No 1 (2017)

Articles

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLEANER COMBINE HARVESTERS

GOL'TYAPIN V.Y.

Abstract

Nowadays Gleaner company offers two series of combine harvesters S8 and S9, which uses an original and unique in the world circuit of grain mass threshing and separating by transversely located rotor. The grain mass from header platform climbs through inclined conveyor, which delivers it to the rotor. Then it is captivated by rotor, is threshed, is separated and moving to the left side of combine is ejected from the threshing device by blade thrower. Two distribution augers located under rotor cover supply threshed heap on rubberized roller-boosters that throw it throw air flow for cleaning. Experts of the "Gleaner" company note following advantages of its combine harvesters: - significant reserve of power: the difference between the maximum and the nominal capacity is 23-56 kW, and for analogues - 33-49 kW; - the location of the combine engine is rear, which provides better weight distribution, availability for maintenance and repair, reduction of noise and vibration in the cabin; - feed of grain mass for threshing is done without change of direction, which affects the quality of threshing; - threshing and separation occurs along the entire circumference of the rotor; - the process of grain heap cleaning is done in two stages: the preair stream and at sieves; - in comparison with the analogues it has the same diameter of the rotor but less length, large hopper capacity (except of harvesters S 680 of the company John Deere) and the performance of the unloading auger; - the smaller mass of the harvesters in comparison with analogues, which reduces the power loss on movement and soil compaction.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):3-6
pages 3-6 views

AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS ON RUSSIAN MARKET (BASED ON THE «AGROSALON 2016» INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION)

PARFENOV A.P.

Abstract

Following the results of the international Agrosalon 2016 exhibition both quantitative, and qualitative indicators of the domestic market of farm tractors are estimated. Dynamics of the market of new tractors in physical calculation is provided by statistics of the last nine years. Quality assessment of the market was carried out on indicators: propeller type, rated power and nominal towing force based on the models of: universal, row crop and general purpose tractors presented at the market and offered in advertizing documents. New approach to market research of tractors is distribution of set of models not only on capacity as it is accepted everywhere, but also on towing classes. The last allows to estimate not only power, but also towing opportunities of tractors that it is important as the tractor is mainly the towing machine. The following features of the domestic market of tractors are noted. The prevalence of wheel tractors 4K4a which was outlined in to and post-crisis years remains. The maximum tractor size in it to group - the tractor power of 300 kW and a towing class 5 (Claas Axion 950). In group 4K4b tractors capacity 50-90 kW (a towing class 1,4), St. 90-130 kW (a towing class 2), St. 130-180 kW (a towing classes 2,3,4) prevail. Interest of participants of the market to powerful wheel 4K4b (power to 450-480 kW, traction classes 6 and 8) and to caterpillar (power to 400-460 kW, towing class 8 and more) tractors increased. It is noted that general rule of creation of constructive tractors ranks of the leading firms is the engine capacity, and devlopment of ranks goes with an advancing growth of driving function over towing. The overview of the models of tractors provided or advertized by firms with indication of features of a design is provided. It is emphasized that the Salon showed not decreasing activity of the largest manufacturers of farm tractors in the market of the Russian Federation.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):7-15
pages 7-15 views

THE CURRENT STATE OF THE PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE MARKET OF AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FOREIGN BRANDS IN RUSSIA

PODOLKO P.M., PANKIN K.E.

Abstract

The article provides an analysis of the park and the market structure of agricultural tractors of foreign brands, involved in the production of agricultural goods in Russian Federation and provision of agricultural organizations with tractors and combines to compare the currently existing rates with the regulations, listed by Ministry of Agriculture of Russian Federation to determine the proportion of foreign tractors as well as to determine the overall state of the market of agricultural tractors in Russia. To achieve this goal, the article presents the studies comparing the economic efficiency of the use in the production of agricultural tractors products of domestic and foreign brands on the example of tractors K-744 and Buhler-Versatile. The statistical data on volumes of production of agricultural tractors in the Russian Federation in general and divided by most common in rural areas brands of foreign and domestic tractors is shown. The data on the nomenclature of produced equipment from leading manufacturers of agricultural machinery of foreign brands, working in Russia, such as John Deere, New Holland, Claas, Agco and others is given. On the basis of the study it can be concluded that nowadays the majority of Russian agricultural producers prefer to buy foreign brands equipment. Despite the currency risks and the reduction of volume of the market of tractors in recent years, the demand for foreign brands of tractors from Russian farmers increased in comparison with the volumes of previous years. The increase in demand was observed in the segment of new and previously used tractors, produced outside the Russian Federation.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):16-21
pages 16-21 views

SIMULATION OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF TILLAGE UNITS

PARKHOMENKO S.G., PARKHOMENKO G.G.

