Vol 84, No 8 (2017)


Working body for loosening the soil in a row between bushes of berry crops

Gordeev O.V., Gordeev V.O.


Technologies for the care of berry plantations involve the use of manual labor for cultivation of soil between plant shrubs. The aim of the research is to develop a scheme of a working organ for loosening the soil in a row between bushes of berry crops on the basis of an improved mechanism for delivering soil rippers to the space between plant bushes. Berry plantations are characterized by row spacing and the distance between bushes, the soil in a row - by protective zone and a processing zone. In the article the equations of trajectory of movement of a ripper of soil (ripper tip) between bushes of plants are given. The agrotechnical requirements most closely correspond to the trajectory in the form of an elongated cycloid. The maximum width of the loop of the elongated cycloid is at the intersection of the straight line along which the circle producing the cycloid rolls. The equation for determining the maximum width of the loop of an elongated cycloid is given. To determine the radius of rotation of the ripper tip corresponding to the distance between the bushes of plants the dependence of width of loop of an elongated cycloid on the radius of rotation of the ripper tip is presented. The scheme of the working organ for loosening the soil in a row between bushes of berry crops with an improved mechanism for delivering the soil ripper to the space between the bushes of plants is given. The working body is a vertical milling cutter with one asymmetrical blade. On the asymmetrical blade ripper tips are located. The radius of rotation of the ripper tip, which is the extremity of the rotation axis, is equal to the selected value. The distance between adjacent ripper tip in accordance with the recommendations for ripper tips of harrows is 80 mm. The rotation of the asymmetrical blade is transmitted from the drive wheel. When the working body moves along the row, ripper tips moving along the trajectory of the elongated cycloid smoothly enter the space between the bushes of plants and loosen the soil.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):3-7
pages 3-7 views

The use of plastics in the construction of soil-working tools

Parkhomenko G.G., Bozhko I.V., Gromakov A.V., Pakhomov V.I.


The well-known working bodies for layer-by-layer soil-free tillage are characterized by high metal content, which leads to an increase in the weight of the structure and an increase in energy costs. The aim of the study is to reduce energy costs for the implementation of the technological process of layer-by-layer soil-free tillage. Due to the use of new non-metallic materials based on plastics in the design, it is possible to significantly reduce the metal capacity of working bodies and energy consumption for the process of layer-by-layer soil-free tillage. The article proves the expediency of using plastic in the structures of working bodies for soil cultivation. The choice of plastic should be based on analysis of its properties and characteristics. Tolerant to the change in the properties of the medium are high-molecular compounds of plastic with the flexibility of the polymer chain, which limits its steric hindrance to rotation and the interaction of groups of atoms. Thermoplasts obtained on the basis of branched polymers can be re-processed. These include polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene as the most appropriate conditions for agricultural production. The design of the working body for layer-by-layer soil-free tillage, containing a rack with a chisel, removable plowshares, crushing machine, thrust plate and ripper for small processing has been developed. In the local wear zones and areas of increased friction of the working body ultra-high molecular low-density polyethylene was mounted. The technique for optimizing the parameters of the working element for layer-by-layer soil-free tillage with the use of ultrahigh-molecular low-density polyethylene is based on the planning of the experiment on the three-factor Box plan. The smallest traction resistance and the minimum energy consumption of the working element for layer-by-layer soil-free tillage with the use of ultrahigh-molecular low-density polyethylene at a unit speed of 2.8 to 3.0 m/s are established; the angle of entry of the bit to soil from 31,5 to 33,5°; the depth of tillage is 30-35 cm.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):8-15
pages 8-15 views

Field research of a roller-scraper bar machine for harvesting onions

Sibirev A.V., Aksenov A.G., Emel'yanov P.A., Pryamov S.B.


