No 4 (2019)

About the nature of short-period fluctuations of seasonal thawing depth in tundra soils
Tregubov O.D.

The series of 20-year-long observations of seasonal thawing have been studied on CALM plots in Eurasia and North America. The short-term (2-5 years) fluctuations of the active layer are considered. Similarities and differences in seasonal thawing of tundra soils in circumpolar countries are noted. The dynamics of seasonal thawing is analyzed by the example of two CALM plots in the Chukotka Autonomous District. Time series of changes in the depth of seasonal thawing are described using the mathematical methods. The amplitude, frequency and periods of oscillations are determined for them. The comparative graphical and statistical analysis of climate and seasonally thawed layer variations allowed us to judge on the nature and degree of influence of meteorological factors on the depth of soil thawing. The problems of interpretation of intra-century fluctuations of climatic parameters and seasonal thawing are considered. It is concluded that the duration of the warm season affects significantly the depth of seasonal thawing. It is noted that ignoring the intra-century variations in the parameters of climatic and permafrost landscapes is the cause of inconsistency of judgments about climate change trends and forecasts of permafrost degradation.

A new concept of “climatic year” was proposed as the conjugation of weather conditions for 2-3 years equally affecting the depth of thawing. The established statistical regularities in changing permafrost-climatic conditions can be used for the preparation of 3-5 and 10-15 summer weather forecasts. The use of the ratio of the average values of the amplitude to the period of short oscillations as an indicator of the stability of the roof of permafrost is justified.

The hypothesis of the influence of solar and technogenic electromagnetic radiation in the radio-wave range on the degradation of underground ice of the active layer and Arctic ice is proposed.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):3-17
Natural and human-induced processes
Results of engineering geological zoning of Belarus territory by the abrasion risk at water reservoirs in the context of global climate change
Levkevich V.Е.

The paper shows the reasons for the intensification of risk-forming processes in Belarus caused by "aging" of existing and the arrangement of new water reservoirs. The shores of new reservoirs located in the territory of Belarus, intensively used in the national economy and densely populated, are actively reprocessed by abrasion, leading to the development of abrasion risk. The length of the abrasion coasts has increased by more than 20 km recently, which undoubtedly has an impact on the surrounding areas, causing loss of land and economic facilities. The goal of the work is to update the regional zoning of the country's territory according to abrasive risk, which should be taken into account in the forecast calculations of the sustainable development of regions based on entirely new principles and assumptions.

In this work, we used the data of long-term (covering more than 40-year-long period) field observations of the author over the abrasion process and the results of a science-based analysis. We propose (using the failure tree) an abrasion risk development model and indicators characterizing the abrasion risk, taking into account the global climate change and related warming, affecting the dynamics and extent of the process of destruction and deformation of the coast. Based on a theoretical study of the mechanism for forming the dynamic equilibrium profile of abrasion coasts and the equilibrium coastline, a criterion is suggested that characterizes the stability and development of the equilibrium profile of the coastal slope required for zoning the Belarus territory by abrasion risk.

Based on the generalization of the observation results for Belarus water reservoirs and the use of the proposed indicators, we performed zoning of the country’s territory by the abrasion risk, which is of practical importance for making management decisions and designating engineering measures to prevent and mitigate risk in water bodies, as well as minimizing their effects.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):18-29
The mechanism of block collapse formation upon activizing the deep landslide in terms of dissipative structures
Postoev G.P.