Abstract

The studies were performed to improve workflow of hydraulic automatic control systems of the tillage units. Tillage quality should not deteriorate. Working bodies of tillage machines have to be moved automatically. Automated devices can be separated into two groups: direct and indirect action. It is preferable to indirect action. The article presents analysis of automatic devices used into tillage machines. Automatic control systems can be hydraulic, electro-hydraulic and pneumatic. Mechanical systems are not effective. Hydraulic systems are cheaper electric and pneumatic. They provide best of energy and quality indicators of technological process of tillage. Automatic control systems are uses draft forces, hitch position, depth of the implement, speed, acceleration and other sensors. Method of computer modeling and optimization of hydraulic automatic control systems of tillage units was developed. Results of computer modeling of hydraulic automatic control systems help to select direction of improving quality and energy indicators of technological process of tillage. Optimized combine implement depth and draft control system of arable unit allow reducing deviation the draft force of the plow; deviation of the depth of plowing is equal to or smaller than agro-technical requirements. Deviation of the draft force was decreased to 13.5 % for deviation specific soil resistance - 20 %, depth of plowing - 0.21 m, deviation of the depth of plowing - 0.019 m (9 %). Deviation of the depth of plowing may be decreased to 0.010 m (4,8 %), but deviation of the draft force shell be increased up to 16.2%. Optimized hydraulic automatic control system of garden tiller with a trapezoidal mechanism leaves smaller untreated soil area from 1.37-1.46 times.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):22-31
pages 22-31 views

THE IMPACT FORCED FLUID COOLING OF FRICTION PAIRS IN AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCHES ON ITS THERMAL LOAD

GORODETSKIY K.I., SHARIPOV V.M., YEVTUSHIK O.V., BERNATSKIY V.V., DMITRIYEV M.I., SHCHETININ Y.S.

Abstract

The article is describe the results of experimental investigations of forced fluid cooling of friction pairs in wet clutches on their thermal load. It is found that forced fluid cooling of the friction clutch can significantly increase the time of engagement and slipping in comparison with the time of operation similar couplings presently used on tractors and automobiles. It is found that at steady clutch disc temperature greatest influence parameters such as the pressure on the friction surface, the amount of cooling oil and its temperature in the inlet area of friction and has a much smaller effect change in the relative sliding speed of the rubbing surfaces. With increasing pressure on the disc friction surfaces with 0,501 to 2,82 MPa at specific consumption of oil 6,810-3 m3/(m2s) and the constant rotation frequency of 1000 min-1 a steady-state temperature is reduced by 15 % (from 143 to 125 °C). Therefore, by increasing the friction power 165 % (from 24,92 to 9,39 kW) temperature of clutch disc increases only by 75 %. With the increasing of specific oil consumption on the friction surface by 20 % (from 5,65 10-3 to 6,8 10-3 m3/(m2s)) at a pressure of 2,06 MPa and a constant speed of 1000 min-1 a steady-state temperature is reduced by 15 % (from 143 to 125 °C). The increasing in the at a speed of 100 % (from 500 to 1000 min-1) and, respectively, and friction power by 52 % (from 16,33 to 24,92 kW) at the pressure of 2,82 MPa and a permanent specific consumption of oil increases steady disk temperature by 19 % (from 122 to 145 °C). Based on the results of experimental studies found that increasing friction power per 1 kW due to the gain of a pressure on the friction surface leads to growing of friction disc temperature at the average of 4 °C, but due to the gain of disk rotation speed - at the average of 2,5 °C.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):32-36
pages 32-36 views

OPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT MOVEMENTS INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS OF LARGE MACHINE-BUILDING ENTERPRISES

ROMANOV P.S., ROMANOVA I.P.