The issue of improving the quality of mechanized harvesting of onion set, caused by the unsatisfactory process of separation of bulbs from strong soil lumps, is considered, because the slit working tools used for separation cannot allocate from the heap of onions commensurate in size strong soil lumps. In order to intensify the harvesting process of onion set during selection from rollers in order to exclude or reduce the capture by the receiving-digging part together with the bulbs of soil lumps and the supply of the onion-soil heap to the separating working organs, the roller-scraper bar in the machine is proposed for the first phase of onion harvesting. The constructive technological scheme and the general view of the machine for harvesting onions equipped with a roller-scraper bar, which intensifies the process of onion separation in the second phase of harvesting, are presented. The methods of carrying out field research of an experimental machine for harvesting onions are reflected, as well as qualitative indicators of machine operation in the field. Laboratory and field studies of an experimental machine for harvesting onions equipped with a roller-scraper bar were carried out on the fields of CJSC «Ozery» in the Moscow Region in 2015-2016 when harvesting onion of «Stuttgarter Riesen» variety. The results of research on the qualitative characteristics of onion set bulbs show that these indicators are higher in bulbs laid on a prepared bed and subsequently removed from the roll by a self-propelled combine harvester. It has been established that in the selection of bulbs for sowing from a roll laid on an unprepared surface of a field by a picker without a skating rink, the number of heavily damaged bulbs increases to 11,09 %, which is 5,56 % higher than the selection of bulbs from a roll with a prepared and profiled bed.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):15-20
pages 15-20 views

Analytical justification of the load capacity of pneumatic tires for tractors and agricultural machinery

Tarasov V.N., Boyarkina I.V., Edigarov V.R., Malyy V.V.


Information on the parameters and operating modes of pneumatic tires for tractors and agricultural machinery is contained in state standards in the form of tables in digital form. The variety of types, sizes and designs of tires makes it difficult to determine the tire parameters taking into account conditions and operating modes. The information on the tire parameters is insufficient due to the lack of information about the contact area of the tire with a solid support surface. The article suggests the dependences of the load-carrying capacity of a tire on the generalized geometric parameter equal to the product of the outer diameter and width of the tire profile. The area of contact is an important parameter that affects the traction characteristics of the tractor, the depth of the track when driving on a plowed field and the resistance to movement of the tractor. New terms have been introduced - the theoretical and actual contact areas of the pneumatic tire. The dependence of the theoretical contact area on the generalized parameter equal to the product of the outer diameter and width of the tire profile for diagonal and radial tires is obtained. The cross-section method is used, by means of which the bus contact is cut off from the shell. In this case, the internal forces of the pneumatic tire framework are transformed into real external forces. The analytical dependence of the load capacity of a pneumatic tire is obtained, representing the algebraic sum of the lifting force of the shell and the vertical force of the frame. The universal formula is proposed for determining the actual contour area of the tire contact, in which the contact length and width are used. The values of the length and width of the contact, as well as the ratio of these quantities, are determined experimentally for different loads and pressures, the contact length being determined by the proposed analytical method.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):21-27
pages 21-27 views

Composite materials for impellers of the turbocharger of automotive engines

Netrusov A.N., Fomin V.M.


The aim of this work is the search and selection of components of composite materials are fully meeting the requirements imposed to the materials of the impellers of the turbocharger. During the work modern components of the composites and their properties is described. The requirements to materials of impellers were formulated. Patent search was carried out to describe existing concepts of impellers made of composite materials. A possible production version of the impellers is described, revealed their advantages and disadvantages. In the course of patent studies have not traditional the advantages of using composites in the design of the turbocharger. Described the possibility of creating a rotor of the electric machine of the compressor impeller by weaving a copper wire. The main technology of manufacture of impellers is described. Given domestic and foreign manufacturers of polymer matrixes and fibers. The described physic-mechanical properties of randomly reinforced composite materials available on the market today. A comparative analysis of selected composite material most fully meets the requirements - polyamideimide filled carbon fiber. The use of continuous fibers in the impellers is an effective way to increase the strength of the latter. It is established that as a cheaper alternative to polyamideimide can be a carbon-containing material '^^11!" provided reinforcement of the wheel with continuous fibers. Cheap and widely used materials (filled polyamides, polycarbonates, epoxy resin, etc.) can be used in the manufacture of impellers in centrifugal blowers with manual or electric drive. Composites with carbon fiber in silicon carbide matrix (C-SiC) can act as an alternative to heat-resistant nickel alloys, of which currently produce the turbine wheel.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):28-36
pages 28-36 views

