the scallop growth rates declined again due to an increase of the water euthrophication resulting in the decline of the water oxygen saturation. This was most pronounced for periodic rises of the water temperature caused by quasi-biennial and 7–8-year periodicities of temperature fluctuations. Poaching became one of the negative anthropogenic factors entailing the substantial decline of the scallop population density.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):82-92
pages 82-92 views

Spatial-temporal changes of macrophytobenthos in the Laspi bay (Crimea, Black sea)

Pankeeva T.V., Mironova N.V.


For the first time, a comparative analysis of spatial-temporal changes in macrophytobenthos based on a landscape approach was performed in the Laspi Bay for the period from 1983 to 2008. Landscape maps of the Laspi Bay was created, the distribution of the bottom natural complexes with the key Black Sea phytocoenoses was shown. It was found that the plant components of the bottom natural complexes in the Laspi Bay had undergone significant restructuring and degradation during 25 years due to the impact of natural factors and anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone.


Океанология. 2019;59(1):93-107
pages 93-107 views

Spatial-temporal dynamics of a local population of Black Sea Bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus ponticus barabash, 1940): visual and acoustic methods of description

Logominova I.V., Agafonov A.V., V. G.R.


This work is devoted to research of the Sudak – Novy Svet (Crimea) local population of Black Sea Bottlenose dolphins. Observations and acoustic records were carried out all the year round in 2014 and 2015. Along with visual identification of individuals, for the first time in our country the method of «acoustic identification» was applied (according to the made catalog of «signature whistles»). «Signature whistles» are defined as tonal signals having a frequency contour, unique for each animal, and dominating in its repertoire. In such aspect «signature whistle» can be considered as a peculiar «acoustic marker» of this individual. In the analysis of all volume of the registered whistles of dolphins (about 30 thousands of signals) 206 dominating types (i.e. «signature whistles») have been defined. On the basis of comparison of visual and acoustic data the structure of groups, making the studied population, has been described; the seasonal picture of visit of the water area by various groups has been presented as well as «transit» and «resident» groups have been allocated.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):108-115
pages 108-115 views

Marine Geology

Comparative analysis of the East Barents and Sverdrup sedimentary basins

Levitan M.A., Antonova T.A., Domaratskaya L.G., Koltsova A.V.


We have revealed the features of similarity and difference in Mesozoic sedimentation history of the East Barents and Sverdrup sedimentary basins based on sea areas, sedimentary masses per time unit and coefficient of the sand content. During the end of Paleozoic and in Mesozoic times both basins have been located near each other but didn’t merged into the one great basin.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):116-124
pages 116-124 views

Storm-induced deformations of barred beach slope

Leont’yev I.O.


It is shown that behavior of the multiple-bar system during a storm can be described in frameworks of the model assuming that bars move toward the sea with almost the same mean speed, while the over-bar depths increase in accordance with the local bed slope. Analysis of suspended-sediment balance over the bar crest leads to expression for the bar movement speed, which demonstrates very strong dependence on ratio of wave height to the over-bar depth. Using empirical criterion of bar activity the model suggested is capable assess the bar displacement during a storm action and predict the post-storm bed profile. Comparison with the published field data leads to conclusion that the computed and observed storm-induced deformations of barred beach slopes are in satisfactorily agreement.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):125-132
pages 125-132 views

Deep water circulation in the Hunter Channel (Southwest Atlantic) in a late Pleistocene and Holocene by benthonic foraminifera

Lukashina N.P.


Was reconstructed deep-sea water circulation near the Hunter Channel (Rio Grande Rise – South-West Atlantic) in a late Pleistocene and Holocene (MIS 4-MIS 1) by benthonic foraminifera. Was studied three cores of bottom sediment. Now moves the upper North Atlantic deep water (NADW) through the Hunter Channel from the North to the South. The lower NADW in the same direction came in MIS 2 and in MIS 4. There was the lower Circumpolar deep water (CPDW), NADW and Antarctic bottom water (AnBW) in MIS 3 periodically. CPDW prevail in a near bottom layer and in Holocene and in the late Pleistocene before the Hunter Channel sidewise the Argentine Basin. So in the Hunter Channel and on the way to it from south side for all studied period AnBW was almost not. Dissolution of carbonates during the Holocene happens in the deepest east part of the Hunter Channel. In Ice Ages processes of dissolution amplified and affected east part of the channel. Dissolution happen and happened not at the expense of AnBW, and at the expense of NADW which becomes there aggressive in relation to a calcium carbonate.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):133-142
pages 133-142 views

Kinematic model of the Midoceanic Gakkel ridge East areas development in the Eurasian basin of the Arctic ocean

Schreider A.A., Schreider A.A., Sazhneva A.E., Kluev M.S., Brehovskih A.L.


