Vol 89, No 11 (2019)

On the Rostrum of the RAS Presidium
Science’s role in socioeconomic development of integrated scientific and technological space of the union state of Russia and Belarus
Zaikina G.A.
Abstract

On June 18, 2019, the Presidiums of the Russian Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus held a joint session to discuss results of cooperation in 2018, prospective projects of Union State programs, and short-term plans for cooperation between the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Particular attention was paid to scientific support for development of strategic directions for long-term spatial-territorial and socioeconomic development of Russia and Belarus and to the concept of the United Eurasia megaproject.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1085-1094
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Science and Society
Main directions in the development of Russia’s oil sector in the first half of the XXI century
Kontorovich A.E., Burshtein L.M., Livshitc V.R., Ryzhkova S.V.
Abstract

This paper discusses the most important aspects of the development of the oil and gas industry in Russia. To replace declining oil production in Russia, we need to change the obsolete paradigm of the development of the domestic resource base. In the twenty-first century, the priority tasks in the search for oil deposits should be the Russian Arctic shelves and immature onshore provinces as well as unique unconventional oil accumulations (Bazhenov, Domanik, Khadum, Kuonamka Formations, etc.). In addition, special focus should be placed on the exploration of small and smallest oil and gas fields, which will be developed with the collaboration of small- and medium-sized oil businesses to ensure up to 20% of domestic oil production. The shift from extensive to intensive development of Russia’s oil and gas sector will require the prioritizing of technological tasks.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1095-1104
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Problems of Ecology
Bioresource capacity of the black sea and its development by the national fishery in the XX and XXI centuries
Fashchuk D.Y.
Abstract

In this paper, the history of the formation, dynamics of structure, and species composition of the main objects of the national fishery in the Black Sea from the moment of the fall of the Crimean Khanate in 1783 up to today are analyzed, as well as the structure of commercial biological resources of the sea formed throughout the geological history of development of the Ponto-Caspian Basin (more than 30 million years). The geography and catch composition, scales, and methods of fish harvesting in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries are examined. The stages of intensification and reduction of fish harvesting success and the causes of these fluctuations (natural dynamics of population abundance, press of predatory species, hydrotechnical construction, marine pollution, overfishing, poaching) are identified. The author shows that at the end of the twentieth century, the Russian fishing industry entered a depressed state, while the other Black Sea countries increased their average annual total catch. At the same time, starting at the beginning of the twenty-first century, due to the lessening of press of warty comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi), a decrease in the level of oil and chemical pollution of coastal and shelf waters in the northern Black Sea, and a reduction in industrial production on the seacoast and watershed territories, the ecological situation in the Russian territorial waters improved significantly and many formerly commercial fish populations started to recover.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1105-1119
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From the workbook of the researcher
Dynamics of religiosity in contemporary Russia according to research in the capital region
Kublitskaya E.A., Nazarov M.M.
Abstract

The paper deals with the state and dynamics of religiosity in modern Russia. The study, which is based on a system of empirical indicators, helps identify key features of religious consciousness, and behavior. This comparative investigation was conducted in Moscow during the last three decades. It was found that at the level of self-identification, approximately half of the population defined themselves as believers, and that there was a decrease in this value over time. The use of a complex typology of religiosity shows that the proportion of actually churched believers who combine adherence to the canons, both at the level of consciousness and of behavior, is significantly lower and has been in the range of 6%–8% during the past five years. The motives for participation in religious ceremonies are mainly a general cultural orientation associated with family, kinship, and national traditions.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1120-1127
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New documents on the history of russian America in foreign archives
Petrov A.Y.
Abstract

The paper is based on the results of research work in foreign archives. An attempt is made to summarize the main data identified in the foreign archives of the United States, Estonia, France, Spain, Italy, and other countries, to summarize the results of this interdisciplinary research and to identify prospects for the study of the history and heritage of Russian America. The paper does not pretend to be a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the sources on the stated topic – this goal is, rather that of the monograph on which the author is currently working. The purpose of the paper is to acquaint the general scientific community with the characteristic lacunae and to show previously unknown archives in which there are documents both on Russian America and on various topics of general history.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1128-1136
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Fifty years since the discovery of Bromocriptine
Dedov I.I., Melnichenko G.A., Gorbacheva A.M.
Abstract

