No 6 (2019)

Физические основы исследования Земли из космоса
Atmospheric correction algorithm for short-wave channels of the MSU-MR device of the Meteor-M no. 2 satellite
Kuchma M.O., Bloshchinskiy V.D.
Abstract

The problem of atmospheric correction for short-wave channels of a multispectral low-resolution scanning device installed on the Meteor-M No. 2 satellite is considered. To solve the problem the existing atmospheric correction algorithms are investigated. The developed atmospheric correction algorithm is based on the use of special Look-up Tables generated by the authors. Look-up Tables contain information about reflectance of the satellite device channels for various atmospheric conditions and observation geometry. The results of atmospheric correction for the first channel of the device were verified. Verification showed a high correlation with the reference reflectance, which is the data from the EUMETSAT portal “Surface Albedo Validation Sites”. An additional, verification of the present algorithm was also performed with the first channel data of the AVHRR device MetOp-A satellite. The correlation of the reference values and the results of atmospheric correction of both satellite devices are comparable.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):3-12
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Space experiment "Convergence": retrieving of atmospheric water vapor profile using of artificial neural networks
Pashinov E.V.
Abstract

The paper is carried out to the investigation of the possibility of retrieving absolute humidity profile of the atmosphere using an artificial neural network based on the modeling of radiometric data of the passive microwave complex MIRS, which is part of the scientific equipment of the space experiment "Convergence". The main approaches to the construction of artificial neural networks are considered. The process of modeling MIRS’s radiometric data are described. Selection of optimal characteristics of the neural network is carried out. Necessity of the information about atmospheric temperature profile for the best accuracy in solving the inverse problem are shown. The advantages of using “differential” channels in the 22 GHz absorption band for the humidity profile retrieving are proved. The expected errors of the atmospheric humidity profile retrieving during the “Convergence” experiment at altitudes from 0 to 10 km are given.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):13-25
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Использование космической информации о Земле
Monitoring of the landslide area state on Bureya river in 2018-2019 according to radar and optical satellite images
Bondur V.G., Zakharova L.N., Zakharov A.I.
Abstract

The monitoring results of the current state of landslide area on the Bureya River in 2018–2019 are given using images from synthetic aperture radars and optical sensors of Sentinel multi-satellite system. Differential radar interferometry technique allowed to reveal the stability of the landslide surface in the first four months after the landslide and since the end of July 2019. Small-scale dynamics of the surface within the landslide circus was detected. It is shown that the interferometric technique is inapplicable for the observation of the large-scale modifications of the shoreline unlike the optical images where the effects of the collapse of the shoreline fragments and shoreline flooding were clearly observed compared also with radar amplitude images. The ongoing landslide activity within the landslide circus and the coastline collapse area was detected using satellite images. It requires the establishment of continuous monitoring of this and other dangerous landslide zones on Bureya River.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):26-35
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Detecting lineament system anomalies during strong 6.4 and 7.1 earthquakes in Сalifornia from satellite imagery
Gaponova E.V., Zverev A.T., Tsidilina M.N.
Abstract

Using remote sensing data, here we study lineament system changes during preparation and process of strong 7.1 and 6.4 earthquakes in California (USA) in July 2019. A series of satellite imagery collected between January 1 and August 12, 2019, as well as the data on the seismic situation in the region have been analyzed. Precursor changes of lineament systems were revealed in rose-diagrams of regional lineaments and in total length of local lineaments of various orientations. Sharp change of quantitative characteristics of lineament rose-diagrams appeared beginning from June 5, 2019, i. e. a month before the earthquakes occurred on July 4 and 5, 2019. It has been found that maximum length of lineaments of north-western (longitudinal) and north-eastern (latitudinal) courses was on June 30, 2019, i. e. several days before seismic events.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):36-47
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Seasonal variability and annual Laptev sea phytoplankton primary production using MODIS-aqua data
Demidov A.B., Sheberstov S.V., Gagarin V.I.
Abstract