Determination of gas concentration in the lubricant of transmissions of energy-saturated agricultural tractors

Shukhanov S.N.


Ensuring the trouble-free operation of the transmission during the operation of energy-saturated tractors is an important task. The reliability of its operation largely depends on the presence of gas in the lubrication system. The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for determining the quantitative content of gas in a gas-oil mixture. In the tractor transmissions, the composition of the gas-oil mixture can have different values, which are determined mainly by the geometric dimensions of the elements of the assembly units, the speed mode of operation, the temperature and the grade of the lubricant. The influence of these parameters can be determined by recording the composition of the gas-oil mixture during tests, both assembly units and transmissions in general, when mounted on a test bench or on a tractor. The choice of the method for recording the composition of a gas-oil mixture was carried out on the basis of an analysis of a number of studies in which various techniques for analyzing the composition of two-phase mixtures are given. Demonstrating the requirement of universality of the method, consisting in a uniform method of its application, both in bench and in object conditions, the most interesting is the method associated with sample sludge. The most successful points of the transmission lubrication system are suggested, from which it is most convenient to take samples, as well as those characterized by the largest content of gas in the oil. Also the most simple and informative method for determining the volumetric gas content in the mixture is proposed. Calculated dependences are derived, allowing to take into account the change in the volumetric ratio of oil to gas during the sampling time. The developed method allows to make an assessment of the required capacity of bilge pumps of forced lubrication systems. The technique can be used both for bench and for road tests.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):37-40
pages 37-40 views

Investigations of the physical properties of camelina oil mixtures for hydraulic systems of agricultural machinery

Zartdinov F.F., Zartdinova F.F., Khokhlov A.L., Glushchenko A.A., Salakhutdinov I.R.


The article considers the use of oils of vegetable origin alternative to mineral and synthetic oil products as a working fluid for hydraulic systems of agricultural machinery. When choosing vegetable oil, the use of camelina oil as a more affordable and economically cheap raw material is most appropriate. The main disadvantages of vegetable oils include low thermal and oxidative stability and unsatisfactory low-temperature properties. Therefore, the use of vegetable oils in hydraulic systems is possible only in the form of mixtures with mineral oil. To study the possibility of using vegetable-mineral oil as a working fluid for hydraulic systems of agricultural machinery, laboratory studies of the physical properties of camelina oil mixtures were carried out. The studies included the determination of the relationship between the kinematic viscosity and the density of the camelina oil mixtures from the temperature and were carried out in various proportions of the mineral hydraulic oil - multigrade oil hydraulic thickened (hydraulic oil - GM) and camelina oil (RyzhM) - 100 % GM, 90 % GM - 10 % RyzhM, 75 % GM - 25 % RyzhM, 50 % GM -50 % RyzhM, 25 % GM - 75 % RyzhM, 10 % GM - 90 % RyzhM, 100 % RyzhM. Determination of the physical properties of the camelina oil mixtures was carried out on a cryo-thermostat with viscosimetric LOIPLT-912, using an ANT-2 hydrometer and capillary viscosimeter VPZh^f, VPZh-2 in accordance with GOST R ISO 3675-2007 and GOST 33-2000 (ISO 3104-94) respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that red-and-oil mixtures with a ratio 90 % GM - 10 % RyzhM и 75 % GM - 25 % RyzhM according to viscosity-temperature properties and density can be used as substitutes for merchant mineral hydraulic oil GM. The results of the laboratory tests allow us to display the dynamics of the change in viscosity-temperature and density properties of red-and-oil mixtures of various concentrations.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):41-46
pages 41-46 views

Increase of durability and wear resistance of internal combustion engine parts by changing their design features

Kochenov V.A., Grunin K.E.


