No 3 (2019)

Management of solid municipal waste as the federal ecological project

Osipov V.I.


The dynamics of solid municipal waste accumulation in Russia is considered taking into account the low rate of their reprocessing and utilization, which worsens the living conditions and aggravates the social tension in the country. The necessity to create an almost new industry is noted based on the collection, sorting, temporal storage, reprocessing and disposal of the non-utilizable part of waste. The tasks arising may be divided in two groups, i.e., technological and engineering geological groups. The most important tasks of the former group include sorting waste, separation of waste portion suitable for re-use as secondary raw material and recycling of the bulk of waste with the subsequent disposal of non-utilizable part. Among engineering geological tasks, the focus is concentrated on zoning territories for the optimal allocation of sites for temporary storage, reprocessing and disposal of solid municipal waste so that the newly formed bodies not to become a new source of technogenic contamination of the environment.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):3-11
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Natural and human-induced processes

A catastrophic landslide and tsunami in the reservoir of the Bureyskaya hydropower plant (The Amur River basin)

Kulakov V.V., Makhinov A.N., Kim V.I., Ostroukhov A.V.


The natural, geological, cryological and hydrogeological conditions and causes of the formation of a catastrophic landslide and tsunami are considered that occurred in the reservoir of Bureyskaya HPP on December 11, 2018. The negative impact of this and other hazardous natural processes on the potential vulnerability of the territory during the water reservoir operation is predicted.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):12-20
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Environment contamination

The influence of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) on the biotransformation of hydrocarbons in groundwater

Fisher N.K.


According to the thermodynamic ladder, microorganisms in groundwater use electron acceptors consistently – for transformation of pollution from the pollution plume edge to its core. However, some researchers come to the conclusion that only methanogenic biotransformation of pollution or reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) from the solid phase can occur in the plume, and due to the kinetic factor microorganisms use electron acceptors from the aqueous phase (O2, NO3- и SO42-) only on the edge of the pollution plume. The purpose of the research was to determine whether microorganisms use Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as acceptors of electrons for hydrocarbons transformation in groundwater in the northern part of the Middle Heilongjiang-Amur River basin aquifer. In the study area, both lenses of petroleum-hydrocarbons (non-aqueous phase liquids) on the surface of groundwater (up to 2.5 m) and high concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons (up to 1000 mg/l) are noted. Microbiological processes were assessed in situ by the method of geochemical indicators. The most active biogeochemical processes occurred during the spring-summer rise of groundwater level. The seasonal increasing of level led to the entry of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) into the pollution plume and activation of the microbiological processes of its reduction. Microorganisms mostly use electron acceptors from the solid phase – Fe(III) and Mn(IV), but not NO3, SO42 from the aqueous phase. This is confirmed by the close correlation of HCO3- formation and that of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in groundwater (r2 up to 0.93). This says that for the groundwater self-purification the kinetic factor rather than thermodynamic one is decisive; and microorganisms use electron acceptors that are currently available. As a result of microbiological pollution destruction, the content of Fe(II) in groundwater increased up to 100 mg/l, Mn (II) – up to 16 mg/l, which exceeds the natural background 4 and 8 times, respectively. This was also because the regional geochemical background of the study area (Amur River basin) forms Fe and Mn.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):21-31
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Persistent organic pollutants in the recent soils in the south of the Arkhangelsk Region

Kolpakova E.S., Velyamidova A.V.


The paper presents the results of observations over the concentration levels and distribution patterns of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the recent soils in the south of the Arkhangelsk region after intensive long-term use of pentachlorophenol sodium salt (Na-PCP) as a commercial chemical in the past. In 2012, seventeen years after the termination of Na-PCP use as wood-preservation agent (biocide), the presence of PCP and HCB classified as persistent organic pollutants was determined in soils of the industrial site of the shutdown timber mill. The tendencies towards a decrease in the residual amounts of toxic organochlorine components of Na-PCP were revealed. At the same time, soil pollution with HCB remained at a high levels, several times higher than the health-based exposure limit (approximate permissible concentration, Rospotrebnadzor, Russia), while the concentrations of PCP for the most part already complied to the approved quantitative national regulations (human health soil quality guideline, CCME, Canada; regional screening level, US EPA). It has been shown that residual amounts of biocide impurity component (HCB) in soils repeatedly (by a factor of 4–47) exceed the main component (PCP) concentrations, determining the role of HCB as the high priority soil pollutant at present. The presence of PCP and HCB in the soils of the residential settlement area suggests that recent soils of the industrial site of the timber mill present an active secondary source of persistent organic pollutants to the environment, with the threat of its distribution as a result of local, regional and global transport in the long-term future.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):32-41
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Features of the water quality in small rivers of Khabarovsk in winter season

Shesterkin V.P., Afanas`eva M.I., Shesterkina N.M.