The new map of linear magnetic anomalies axis for the mid-Arctic ridge east areas development in the Eurasian basin is made. The domestic geomagnetic investigations for the first time allow to determine paleomagnetic anomaly C25 and estimate the time of transfer rifting to spreading process as chrons С25r-С26n (57.656-59.237 ma). The eastablishing of Lomonosov ridge and Siberian margin splitting zone is made. The Euler pole for the splitting kinematic for first time calculated. The nocoinciding of conjugate isobaths related to process of sliding peripheral continental crust areas along lithosphere thrust plane for the first time is calculate.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):143-152
pages 143-152 views

Mercury in White Sea bottom sediments: distribution, sources, and deposition chronology

Fedorov Y.A., Ovsepyan A.E., Savitsky V.A., Lisitzin A.P., Shevchenko V.P., Novigatsky A.N.


For the first time, vertical and lateral distribution patterns of mercury in White Sea bottom sediments have been determined. An abrupt change in the nature of mercury concentrations has been revealed, with a general tendency to decrease with depth. Natural variations in mercury concentrations within 0.01 - 0.03 μg/g dry weight (dw) have been established. An upper value of 0.03 μg/g dw is taken for the natural background content of the element. The distribution of mercury concentrations in the sequence of bottom sediments is influenced by both anthropogenic and natural factors and processes. With distance from the marine -estuary boundary of the Northern Dvina River, the river’s role in supplying mercury to the White Sea is reduced, and global and regional atmospheric mass transfer take over. The mercury content is used as an indicator of landslide processes in Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea. The accumulation chronology of mercury in White Sea sediments is studied, and the proportion of anthropogenic mercury is calculated.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):153-162
pages 153-162 views


Expedition of the R/V Professor Panov (April 2018): preliminary results of observations of extreme flooding in the Lower Don Region

Matishov G.G.


During the period of 2002–2018, southern Russia was subjected to extreme weather conditions, which can be characterized as drought. The water content and volume of the Don, Kuban, and Volga rivers decreased, salinization of the Sea of Azov was observed, and saline (4–6‰) Azov water periodically flowed into the Don River delta. Analysis of the hydrological observation data for 2018 revealed an episode of extreme flooding in the Lower Don (below the Kochetov hydroelectric complex) associated with the 15-year shortage of water in the body of the Don. An outstanding example of a natural and manmade anomaly in 2018 was the discharge of a significant amount of water from the Tsimlyan reservoir in April–May. For example, the average daily discharge was 345m3/s on April 10, 1503 m3/s on April 28, and 1701 m3/s by May 6. As a result, the maximum wave of water abundance in the Don formed by the end of April–beginning of May 2018, and the water level reached values not observed in the Don for 15 years. The research in the Gulf of Taganrog showed considerable desalinization of its eastern part. The level of salinization in this region did not exceed 2‰, while in spring 2017, the average values of salinization around the port of Taganrog were over 6‰.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):163-165
pages 163-165 views

On the possible presence of oxygen in the upper sediment layer of the hydrogen sulfide zone in the Black Sea

Stunzhas P.A., Gulin M.B., Zatsepin A.G., Ivanova E.A.


In the northeastern Black Sea the search was performed for living eukaryotic organisms (micro- and meiobenthos) in hypoxic and anoxic conditions as well as measurement of O2 in the bottom water layer and in the upper layer of sediments. The results have shown the presence of a deep maximum abundance of zoobenthos in a depth range of 215–244 m. This aggregation of benthic fauna occupies a layer of 30 m along the vertical. In general, the proportion of active meiobenthos was no greater than 1.5% of the total number of organisms recorded from the sample.The presence of aerobic benthos near the upper boundary of the H2S zone can be explained by: sliding down of sediments from a higher depth; quasi-periodic O2 supply due to fluctuations in the position of the isopycna and/or sinking of waters downslope in the bottom Ekman layer. Also, in the case of physical entry of oxygen into the bottom layer, it can remain for a relatively long time in the upper part of the H2S zone due to the lack of deep Mn+2 flux and reaction with it.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):166-169
pages 166-169 views

Biological investigations research in Bering Sea using a remote operated vehicle Comanche

Galkin S.V., Ivin V.V.


