No 12 (2017)

Articles

Production testing of the new method of mechanical harvesting of cabbage

Alatyrev S.S., Yurkin A.P., Kruchinkina I.S., Alatyrev A.S.

Abstract

White cabbage is a traditional vegetable crop in Russia, easily damaged by mechanical influences. In addition, cleaning is accompanied by significant labor and material costs. Taking into account the above-mentioned features, a new method for mechanized harvesting of cabbage was proposed, where cabbage heads are firstly aligned in the row by lifters, then they are forwarded under the clamping belt, where afterwards they are fixed and cut. Cut-off heads are forwarded by outside-mounted and clamping transporters on to a sorting transporter-cutter. On the sorting transporter-cutter, the heads are inspected. Workers pick out cabbage with long cabbage stumps and rosette leaves and insert them into the holes of the plate-shaped army duck transporter-cutter, where they are re-cut when passing through the passive knife. As a result, the rosette leaves are separated from the heads, and the cut-out cabbage stumps slide down the tray to the ground. Further, the heads and loose leaves, separated from the heads after repeated cutting enter the rod elevator, where leaves are again cut off, and the heads are sent for shipment. Unlike the traditional method of harvesting cabbage, head of cabbage are shipped by a cabbage harvesting machine first to a flexible trough floor, mounted on a special rack on the vehicle platform above the removable containers. Then, the heads from the flooring are gently transferred to containers for subsequent storage in them. After filling the containers, the vehicle is sent to a storage facility where, with a forklift truck, the loaded containers are replaced by empty ones, leaving the flexible deck with the platform rack for the next cycle of work. In the harvest season of 2017, the proposed technology for mechanized harvesting of cabbage was tested in the production conditions of LLC «Chapaevskoye» in the Mari El Republic. The conducted production tests confirmed the conformity of the products to the agrotechnical requirements and the possibility of organizing the harvesting process continuously in a sparing mode.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):3-7
pages 3-7 views

The power unit of universal tractors of traction class 1,4 with an integrated starter generator

Bekeev A.K., Aliev A.Y., Aliev S.A.

Abstract

The technical development of tractor designs is characterized by an increase in the power of consumers, the use of electric drive units. The load on the electric system of a modern tractor is constantly growing and exposes the existing 12-volt systems to excessive loading. To date, with the relatively low efficiency of traditional generators it is impossible to meet the growing needs of tractors and its systems. The solution of the problem of increasing the power simultaneously with increasing the efficiency (up to 85...90 %) could become an integrated starter-generator. Possessing sufficient power in the propulsion mode (up to 8 kW), the starter generator makes it possible to improve the starting and energy characteristics of the internal combustion engines of the tractor. The proposed design of electrical machines is located between the engine cylinder assembly and the tractor clutch. The adopted configuration allows to transfer considerable power in both directions, improves the starting qualities of diesel engines of tractors, and also realize the functions of damping the torsional oscillations of the crankshaft, which significantly reduces the noise and vibration of the engine. Based on the results of the study, the choice of a starter-generator device based on a valve motor is justified in connection with diesel engines of universal tractors of traction class 1,4 and a scheme for its placement in the clutch housing without changing its basic design has been developed. The advantage of the proposed design is the use of electric machines to start the engine, which in this case is switched to the electric motor mode and switches to the generator mode during operation, providing power to the on-board network. In addition, combining the starter and generator in a single unit simplifies the design, reduces the cost of manufacturing and assembly, which is an advantage in terms of production costs, replacing the starter and generator and on some tractors the starting piston engine.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):8-13
pages 8-13 views

Over-view of robotic grippers for physical manipulation with agricultural products

Vu D.K -., Solenaya O.Y., Ronzhin A.L.