Based on the patterns of wear, change and redistribution of loads during operation, design solutions have been developed to improve the durability and wear resistance of tribo-joints of the crank mechanism and the cylinder-piston group of the internal combustion engine. With a variety and dispersion of factors determining durability and wear resistance, the change in wear and wear intension during the operation has a pronounced regular character. Theoretical coupling does not have a run-in period - optimal, i.e. the obtained geometric parameters of the friction pair are created during the machining of friction surfaces of the parts. Due to the lack of a run-in period, the theoretical resource - produced with the expected parameters, the more effective the actual unattended interface. As a rule, friction surfaces of machine parts have a pronounced, natural, regular wear. Deviations from natural wear (unnatural wear) are caused by: severe working conditions without violating the rules of operation; violation of technical conditions -defective products in manufacture and in operation; imperfect design due to insufficient knowledge of the problem and mistakenly defined technical conditions for production and operation. The efficiency of restoring the efficiency of the cylinder-piston group by replacing the rings without replacement of the cylinders is investigated on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder engine ZMZ-402. In two cylinders pistons and rings change, in the other two only rings. In the cylinders with old pistons, the running-in proceeds more intensively. At the end of cold running-in, compression in cylinders with old pistons is higher than in cylinders with new pistons. Efficiency is achieved due to a greater correspondence of the geometric parameters of tribo-conjugations with old pistons to its accumulated values. The analysis of field studies confirms the legitimacy of the hypothesis of the theoretical study.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):47-52
pages 47-52 views

The matter of extreme national importance

Kolchin N.N., Zvolinskiy V.N.


It is reported on the history of the development of the domestic agricultural machinery industry. It is noted that the beginning of the modern development of the industry was laid down by the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of April 1, 1921, in which it is recognized as «... a matter of extreme national importance». It sets out a set of measures to create the industry as the basis for the de-velopment of the country's agriculture. The head institute All-Union scientific research Institute of agri-cultural engineering (VISKhOM), profile research institution, leading specialized design bureaus, student design bureaus and various factories are being created in different regions of the country. Being the lead-ing complex center for scientific research and practical development of new and promising agricultural technology, including the training of scientific personnel, the Institute VISKhOM played a major role in the development of domestic agricultural machinery and integrated mechanization of the country's agri-culture in the 20s and 30s, in its restoration to Postwar years of the last century. Achievement in 1947 of pre-war production of agricultural machinery. It is noted that the Institute VISKhOM developed and pro-duced in the industry a large number of new machines; many monographs and collections of articles and other scientific papers have been published, scientific and technical reports on the results of their imple-mentation of R&D have been compiled. Scientific and technical assistance was provided to design bu-reaus and factories of the industry in the creation and production of new equipment, according to method-ological and normative documentation. Significant is its contribution to the development and implemen-ta-tion of systems of machinery and technology in the country's agriculture. The UN General Assembly rec-ognized the need to increase the world's food production. Russia has a unique agrarian potential and can provide itself with quality, renewable products and its supply to the world market. It is noted that a number of problems of the domestic agro-industrial complex remain unresolved, for example, its insufficient support by the state, the liquidation of scientific research institutes of the industry, including VISKhOM and a number of factories. There is a need for a large-scale revival of the domestic agricultural machinery industry as an effective scientific and production system for the creation and production of modern ma-chinery of high quality and reliability for our agriculture with an extensive set of crops and with various technologies. The future of Russia's agriculture is the use of modern machine technologies as the basis for the country's food security and the competitiveness of Russian food in the domestic and world markets.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;84(8):53-59
pages 53-59 views

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