The paper presents the results of studies of the water chemical composition in small rivers of Khabarovsk and its surroundings in the winter low water period in 2017-2018. A significant variation is shown in the concentrations of dissolved substances in river water due to large differences in the composition of underlying rocks, groundwater and wastewater, as well as water of worn-out water supply and sanitation systems. The hydrocarbonate-calcium composition of water, the lowest pH and mineralization values, the phosphate concentrations, as well as the dominance of sulfate ion over chloride and nitrate nitrogen’s dominance over ammonium in the river water in the protected areas were identified. The higher content of dissolved substances and the bicarbonate-calcium (sometimes magnesium) composition of water are typical for the rivers in the outskirts of the city, fed mainly by groundwater in alluvial deposits. Hydrocarbonate-sodium (rarely ammonium) composition of water, maximum concentrations of major ions, contamination with phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, petroleum products and surfactants, absence of nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in anaerobic conditions were noted in the river water at the outskirts of the city, which are fed by wastewater. The hydrocarbonate-calcium composition of water, a decrease in the elevated concentrations of major ions during the winter season, pollution with ammonium and nitrite nitrogen, phosphates and oil products of water in the rivers of the central part of the city fed by groundwater and water of worn-out water supply and water disposal systems were established.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):42-51
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Regional geoenvironmental problems

Historical and geoenvironmental analysis of the development of the Russian North within karst areas (by the example of Kargopol’ Region)

Trapeznikova O.N., Tormosova N.I.


The paper deals with the history of agrarian development of the East European plain in the frame of the geoenvironment concept of agricultural landscapes, taking Kargopol’ region as an example. A large agricultural landscape unique for the middle taiga zone was formed there no later than in the twelve century. We have analyzed the natural environment of the Kargopol’ region and its influence on the agrarian development and the rural settlement pattern. We paid particular attention to the karst, which was widespread in the area and its relation with agricultural landscapes. We made mathematical modelling of both elementary agricultural landscape spatial pattern and the corresponding rural settlement pattern. A feature of the proposed modeling is its emphasis on the relationship between the natural landscape and agricultural landscape. The mathematical morphology of landscape (method proposed by A. Victorov) and, in particular, the karst system model is the base of modeling. This model is first used for the analysis of cultural (anthropogenic) rather than natural landscapes.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):52-62
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Geoecological analysis of Shkota island landscapes (the Sea of Japan)

Ganzei K.S., Kiselyova A.G., Pshenichnikova N.F., Rodnikova I.M.


The study of Shkota Island (Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan) allows us to assess the modern geosystem condition. High-closed broad-leaved forests are found mainly on the northern and western slopes, whereas scattered and scrub broad-leaved forests, bush, semi-bush and grass communities are found in the south and east. The soil-vegetation cover shows the technogenic impact evidence like on other islands previously belonging to the military department. The landscape structure is composed of 16 morphological units. The total territory is a mountain landscape class, with about 82% of the area belonging to a low-mountain landscape subclass, and 12.35%, to a coastal subclass. Beach accumulative landscape developed on sandy-pebble coastal sediments without soil-vegetation cover is located in the north. Uncontrolled recreational activity has become recently the major factor of anthropogenic transformation of natural complexes. High number of visitors and campsite activity increase the fire danger. Ground fires disturb natural ecosystem functioning. The vegetation, lichens and soils bear the evidence of fire impact. Intense mechanical impact on the soil-vegetation cover occurs in the campsite areas. Because of low depth and high skeletal soil, the bulk of island land is prone to erosion. Trampling leads to active sheet soil erosion and destruction of grass-bush layers. The total content of heavy metals in accumulative-humus layers makes up a small proportion of the approximate permissible concentration. Recreational activity, in particular, burning of solid waste explains high concentration of heavy metals in the west. Copper concentration increases by an order of magnitude there in comparison with ones from the other island parts. The copper concentration comes close to the approximate permissible concentration or may outnumber it, considering an analytical error. Zinc concentration outnumbers the approximate permissible concentration without including analytical error.

Intense anthropogenic impact disturbs the spatial landscape structure and changes material-energy flows resulting in decreasing landscape diversity. Though Shkota Island geosystems have experienced high anthropogenic influence since the beginning of the XXth century, today we observe reliable restoration of destroyed ecosystems. These areas are being actively covered with grass-bush communities dominating by Lespedeza bicolor and Artemisia gmelini, which boosts humification and humus accumulation. Saplings of broad-leaved trees spring there. But periodic ground fires make stable forest restoration difficult.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):63-74
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Research methods and techniques

Hydrodynamic traps for petroleum products in the intrusive massifs

Skalin A.A., Skalin A.V.


We propose a method of hydrogeoecological prospecting for anthropogenic contamination with emulsified petroleum products of groundwater in the intrusive massifs of the Eastern Urals hydrogeological folded region. The method is the basis for designing the groundwater treatment with hydrogeodynamic traps. In the process of mapping, we find the indications for prospecting. We propose engineering solutions for safe arrangement of petroleum product traps adapted to heterogeneity geofiltration and capacitive properties of the intrusive massifs. We give recommendations concerning development of the technological schedules of oil mining and utilization of the disposed groundwater. We illustrate the granitoid massifs groundwater treatment in terms of purification from pollution with suspended mixtures of benzene, kerosene and diesel by examples of providing industrial and environmental security for oil storage facilities in the Middle Urals.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):75-82
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Monitoring of Borjomi deposit of carbon dioxide mineral water as the informational basis for the study and revaluation of reserves

Sekerina I.N.


The results of trial production operation in the Central site of Borjomi mineral water deposit during 2015-2018 are analyzed in this article as an example of using monitoring data for the substantiation of water intake optimal scheme. As a result of work at existing bottling plants, the selection of optimal pumping rates for wells was carried out in several stages. The regime analysis identified three hydrodynamic periods: irregular variable water withdrawal, forced operation conditions of wells, and balanced operations. Water level stabilization in the last operation period with the total water withdrawal 282 m3/day was a base for the water reserves revaluation.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(3):83-89
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