Abstract

An overview of agro-grips used to control weeds and harvesting is presented. The relevance of the study is justified by the possibility of improving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetable products, reducing production costs, decreasing the labor shortage by developing and introducing agricultural robots. The classification of the grippers, which are installed on robotic agricultural machines for manipulating fruits, weeds and other objects, is compiled. There are 22 types of grip depending on 6 selected criteria: drive type, the presence of the drive in the grip, the number of fingers, the type of grip movement, the type of mechanism, the type of sensors. In this classification, we mainly consider the characteristics of the gripper, which is installed at the end of the manipulator and is responsible for physical contact with the object. Therefore, the main attention is paid to problems requiring direct capture of objects by the agro robot. The problems of direct spraying of weeds or pruning of branches and leaves, in which manipulators also participate, but the objects of influence are not captured by the robot are mentioned. Examples of existing agricultural research robots equipped with combined grippers according to the proposed classification, referring to different types: vacuum gripper with a video camera for capturing tomatoes, six-finger pneumatic gripper with a video camera, a two-fingered gripper with pressure and collision sensors for picking up an apple, three-fingered capture with a video camera for capturing citrus fruits and others are shown. Further work will be devoted to the study of the problems of physical interaction of agro robots with processed objects, differing in weight, density, geometry, surface roughness and other parameters. The issue of joint interaction of a group of heterogeneous terrestrial and airborne robots in the performance of the target agrarian task in an autonomous mission will also be investigated.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):14-24
pages 14-24 views

Improvement of the technological process of sowing by stubble seeders

Lopareva S.G., Mekshun Y.N., Fominykh A.V., Loparev D.V.

Abstract

The basis of the seeding machine fleet is the stubble seeders SZS-2.1, SKP-2.1. A disadvantage of such seeders is the irrational use of the area of feeding due to the uneven distribution of the seed. Improvement of the technological process of sowing is possible by installing seed spreaders on the paw coulters. A scheme of a paw coulter with a passive seed distributor is proposed, each side of which consists of two planes installed at different angles. The calculation scheme and mathematical model allowed to study the process of seed distribution, to reveal the influence of constructive parameters of the coulter and the two-plane distributor on the trajectory of the particle, to determine the rational parameters of the distributor. In Mathcad, a program has been developed that simulates the trajectory of the particle movement along the coulter stand and in the limited under-paw space, which allowed the calculation of the seed distribution process with a coulter with a two-plane distributor. This program allows you to determine the geometric and kinematic parameters of the grain flight reflected from the distributor and the ceiling surface of the opener (trajectory, flight range, direction of the velocity vector when falling to the ground, etc.) when varying the inclination angles of the reflector planes, the incidence of the particle and its physical and mechanical properties. The calculation includes determining the flight parameters of the grain along the vertical straight line in the first stage of the flight, along the “ballistic” curve after each reflection. The results of the calculation are given in the form of a graphical representation of particle trajectories and tables with numerical values of the coordinates of the trajectory and the range of the rebound. To confirm the reliability of the results of theoretical studies and to determine the uniformity of sowing, laboratory tests of paw coulters with two-plane seed spreaders were carried out. The design parameters of two-plane distributors are determined, which ensure the maximum uniformity in the distribution of seeds along the width of the coulters of stubble seeders. Equipping the paw coulters with two-plane spreaders provides seeding with higher quality indices on uniformity and will ensure an increase in the productivity of agricultural crops.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):25-31
pages 25-31 views

Study of traction dynamics of a caterpillar tractor wagon

Voynash S.A., Voynash A.S.

Abstract

Existing caterpillar dump trucks, including foreign ones, with relatively small amounts of work carried out seasonally, for example, when building roads in logging areas, are not effective enough. It is proposed to use trail equipment available for logging needs for road construction. LLC «Plant of Caterpillar Machines» developed a schematic solution for a caterpillar tractor wagon obtained by equipping the serial rubber trail tractor TGL-4.04 with a large-capacity dump truck and using bulldozer equipment with a turning blade. In order to assist the customer using the caterpillar dump truck based on the trail tractor TGL-4.04 in determining the loading parameters corresponding to the modes of the most efficient use of the machine under specific operating conditions, the tasks of developing fairly simple nomograms graphically linking the main load parameters of a caterpillar tractor wagon characteristics with typical operating conditions. The technique of calculation of dynamic characteristics of a caterpillar tractor wagon is stated. Variants of a dynamic passport are proposed, including a nomogram of the regular-route load. Each version of the dynamic passport contains two quadrants: in the right quadrant, the dynamic characteristic «on the engine»; in the left quadrant, the dependences of the dynamic factor on the elevation angle of the terrain and the drag coefficients for medium and heavy conditions are presented (dynamic characteristic «according to traffic conditions»). Examples of the analysis of the nature of the movement of a caterpillar tractor wagon at a given speed under given conditions are given. The proposed improved version of the dynamic passport with the nomogram of the regular-route load makes it possible to formulate practical recommendations on the values of the regular-route loads and the speeds of the caterpillar tractor wagon when transporting goods under specific operating conditions.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):32-36
pages 32-36 views

