Vol 84, No 10 (2017)

Articles

Effective use of biohydrocarbon fuel compositions in the energy complex of the agroindustrial complex

Fomin V.M., Abu-Nidzhim R.K.

Abstract

The problem of searching for alternative ways of power supply for the transport and technological complex of the agroindustrial complex is discussed. The ecological and economic expediency of the transfer of agricultural machinery (mainly diesel) to supply by fuel produced from biomass is substantiated. It is noted that the large-scale use of biological energy as the main motor fuel for diesel engines is hampered by a significant difference in their physicochemical properties from the properties of traditional hydrocarbon fuels. One of the alternative solutions to the problem is the use of energy biological products as an additive to the base hydrocarbon fuel. At the same time, the most acceptable physicochemical properties of a two-component fuel, meeting the requirements of efficient organization of the working process of a diesel engine are provided by appropriate choice of the value of this additive. The paper suggests a technique for optimizing the component composition of binary fuel, which provides the utmost possible improvement of the economic and environmental performance of an engine running on this fuel. A method for improving the combustion performance of biohydrocarbon fuels based on the use of chemical activation agents is methodologically substantiated. Results of experimental approbation of a set of proposed measures for improving binary fuel parameters in conditions of full-scale tests on the engine are presented. Based on the results of the conducted study, it is concluded that the proposed concept of the method aimed at improving the indicators of binary biohydrocarbon fuels can be attributed to one of the promising directions in the field of actively developing bioener-gy. The use of such fuels makes it possible to convert almost any serial engine into a competitive power plant with higher environmental and economic performance compared to engines running on traditional petroleum fuels. In its key basis, the method is aimed at an efficient and cost-effective solution of urgent problems of energy conservation and raising the level of environmental and fuel and energy security in the environment of agricultural production.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):3-12
pages 3-12 views

New opportunities to improve the fuel supply system with a battery fuel system

Dunin A.Y., Golubkov L.N., Mal'chuk V.I., Dushkin P.V., Ivanov I.E.

Abstract

The article shows the effect of increasing the injection pressure (up to p = 250 MPa) on the dynamics of the development of the fuel jet. An increase in the pressure in the accumulator led to a decrease in the angle of the boundary layer of the jet. A decrease in the oscillations of the boundary layer of the jet about its axis is shown. The greatest variations were recorded at рак = 50 MPa. Then, as the рак increases, the vibrations of the nucleus decrease and become practically imperceptible at 250 MPa. A method for controlling the shape of the differential injection characteristic by an electric pulse, which is applied to an electromagnet of the control valve of the electrohydraulic injector of battery fuel system, is provided. The impulse consists of the preliminary, the main and the following additional one. The duration of the preliminary impulse determines the amplitude of the initial stage of the injection characteristic, and the interval between the preliminary and main pulse is the amplitude between the initial and main stages of the injection characteristic. The interval between the main and additional electric pulses is selected in such a way that the subsequent stage of the injection characteristic begins after the termination of the main, but without an interval between them. By selecting the durations of the control electric pulses and the intervals between them, it is possible to obtain a predetermined shape of the differential injection characteristic from stepped to a characteristic with an inclined leading edge. In nozzles with two groups of holes (correction sprayer), the flow rate of the holes in the sub-head volume and on the locking cone is significantly different and depends on the position of the needle. This creates the prerequisites for correcting the fuel supply through the spray holes and, consequently, along the zones of the combustion chamber, taking into account the mode of operation of the diesel engine.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):13-19
pages 13-19 views

Analysis and development of the oil separator of the crank-case ventilation system of a highly-boosted diesel engine

Andriyanov S.M., Nikishin V.N., Kulikov A.S.

Abstract

Current problems, related to the development of the crankcase ventilation system for high-powered diesel engines, are considered. To avoid the occurrence of significant excess pressure in the crankcase, which negatively affects the tightness of the seals in engine, the crankcase gases are evacuated to the atmosphere. The main processes that take place in the ventilation system of the crankcase of the diesel engine are singled out and described, as well as the problems and ways of their solution. Information on the advantages and disadvantages of open and closed crankcase ventilation systems is presented. Considerable attention is paid to the main element of the crankcase ventilation system of any engine - oil separator. There is information on the analysis of existing crankcase ventilation systems and oil separators. The evaluation of the efficiency of the crankcase ventilation system is considered. There are criteria for: estimating the flow of oil directly into the crankcase ventilation system; relative oil content in crankcase gases; efficiency of the crankcase ventilation system. The installation for carrying out benchless motorless testing of open and closed crankcase ventilation systems is presented, the technique is described in detail on the results of tests of the patented pilot oil separator by specialists of STC PJSC «KAMAZ». There are data on motor tests of the open crankcase ventilation system with the patented oil separator of the modern diesel engine 8ChN 12/13. Experimental benchless motorless and motor studies confirmed the high efficiency of the crankcase ventilation system with an oil separator. It is established that as a result of bench motor tests of an open crankcase ventilation system with the use of an experimental oil separator, the limit of efficiency with the least efficiency (not lower than 97,5 %) is determined by the values of the consumption of crankcase gases 360 l/min.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):20-27
pages 20-27 views

Dy-namics of the movement of the elastically fixed working body of the cultivator machine-tractor aggregates

Gapich D.S., Fomin S.D., Shiryaeva E.V.