Abstract

The paper considers approach to optimization of automotive transport movements for transportation of billets, semifinished and finished goods between shop floors and warehouses of large machine-building enterprises. For the normal functioning of the production process a developed system of transportation and storage of billets, semi-finished and finished goods is needed. In large enterprises shop floors and warehouses are usually significantly separated in space and for transportation of billets, semi-finished and finished goods the automotive transport is used. Time needed to move of billets, semi-finished and finished goods between shop floors and warehouses in the enterprise is useless and increases production costs. Therefore, optimization of the movements of automotive transport when moving billets, semi-finished and finished goods between shop floors and warehouses will reduce the time of technological processes for products manufacturing produced by the machine building enterprise, and thus to optimize the production process. Thus, the search for the optimal route movement of automotive transport on the territory of the enterprise is a very important task. The problem of finding the optimal route is in the field of combinatorial optimization, as well as considered in the theory of operations research and is known under the general name as "traveling salesman problem". Traveling salesman problem is one of the transcomputational. All effective (reducing the exhaustive search) methods for solving the traveling salesman problem are heuristic. In most of heuristic methods not the most efficient route is obtained, and its approximate solution is a basic route. The next step is to improve the approximate solution. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a number of methods (algorithms) for solving the traveling salesman problem on the basis of which to solve the problem of optimization of automotive transport of large machine-building enterprises is proposed to use either the Little algorithm or ant colony algorithm. The statement of the problem of optimization of automotive transport movement during its work for manufacturing process of large machine-building enterprises is given, the procedure of calculations to solve the problem is shown, an example of solving a particular problem with the help of the developed "traveling salesman problem" procedure of calculation and the computer program (developed on Pascal in Delphi 7). The proposed approach to solving the problem of optimizing automotive transport movements during its work in the production process of large machine-building enterprises can reduce the time for transportation of billets, semifinished and finished goods between shop floors and warehouses, which means that it is possible to reduce the time of subsidiary operations, and as a consequence, increase productivity and reduce production costs. In addition, the reduction of the displacement route of automotive transport reduces the operating costs of automobiles maintenance.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):37-45
pages 37-45 views

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY CAPACITY OF THE EXCITATION SYSTEM OF THE TRACTOR GENERATORS

CHERNOV A.E., AKIMO A.V.

Abstract

The paper describes the technique of comparing fundamentally different types of transverters rotors, namely generators with electromagnetic excitation and magnetoelectric generators. In all embodiments of the comparative analysis it is necessary to compare power capabilities of electrical machines made with different devices in excitation system (permanent magnets, excitation coils), which in principle cannot be implemented without knowing and comparing the magnetic characteristics of the power generators and inductors. To unify the content and progress of computational studies on determination of electromagnetic parameters of generators with different excitation systems and gaining on this basis visual representations of its advantages and disadvantages it is advisable to represent used in the calculations of generators characteristics of permanent magnets and electromagnets in the form of identical form and content analytic or graphic dependencies. This is about the dependence of the magnetic flows in calculated sections of the element excitation systems (in their neutral section Фэм and Фм from magnetomotive force of excitation system F3M и Фм). Most simply this problem is solved by bringing the magnetic characteristics of the electromagnets to the same form and with the same parameters and concepts as the magnetic characteristics of the permanent magnets. As a result of researches it is established that widely used in automobile and tractor electrical equip-ment permanent magnets-ferrites fabricated by powder metallurgy from a mixture of crushed iron oxide and strontium owing to the relatively low level of magnetic energy and low values of residual induction is unable to provide the same level of magnetic properties of the inductors that have the inductors of the generators with electromagnetic excitation, and therefore, their use in automotive generators should be considered inappropriate.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):46-53
pages 46-53 views

METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GAS ENGINE, DEVELOPED ON THE BASE OF A DIESEL ENGINE

FOMIN V.M., GUSAROV V.V., LATYSHEV A.P.

Abstract

Methane, as an alternative to traditional motor fuels, is the most perspective for the incoming decades of the current century. The most widely spread method of the modification of diesel engines for operating with methane is a conversion of a basic model by changing both the way of ignition - compulsory spark ignition instead of self-ignition by compression, and the method of power control - quantitative, with the help of a throttle in case of a gas version, instead of qualitative in a diesel version. The main task of such conversion is to achieve the best possible energy and economic performance of the engine. Moreover, the peculiarity of the operation procedure of the gas engine, the necessity to avoid detonation combustion, should be taken into account. Consequently, in the process of converting a diesel engine into a gas one manufacturers have to decrease both the compression ratio and boost pressure, which leads to decline in engine efficiency. The authors found out, that there is a potential possibility to achieve much better eco-nomic and power characteristics of gas engines by applying Miller cycle to the operation procedure. In this case it becomes possible having very high geometric compression ratio and corresponding high val-ues of gas expansion to obtain relatively low values of actual compression ratio. This is the value that can lead to detonation combustion. The program of calculating the characteristics of operation procedure of Miller-cycle gas engines was worked out. The authors suggested a system of calculation, according to which detonation behavior is estimated on the basis of actual data of a particular model of the engine. Due to such analyses of the particular model of the engine we found out actual maximum values of compression pressure and compression temperature, which do not lead to the onset of detonation. So it may be stated that the parameter value that significantly increases the overall efficiency of the Miller-cycle gas engine, created on the base of Kamaz engines, is found.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(1):54-60
pages 54-60 views

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