Experimental determination of the main load factor of threaded connection of connecting rod head with oblique connector

Gots A.N.

Abstract

According to the methodology developed earlier the experimental-calculated investigations of a determination of the stresses in the rod bolts of connecting rods with an oblique connector when the bolt was tightened, and after loading the connecting rod with an external load were conducted. The main point of an investigation’s methodology of the stress-strain state of connecting rod bolts is in that on the outer circumference of the bolt body at some distance from each other strain gauges are glued. The coordinates of the measurement points must be precisely defined in a rectangular coordinate system, and one of the coordinates along the z-axis is taken by the stresses in the cross section of the bolt body. The simplest formulas for calculations have been obtained if the strain gauges are glued along the circumference 120 ° from each other. According to the average value for all three indications of strain gauges determines the tensile stress. As shown by the result of experimental investigations during the tightening process the body of connecting rod experiences tensile and bending stresses. It’s known that when installation shells in the crank head of the connecting rod, their length exceeds the length of the saddle by the protrusion amount. Because of the protrusion of the shell the entire load during tightening the bolts falls on the shell and it is applied eccentrically. However even after a deformation of the shell around the perimeter, the force on bolt is transmitted through the average radius of the thread. When the external force of the connecting rod is applied to the rod bolt only a part of the load is transferred, it’s equal to the product of this force by the coefficient of the main load. After experimental determination the stress in the connecting rod bolts, as well as the force in each of the bolts with the oblique connector, the main load of the connecting rod is determined by the experiment-calculated investigation.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):37-42
pages 37-42 views

Formation the driving force of wheeled and caterpillar machine-tractor units

Makhmutov M.M., Khismatullina Y.R.

Abstract

On the basis of existing dependencies describing the traction-coupling properties of wheeled and caterpillar machine-tractor units, theoretical and experimental investigations, a model of the formation of the driving traction force of units depending on the weight of the tractor, coupling properties of the propulsion unit, load distribution and propulsion slipping is obtained. The analysis of calculated coefficients shows a considerable variation of values, which causes difficulties in using in the calculations. Therefore it’s necessary to know their values at each interaction of the tractor propulsion unit with the soil. The same values of slipping can be obtained with different values of the coefficients. The task is simplified if data of this dependence have the same coefficient. During field investigations an active experiment was developed i.e. the levels of factors variation changed purposefully depending on the conditions of conducting each experiment. Composite B-plans (Box-design) of the second order were realized. The following parameters were chosen as the variable factors: the coefficient of the using coupling weight, the coefficient of traction and the weight of the tractor. The works were conducted according to the plan of the three-factor experiment matrix. As the agricultural field were a freshly plowed field, a stubble field and a wet meadow, with the coefficients of traction of 0,50, 0,65 and 0,80 respectively. The value of resistance to movement was fixed by a dynamometer during towing tractors MTZ-82, MTZ-2022 and MTZ-3022 DC.1 in neutral on the various agricultural fields. Efforts on the hook were changed by shifting gears in the gearbox of a towed tractor whose engine operated in the compressor mode. The coefficient of traction was determined with completely braked wheels of the tractor and towing it with a towing vehicle during simultaneously measuring the force on the coupling with the help of a dynamometer. The obtained model of driving force formation for wheeled and tracked machine-tractor units takes into account the weight of the tractor, coupling properties of propulsion units, load distribution, slipping and has a minimum number of experimental coefficients, which makes it more accessible and easily used for engineering calculations.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):43-47
pages 43-47 views

Results of modeling the secondary kinematics of the piston in the cylinder of a high-speed diesel engine

Putintsev C.B., Kirillov A.G., Ratnikov A.S.