Studies of seasonal variability of Laptev Sea water column primary production and evaluation of its annual values were performed using MODIS-Aqua data (2002–2018). To reach that result regional-specific primary production and chlorophyll algorithms were used for the first time. Based on multiyear averaged daily primary production Northwestern and Southeastern regions were distinguished in the Laptev Sea. Seasonal variations in water column primary production in the Northwestern region were characterized by the maximum in June (245 mgC m‑2 d‑1). In the Southeastern region and for all Laptev Sea the maximum water column primary production values were denoted from May to July, 273–282 mgC m‑2 d‑1 and 256–281 mgC m‑2 d‑1, respectively. Daily primary production and annual values of total primary production in the Southeastern region were, respectively, 1.9 and 3 fold higher than in the Northwestern region. Multiyear averaged value of Laptev Sea water column primary production was equal to 125 mgC m‑2 d‑1 and total annual primary production was equal to 8 × 1012 gC.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):48-65
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Climate-related changes in the vegetation cover of the taiga and tundra of Western Siberia in 1982–2015 according to satellite observations
Zuev V.V., Korotkova E.M., Pavlinsky A.V.
Abstract

The paper considers the results of the trend and correlation analysis of air temperature and vegetative index NDVI for the warm period for the territory of taiga and tundra of Western Siberia in 1982–2015. It was revealed that with significant (α = 0.05) positive air temperature trends in some months of the spring-summer period, both for the taiga zone and for the tundra zone, a significant increase in NDVI is observed. The trends of air temperature and NDVI for the taiga and tundra zones from April to October 1982–2015 have been calculated and the unevenness of their spatial distribution over the territory under consideration is shown. It is revealed that the development of vegetation in the warm period is largely determined by its development in the first month of the warm period — May for taiga and June for tundra. It is shown that the NDVI value in May in the taiga zone is formed under the influence of April-May temperatures, and in June in the tundra zone — under the influence of June temperatures; significant NDVI correlation coefficients with the average temperature of April-May and May-June are characteristic of practically the entire territory of the region, with the exception of the coastal northern regions in the first case and the south-western regions in the second.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):66-76
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Climate-forced changes of bio-productivity of Belorussian terrestrial ecosystems
Lysenko S.A.
Abstract

The spatial and temporal particularities of Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes over territory of Belarus in the current century and their relationship with climate change were investigated. The rise of NDVI is observed at approximately 84% of the Belarus area. The statistically significant growth of NDVI has exhibited at nearly 35% of the studied area (t-test at 95% confidence interval), which are mainly forests and undeveloped areas. Croplands vegetation index is largely descending. The main factor of croplands bio-productivity interannual variability is precipitation amount in vegetation period. This factor determines more than 60% of the croplands NDVI dispersion. The long-term changes of NDVI could be explained by combination of two factors: photosynthesis intensifying action of carbon dioxide and vegetation growth suppressing action of air warming with almost unchanged precipitation amount. If the observed climatic trend continues the croplands bio-productivity in many Belarus regions could be decreased at more than 20% in comparison with 2000 year. The impact of climate change on the bio-productivity of undeveloped lands is only slightly noticed on the background of its growth in conditions of rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):77-88
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Methods and Means of Space Data Processing and Interpretation
Pattern recognition of forest canopy using the airborne hyperspectral data and multi-bands high spatial resolution satellite sensor worldview-2 data. A results comparison and accuracy estimation
Kozoderov V.V., Egorov V.D.
Abstract

Pattern recognition of forest surface from remote sensing data: using the airborne hyperspectral data and using multi-bands high spatial resolution satellite sensor WorldView‑2 data are investigated. The early proposed method and standard QDA method for calculations were used. A comparison of calculations results were conducted. A recognition calculation accuracy range for airborne and satellite remote sensing data for three forest surface fragments for different created data bases for recognition system has been assessed. Some opportunities of automatic data preparing of created system were displayed. Some special features of pattern recognition of forest surfaces from hyperspectral airborne data and from multi-bands high spatial resolution satellite data were discussed.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(6):89-102
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