Abstract

Tillage machines that have in their design elastic links in the fastening -f w-rking organs, under certain conditions, can generate active undamped -scillati-ns -f w-rking b-dies due t- the peculiarity -f the cutting pr-cess -f the s-il layer, which all-ws t- reduce the -verall level -f f-rce l-ading and the dynamism -f the functi-ning -f the entire system. At the same time, the questi-n -f the effect -f vibrati-ns -f the w-rking -rgan -n the agr-technical indices -f the -perati-n -f machine-tract-r aggregates, in particular -n the deviati-n -f the pr-cessing depth fr-m the mean value, bec-mes t-pical. The mathematical m-del describing dynamics -f m-vement -f the elastically fixed w-rking b-dy -f the cultivat-r machine-tract-r aggregates, taking int- acc-unt the f-rce, elastic and dissipative characteristics -f the links -f the system is c-nsidered in the article. Dissipative pr-perties -f s-il in the w-rk are characterized by the c-efficient -f attenuati-n -f the s-il envir-nment. The rigidity -f the elastic element in the attachment -f the w-rking member was determined fr-m the c-nditi-n that the frequency -f the natural -scillati-ns -f the system and the frequency -f the disturbing f-rce be equal, which c-rresp-nds t- a res-nant m-de -f -perati-n. Calculati-n -f this mathematical m-del all-wed t- determine the r--t-mean-square deviati-n -f the treatment depth and c-mpare its value with the value -f the devel-ped techn-l-gical t-lerance f-r the change in the rigidity -f the elastic element in the fastening -f the w-rking member, as a result -f which the f-ll-wing c-nclusi-ns were made: the use -f the self--scillati-n m-de -f the w-rking -rgans can significantly influence -n the stability -f the w-rking b-dy in the vertical plane, especially this affects the s-ils with weak dissipative pr-perties, It can be assumed that significant amplitude -scillati-ns -f the w-rking element in the h-riz-ntal plane can lead t- an increased abrasi-n -f the s-il backgr-und by the w-rking -rgan and, as a c-nsequence, t- an increase in the number -f er-ding particles in the s-il and the devel-pment -f wind er-si-n.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):28-32
pages 28-32 views

Calculation of the maximum energy saturation of an agri-cultural tractor

Samsonov V.A., Lachuga Y.F.

Abstract

The efficiency -f the machine-tract-r unit increases with the increase -f the energy saturati-n -f the tract-r. There-f-re, it is -f interest t- determine the maximum energy saturati-n and the c-rresp-nding tracti-n characteristics -f the tract-r with an estimate -f its efficiency in terms -f pr-ductivity and fuel c-nsumpti-n when c-mpared with the anal-g. With increasing energy saturati-n, the w-rking speed -f the tract-r and the tracti-n resistance -f the w-rking element -f the unit increase, hence the fuel c-nsumpti-n is increased. This circumstance must be taken int- acc-unt in the calculati-n. Determinati-n -f the maximum energy saturati-n -f the tract-r, taking int- acc-unt speed limits and skidding, is an actual task -f the tract-r the-ry. The purp-se -f the study is t- devel-p a meth-d-l-gy and al-g-rithms f-r calculating the maximum energy saturati-n -f the tract-r and its c-rresp-nding tracti-n perf-rmance when the engine speed is changed. The -bject -f investigati-n is a general purp-se wheeled tract-r. S-urce material: engine and tract-r perf-rmance characteristics; c-efficients that characterize the tracti-n and c-upling pr-perties -f the tract-r; the tract-r p-wer balance equati-n; slipping functi-n; the functi-n -f fuel c-nsumpti-n -f the engine and its t-rque fr-m the speed -f the crankshaft. The meth-d -f investigati-n is the calculati-n by the basic f-rmulas -f the the-ry -f the tract-r when the r-tati-nal speed -f the crankshaft is changed by -ne turn-ver. Gear rati-s -f the transmissi-n, calculated taking int- acc-unt the set values -f the n-minal engine speed and the c-efficient -f its adaptability f-r t-rque, are used. Main c-nclusi-ns: a criteri-n f-r the -ptimality -f the den-minat-r -f a number -f gears is pr-p-sed, taking int- acc-unt the c-efficient -f adaptability -f the engine f-r the t-rque; in the tracti-n characteristics -f the tract-r intr-duced additi-nal indicat-rs: the c-efficients -f per-hectare fuel c-nsumpti-n, pr-ductivity and h--k c-nsumpti-n -f fuel per unit -f pr-ductivity; the criteri-n f-r calculating the maximum energy saturati-n is the maximum tracti-n efficiency at the maximum tractive p-wer and the efficiency fact-r in the c-rresp-nding gear with the the-retical speed assumed -n it.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):33-38
pages 33-38 views

Energy analysis of dual-flow hydromechanical gears

Sharipov V.M., Shchetinin Y.S., Gaev S.V., Troshkin O.V.

