Vol 151, No 4 (2019)

Trajectories of land cover transformation in zonal types of landscapes of Indochina
Alekseeva N.N., Klimanova О.А., Tretyachenko D.А., Bancheva A.I.

The article deals with the study of the land cover change of Indochina based on the MODIS Land Cover database for 2001—2012. Geospatial land cover data, which are objectively recorded land surface characteristics, are widely used for small-scale mapping of landscapes and ecological systems. The case region of Indochina was selected for the analysis of land cover transformation. In recent decades it has been undergoing active transformation of land use, associated with rapid economic development, substantial population growth, and reorientation of the agricultural sector to foreign markets. The processes of land cover change were studied within the boundaries of zonal types of landscapes, altitudinal zonality spectra, and groups of intrazonal landscapes. The density of changes is uneven in different zonal types of landscapes, the greatest range of transformations is characteristic to the deciduous monsoon forests, semi-evergreen forests (in the subequatorial belt), and within river valleys. The main trajectories of land cover change for 2001—2012 are as follows: 1) expansion of arable areas due to the reduction of forests, savannas and grasslands; 2) the likely increase in the area of perennial plantations (mainly rubber trees and oil palm); 3) forest degradation and spread of savannas; 4) fluctuations of land under shifting cultivation. Since the 2000s commercial production of perennial cash crops is the main cause of deforestation in the region. Land clearing for these needs could have a greater impact on forest cover than logging. The revealed features of land cover change for Indochina made it possible to specify the regional characteristics of the transformation processes as compared to global typology of land cover

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):1-14
Estimation of heat fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface in the south-western part of the Baltic Sea (2003—2016)
Dubravin V.F., Kapustina M.V., Stont Z.I.

Based hydrometeorological data of the MARNET monitoring network, with the sampling interval of 1-hour, from 2003—2016, provided by the German Oceanographic Data Centre (BSH / DOD (M41)), the contributions of the irregular daily variability, the regular daily variability, the synoptic variability, the irregular intra-annual variability, the regular seasonal variability and the interannual component in the total temporal variability of the sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. The intra-annual and inter-annual variability of the specific contribution of the daily component of the sensible and latent heat fluxes are computed. It is shown that the structure of time variations of the fluxes in the southern part of the Baltic Sea depends on both, the station location and the nature of the flux itself.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):15-26
Diurnal dynamics of dissolved oxygen in the small mesotrophic lake during the under-ice heating period
Palshin N.I., Efremova T.V., Zdorovennova G.E., Gavrilenko G.G., Zdorovennov R.E., Terzhevik A.Y., Volkov S.Y., Bogdanov S.R.

The article investigates the dynamics of the dissolved oxygen (DO) content, the water temperature, the chlorophyll «a» and the under-ice irradiation in the small mesotrophic lake during the springtime heating period. All data were obtained from long-term observations using high-precision autonomous equipment. In the convectively mixed layer (CML) were recorded the DO oscillations up to 1 mgO2/l with daily frequency. Assumedly, these fluctuations are due to the daytime intensification of the photosynthesis on the background of under-ice irradiation growth (reaching 120 W/m2 when snow melts from ice surface) and the destruction of newly formed organic matter.

The CML also exhibits the high-frequency DO fluctuations (on scales from 2—3 minutes to 3—4 hours), presumably related to convective currents and seiche activity. The involvement of oxygen-depleted water portions from underlying stratified layer to convective mixing leads to decrease of DO concentration in CML, but the total oxygen content in the water column during the under-ice convection period increases at a rate ~0.1—0.4 gO2/m2 per day due to photosynthesis enhance.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):27-39
Dynamics of the number and nature management territory of Uilta (Oroks) of Sakhalin in the 19—21 centuries
Podmaskin V.V.

Based on the generalization of information from Sakhalin researchers (ethnographers, historians, travelers, doctors) and the results of population censuses, the dynamics of the nature management area and the number of Uilta (Oroks) minority ethnic group of Sakhalin is examied. It is revealed that long-term living in the conditions of the island led to a number of original features of the traditional Uilta culture and successful adaptation to the ecological situation of Sakhalin. A gradual decrease in the number of Uilta and a reduction in the territory of resettlement is stated. It is shown that during the observed period, the nature management conditions of the Uilta on Sakhalin worsened, since the territory of resettlement and the number of population significantly decreased. Russian-Japanese territorial divisions of Sakhalin at the first part of the 20 century caused the formation of two isolated local Uilta groups. The small number of Uilta, significant changes in the settlement system and traditional nature management do not create the prospects for the existence and development of this ethnic group.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):40-49
Wikipedia as a data source for studies of collective mental representations of geographical objects (examplified by the cities of the Russian Arctic zone)
Gribok M.V., Tikunov V.S.

Articles of Wikipedia crowdsourcing encyclopedia, which is one of the most popular Internet resources in Russia and in the world, are considered as a source of data for research of mass representations about geographical objects. The article analyzes statistical data on the number of views of Wikipedia pages on the urban settlements of the Arctic zone of Russia, as well as quantitative characteristics such as the length of the article (number of characters) and the frequency of updates. These indicators for 57 articles on the largest settlements of the Russian Arctic are collected in the database, and on their basis, we have made calculations of integrated indices (separately for small towns from 4 to 25 thousand inhabitants and for larger ones), which characterize the level of provision of information about the studied settlements for readers of Wikipedia. The lower the value of the calculated indicator, the more «faceless» the urban settlement is in collective representations, and the more attention should be paid to its image policy.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):50-60
Geophysical paradigm of landscape: postulates and concepts
Sysuev V.V.

Potential of advance in landscape science is associated with the synthesis of physical-mathematical, geophysical and empirical scientific directions on the basis of GIS technology. This stage is characterized as a geophysical paradigm of landscape science, a feature of which is a new understanding of the physical fundamentals, the need to consider landscapes as dynamic systems. Empirical theoretical concepts of physical geography enable us to apply physical laws to describe landscape structure and functioning. Land structures are described using independent morphometric parameters of geophysical force fields (gravity and insolation), which can be viewed as state parameters of geosystems. The modeling of landscape functioning in terms of continuum mechanics is closely related to the structure of landscapes through boundary conditions and distributed parameters of transfer processes. Verification and development of models requires the use of a complex of geophysical methods. Creating models in accordance with the principles of the irreversible thermodynamics is complete representation of the genesis of natural processes. The dualism and strong non-linearity necessitates the stochastic analysis of geosystems, including using the fractal methods.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):61-83
A. A. Chibilyov, A. A. Chibilyov (jr.), O. S. Rudneva, A. A. Sokoplov, Yu. A. Padalko, D. S. Meleshkin, D. V. Grigorevsky. Problems of Sustainable Development of Socio-Economic Geosystems of the Steppe Zone of the Russian Federation. Orenburg: Institute of Steppe of the Ural branch of the RAS, 2018. 128 p. [in Russian]
Zibarev A.G., Rozenberg G.S.

The monograph under review is devoted to the peculiarities of Russian steppe regions development. The analysis of the elements of the natural-ecological framework and the ecological safety of the territory was carried out. Within the framework of the implementation of multiscale research, a cartographic analysis of the socio-ecological and ecological state of natural-economic systems of the Russian Federation steppe zone key region was carried out.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):84-91
V. A. Shalnev's Anniversary

August 1, 2019 marks the 85th anniversary of Professor V. A. Shalnev.

Известия Русского географического общества. 2019;151(4):92-95

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