Abstract

The relevance of the investigation of the processes of secondary kinematics of the piston in the internal combustion engine’s cylinder is due to their strong influence on such indicators as mechanical losses, wear, noise, vibration, oil consumption, and their insufficient knowledge concerning high-speed piston engines. The purpose of the research was an assessment of the influence on the character of the secondary kinematics of the piston of the high-speed internal combustion engine design factors, operating conditions and lubricant and on this basis finding the ways to improve the lubrication and friction conditions in coupling of the «cylinder-piston skirt». The tasks to be performed to achieve the research goal were in an identification the most significant parameters of the construction on the piston's secondary kinematics, mode of operation and properties of the lubricant; obtaining diagrams of the piston's secondary kinematics depending on the change in the values of the influencing factors, as well as the analysis of the obtained results and the development of recommendations aimed at reducing friction and wear in the piston-cylinder-unit. For the subject of the research the piston of the high-speed diesel engine 1CH 8,5/8,0, having a barrel-shaped profile of the piston skirt in the serial production and a negative dezaksial of piston pin, was chosen. The research method is mathematical modeling using the calculation program PISTON-DHT. Discussion of the obtained results made it possible to reveal the two most influential parameters on the character of the secondary kinematics of the piston: the dezaksial of piston pin and piston skirt profile. The variation of the sign and the values of these indicators were established an expedience to switch from a negative one to the positive dezaxial and an application of rational profile of the piston skirt. For the two most dynamically loaded strokes of the working cycle «Compression» and «Expansion», the dominance of the piston movement in the position of the scraper relative to the adjacent side of the cylinder wall was highlighted. The generalized recommendations aimed at eliminating the dominance of this undesirable situation can be taken into account and used in the design and completion of high-speed internal combustion engines pistons in order to minimize mechanical losses and wear.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):48-56
pages 48-56 views

The 30th anniversary of the Educational and method-ological associations of higher educational institutions of the country

Baulina E.E., Kravets V.N., Krutashov V.V., Serebryakov A.V., Sharipov V.M.

Abstract

The role of Educational and methodological associations, established in 1987 on the basis of an order of the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR, in an improvement of higher education in the country is shown. The activity of the educational and methodological committee on a specialty «Automotive and tractor industry» of the Educational and methodological association of higher education institutions in the field of education of transport vehicles and technological transport complexes in a development and an improvement of the educational process in the higher education institutions that train skilled personnel for the automotive and tractor industries has been described and analyzed. The periods of historical transformations of the collective of the educational and methodological committees and the main activities in which the members of the educational and methodological committee took an active participation are shown. A brief description of the qualification level of the heads of the departments and leading professors of the departments which is part of the educational and methodological committee is given. The contents of the orders of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation on the formation of new Federal educational and methodological associations and Federal educational and methodological associations in the system of higher education on the enlarged groups of specialties and training’s directions, including, in the direction of training 23.00.00 Land transport processes and technology are briefly discussed. Excerpts from the provisions on the activities of the Coordinating council of the Federal educational and methodological associations and the Council of federal educational and methodological associations on a large group of specialties and orientations of training and tasks to be addressed by them in their work. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the long-term activity of the educational and methodological committee, it is proposed to use the rich practical experience accumulated by its members for an improvement of the educational process of the automotive and tractor departments of technical higher education institutions of the country in modern conditions. It was proposed about the expediency of participation the members of the educational and methodological committee in the work of the Federal educational and methodological association of higher education «Land transport processes and technology» as members of the Councils in the direction of the training of «Ground transportation and technological complexes» and the Council on the specialty «Ground transport and technological vehicles».
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2017;(12):56-62
pages 56-62 views

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