Abstract

Two-flow hydromechanical transmissions are becoming increasingly common in the construction of modern land transport and traction machines (tractors, automobile and high-speed crawler vehicles). This is mainly due to the desire to increase the efficiency of transmission. In order to select a dual-flow hydromechanical transmission scheme in relation to specific operating conditions, it is necessary to know the advantages and disadvantages of various schemes, their potential capabilities. The evaluation of the operation of each circuit can be made on the basis of their kinematic, power, and energy analysis. The results of the kinematic and force analysis of two-flow hydromechanical gears were previously developed by the authors of this article. In energy analysis, the following estimated parameters were used to compare the performance of the transmission: г|ГМП - efficiency of transmission; РМ - power factor in the mechanical branch of the transmission; РН - power factor on the pump wheel of the torque converter; РТ - the power factor on the turbine wheel of the torque converter. The paper considers 12 schemes of two-flow hydrome-chanical gears with a differential link at the input and output with mixed gear coupling, the results of their energy analysis are given. For each of the schemes considered, analytical dependencies of the estimated parameters on the internal parameters of the hydromechanical transmission were obtained, which were used as the characteristic k of the planetary gear set, the power transfer ratio йгт of the torque converter, and the kinematic gear ratio игмп of the hydromechanical transmission. The results of calculations performed on a computer using the external characteristic of a specific torque converter are obtained and presented in graphical form. The obtained results can be used in developing recommendations for the choice of a two-flow hydromechanical transmission scheme.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):39-49
pages 39-49 views

Simulation of the process of shipping and stowing cabbage in containers with gentle machine-harvesting regime of cabbage

Alatyrev S.S., Kruchinkina I.S., Alatyrev A.S., Yurkin A.P.

Abstract

During traditional machine cleaning cabbages are mechanically damaged to a considerable extent. In this regard, a new method of machine cleaning is proposed, which allows to significantly reduce their damageability. In it, unlike the traditional method, the heads are first shipped in a gentle manner to a flexible trough floor, mounted on a special S rack on the vehicle platform, and then manually transferred into containers. The intensity of the process of shifting cabbage heads from the decking to the containers increases with the increase in the number of attendants on the back __ of the accompanying vehicle. However, the number of them should be as small as possible in order to reduce the labor _j costs for this operation. In addition, the number of jobs on the body of the accompanying vehicle is limited by its size. < For these reasons, the purpose of the study is to justify the required number of personnel involved in rearranging the С cabbage heads from the flooring into containers. In support of the number of personnel, this process is considered as s a multi-channel queuing system with failures. As a result, the essence of the occurring phenomena is described and ^ it is established with a quantitative enough connection for the practical accuracy between the characteristics of the i_ cabbage flow coming from the elevator to the flooring and the number of maintenance personnel shifting them into □_ containers. Modeling of the process of shipment and packing of cabbage in containers with sparing mode of machine О harvesting of cabbage based on the theory of mass service is carried out. The presented methodology and results of , calculations can be taken as a basis for justifying the number of personnel in the proposed method of machine har- < vesting of cabbage.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):50-54
pages 50-54 views

Rational compositions of the machine and tractor fleet on the basis of a universal power facility

Goryachev Y.O., Bur'yanov A.I., Dmitrenko A.I.

Abstract

Agriculture in Russia is characterized by a wide range of soil-climatic and production conditions. This causes a huge variety of crop rotations, farm sizes, technologies used, types and amounts of work, which in turn determines the structure and composition of the machine and tractor fleet. Scientific and technological progress makes it possible to achieve ever greater universalization and multifunctionality, not only in the construction of agricultural machinery and implements, but also recently in the designs of energy facilities. Promising is the creation of a universal energy means able to perform the full complex of works on tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops that will improve their annual load and efficiency. However, for the introduction of advanced technology into production operation, it is neces-sary to conduct its comprehensive technological and technical and economic assessment at all stages of design. For this purpose, the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «Agrarian Science Center «Don-skoy» carried out calculations to determine fleet sizes of three standard model farms representing the regions of the south of Russia (the Rostov Region, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regions) with different ver-sions of their configuration. The sets of aggregates of machine-tractor fleets were considered: on the basis of only a universal power facility that performs the entire range of works in field cultivation; on the basis of serial production only; with a combination on the basis of a universal power facility and serial equip-ment of various types and brands. It is established that the use of aggregates on the basis of a universal energy source combined with aggregates based on traditional mobile power engineering will reduce the direct operating costs for mechanized works by 8...27 %, increase net discounted income by 11...13 %. The subject of the study are the compositions of the machine and tractor fleet for various production con-ditions and options for completing.
Traktory i sel hozmashiny. 2017;84(10):55-63
pages 55-63 views

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