The article discusses the results of research on benthos, carried out in south-western Bering Sea using remotely operated vehicle Comanche. The vertical distribution of the dominant animals on the northern slope of the Volcanologov Massif and fauna associated with the hydrothermal vents of Piip Volcano was studied.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):170-172
pages 170-172 views

Sedimentation systems definition of the Barents Sea and Norwegian-Greenland basin during 68th cruise of the research vessel Academic Mstislav Keldysh

Kravchishina M.D., Novigatsky A.N., Savvichev A.S., Pautov L.A., Lisitzin A.P.


The article presents summary of the first research results of sedimentation systems of the region of interaction of the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean obtained in July-August 2017. Joint examination of the system of dispersed sedimentary matter (aerosols, suspended particulate matter, phytoplankton, faecal pellets, etc.) – concentrated sedimentary matter (bottom sediments), of biogeochemical processes of the matter transformation in the system in line with paleo-oceanologic reconstructions allow us to understand environment and climate of different geological epoch in one of the key ocean areas. The attempt to study the role of endogenous material in recent sedimentation processes in the ocean was taken on the example of the subpolar zone of the mid-ocean ridges system – Mohn Ridge.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):173-176
pages 173-176 views

Geological and hydrological studies in the Northern Atlantic in 2017 on a section at N59°30’ (68th сruise of the research vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh)

Klyuvitkin A.A., Gladyshev S.V., Kravchishina M.D., Novigatsky A.N., Eroshenko D.V., Lokhov A.S., Kochenkova A.I.


The first results of the multidisciplinary expedition aboard the RV «Akademik Mstislav Keldysh» to the North Atlantic in July 2017 are given. Continuation of deep convection in the Irminger Sea to a depth of 1500 m, which began in 2015, is discovered. New information is provided on the structure of the main jets of the North Atlantic Current in the Iceland basin and in the Irminger Sea (Irminger Current), as well as the East Greenland Current. New samples of atmospheric aerosols, suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments are collected. New data on the particle fluxes have been obtained using sediment traps.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):177-180
pages 177-180 views

The return of Russian scientists in the Indian Ocean — a multidisciplinary study in the 42nd cruise of RV Akademik Boris Petrov

Levchenko O.V., Shapovalov S.M.


The 42nd cruise of RV Akademik Boris Petrov was carried out from January 5 to March 29, 2017 along the route Tianjin (China) – Singapore - Suez (Egypt) - Kaliningrad (figure), in which studies of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere were made. The expedition was carried out simultaneously with return of the vessel back to Russia (Kaliningrad) after completion of repair in China in December, 2016.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):181-183
pages 181-183 views

Geoecological conditions in the Baltic sea in 2017

Krek A.V., Ulyanova M.O., Bubnova E.S., Krechik V.A., Ryabchuk D.V., Danchenkov A.R., Churin D.A., Kapustina M.V., Tkacheva E.S., Khatmullina L.I., Sergeev A.Y.


In 2017, comprehensive geological, geophysical, hydrological and hydrochemical researches were conducted in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland. 1775 nautical miles of surveys were conducted using multibeam echosounder and profiler. Surface bottom sediments (156 samples), the upper undisturbed layer of pelitic sediments and bottom water (15 samples), 2 cores were taken. Laboratory analyzes were performed on pH (189), concentration of oxygen (246), suspended matter (286) and oil products (110). Microplastic was also collected in the water (118) and bottom sediments (45). Conducting comprehensive research in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea allowed us to record the weakening of the Major Baltic Inflow effects, followed by changes in the environmental conditions of the region. Geological surveys in the Gulf of Finland expanded the coverage area of the bottom of multibeam surveys and contributed to the refinement of the formation processes of linear and circular transgressions at the bottom.

Океанология. 2019;59(1):184-186
pages 184-186 views

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