An ergot alkaloid, 2-Br-alfa-ergocriptin, and its effect on lactation in rats was first mentioned by E. Fluckiger and H. Wagner in the twenty-fourth issue, published in 1968, of the journal "Experientia". Initially, this work did not attract much attention; however, after the isolation of pure prolactin, and the establishment of its physiological role, the high efficacy of bromocriptine in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia quickly became clear. Bromocriptine has been actively studied not only by American and European scientists but also in the USSR since 1975. Bromocriptine was used in the treatment of persistent lactorrhea and amenorrhea, acromegaly, and also the drug was experimentally prescribed for Itsenko – Cushing’s disease. Unique data about the children of mothers with hyperprolactinemia who received bromocriptine therapy was collected in the USSR. Bromocriptine also made a huge contribution to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, for which it has been used since the 1960s. Much later, in 2009, bromocriptine in small doses was approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Currently, different studies of the effect of bromocriptine on various metabolic pathways are continuing. Thus, even 50 years after the discovery of bromocriptine, not all of its effects are well studied, and this world-famous drug continues to raise more and more new questions for scientists and doctors.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1137-1142
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Profiles
Patriarch of russian mechanical engineering. The 150th anniversary of the birth of academician S.A. Chaplygin
Bogdanov A.N.
Abstract

The paper presents the life and scientific achievements of Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin (1869–1942), mathematician and mechanical engineer; one of the founders of aerodynamics; organizer of science and higher education; a talented teacher; creator of the largest scientific school in the field of aerohydromechanics; one of the organizers of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, who contributed to its transformation into a world-class leading scientific center; and an ally and successor of the work of his outstanding predecessor, the "father of Russian aviation," N.Ye. Zhukovsky.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1143-1152
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A man whom nobody can replace. The 100th anniversary of the birth of a corresponding member of RAS S.R. Mikulinskii
Ilizarov S.S.
Abstract

The life of the prominent scholar and organizer of science and Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences S.R. Mikulinskii (1919–1991), who determined strategic directions for the development of the history of science and lay the foundation for the science of science in the 1960s – 1980s, was full of tragic turns. In his biography, it is said that his years of schooling were followed by his volunteering for the army during the Great Patriotic War, years of being a prisoner in first Nazi, and then Soviet, camps, followed by years of studies and a meteoric scientific career that abruptly ended with his expulsion from the USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute for the History of Science and Technology that he himself had nurtured. Under his guidance, prominent scientists in a wide range of disciplines were brought together at the Institute, which reached the peak of its development having become a globally recognized center for the advancement of thought in the history of science.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1153-1161
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History of academic institutions
Foundation of the institute of world history of the academy of sciences of the USSR
Bukharin M.D., Karpyuk S.G.
Abstract

The authors publish and analyze newly found archival documents on the first years of the academic Institute of History (1936–1941). The most interesting feature is the project of 1939 on the foundation of two separate research institutions: the Institute of History of the USSR and the Institute of World History. The authors analyze reasons for these projects’ emergence and subsequent refusal, arguing that reasons for refusal were administrative and economic.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1162-1168
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The first russian magneto-meteorological observatory in China: historical and scientific survey
Feklova T.Y.
Abstract

This paper is devoted to the history of the appearance and evolution of Russian magnetic and meteorological stations and observatories in the territories of China in the nineteenth century. The paper is based on an analysis of numerous resources obtained from Russian and Chinese archives. Considerable attention has been paid to the history of the Russian Magneto-Meteorological Observatory in Beijing, which was part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The observatory was built on the territory of the Russian Orthodox mission. The Observatory and its directors and employees made a great contribution to the investigation of climatic features of the Asian region.

For the first time, the paper provides unique information about the organization and equipment of meteorological stations that were established in China and Mongolia under the Beijing observatory’s auspices. The stations conducted magnetic, barometric, meteorological, and astronomical observations. Such types of investigations served as the basis for the development of climatology in the Far East and Siberia.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1169-1175
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In the world of books
Zh.T. Toshchenko. Precariat: from protoclass to new class.
Osinsky I.I.
Abstract

Monograph of RAS Corresponding Member Zh.T. Toshchenko is distinguished by the well-known features of the author's research style: a thorough analysis of modern social processes, the identification of new qualities, phenomena, trends and their deep scientific understanding in them. In this case, those phenomena that already have or will begin to exert a significant influence on the essence and appearance of society in the near future fall into focus. The subject of scientific interest Zh.T. Toshchenko had previously faced the problems of a paradoxical person, centaurism, phantoms, ethnocracy, theocracy, the fate of the intelligentsia, etc. An analysis of these topics led the scientist to create original, well-constructed scientific concepts, including the integral concept of the “sociology of life” [1], which has received scientific recognition community. The new book is dedicated to the precariate - an emerging social class, the place and role of which in the life of modern societies is becoming more tangible.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1176-1179
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Official section
Awards and prizes
Herald of the Russian academy of science B.
Abstract

Awards and prizes

 
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(11):1180-1185
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