The paper considers the collapse mechanism in the back part of a new landslide block upon its separation from the bedrock massif. It is shown that in the course of failure preparation, two blocks participate, i.e., the elements of dissipative structures that appear in the stress field of the bedrock landslide-prone massif. The study reviews the conditions of failure formation, stress distribution (in accordance with the Laplace solutions for axisymmetric thin-walled shells) inside the block and along its boundary surfaces (shells) when the massif limit state forms. The mechanism of block separation (discontinuity of the massif) along the shell and specifics of soil deformation are also analyzed. The equilibrium in the head scarp massif is usually disturbed due to soil discontinuity forming along the earlier virtual circular-cylindrical shell of the first block, adjacent to the slope edge. In this case, the landslide block moves according to the detrusive mechanism. In addition to the ordinary process, the delapsive movement is also possible, with activating massif displacements in the lower part (washing-out, sliding, underworking of the lower part of the slope). This landslide activation favors to more intensely decreasing stresses in the back block shell in the head scarp massif, and consequently, to widening of the separation crack. At that moment, the influence of the subsequent block becomes evident, as displacements take place along the frontal block shell and a failure massif forms between the specified boundaries. The examples of failure-blocks formation when the landslide process activates on the natural slopes and quarry slopes are given.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):30-39
Origin, development factors and dynamics of landslides in Jurassic clay in Moscow
Mamaev Y.A., Kozlovskii S.V., Yastrebov A.A.

The article focuses on the factors and dynamics of development of large deep extrusion landslides in Jurassic clay participating in geological structure of high bank slopes of the Moscow River within the city boundaries. The history of geological development of territory in Meso-Cenozoic age is observed in briefly; the peculiarities of upper Jurassic clay structure are considered; the structure, composition, and physico-chemical properties of rocks are described both in preserved and weathered state; the morphology and zoning of landslide slope structure as well as stages and dynamics of landslide deformations are characterized. Recommendations on the engineering development of territories affected by landslides are given. The paper is based on the generalization of numerous publications and archive data devoted to this acute topic.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):40-50
Seismicity of Russia in 2018
Malovichko A.A., Kolomiets M.V., Ruzaykin A.I.

Results of monitoring seismicity in the main regions and territories of Russia are given, i.e., Western and East Caucasus, East European Platform, Urals and West Siberia, the Arctic Basin, Altai and Sayan Mountains, Lake Baikal, Cis- and TransBaikal regions, the Amur region and the Primorye, Sakhalin Island, Kuril-Okhotsk Region, Yakutia, North-East Region of Russia and Chukotka, Kamchatka and Komandor Islands in the year 2018. Catalogs of the most significant earthquakes are provided for each region considered with parameters of their hypocenters and magnitudes obtained from the instrumental observation. Manifestation of macroseismic effect from the majority of the notable earthquakes (with I ≥ 2 points on MSK-64 scale) that occurred in the territory of Russia is analyzed. Work of is intended for seismologists, geophysicists, geologists and specialists in earthquake-resistive construction.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):51-60
Environment contamination
Evaluation of chemical composition quality of surface water in the eastern Donbass
Gavrishin A.I.

The regularities in forming chemical composition of mine and surface waters in the Eastern Donbass were studied using the techniques of statistical estimation of component concentration distributions, the methods of assessing environment pollution, and the digital computer technology on multidimensional classification observations AGAT-2. The article shows that the mine water in the Eastern Donbass is a powerful source of polluting environment, causing serious ecological damage to the territory. Coal mine water contain a lot of dissolved substances up to 413 thousand t/year, among which macro components and various metals forming a significant part. The mean concentrations of most components in mine water hundreds times exceed the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), and they exceed the maximum concentrations in thousands times. The surface water quality was analyzed in the region proceeding from the results of testing small rivers and streams. Using classification technologies, five genetic variants of surface waters were identified by the macrocomponents. The first option characterizes the initial phase of surface water formation outside the pollution impact. Other options reflect the growing degree of water pollution in the region. The distribution of genetic water variants was shown throughout the region. The calculation of surface water pollution by 20 components revealed the cumulative indicator of pollution to be equal to 108 corresponding to the emergency crisis category. About 65% components exceed MAC. Surface water classes uniform in the content of 15 metals were distinguished using the digital computer technology AGAT-2. A cumulative indicator of pollution varies from 27 to 65, which corresponds to a tense and emergency crisis situations. Therefore, mine waters pollute significantly the surface waters in the Eastern Donbass. Conclusion is made about the need for rehabilitation measures in order to improve the quality of surface waters in the region.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):61-67
Regional geoenvironmental problems
Geological and geomorphological structure and geoecological conditions of Noginsky-Klyazminsky district of Moscow region
Makeev V.M., Sukhanova T.V., Makarova N.V., Korobova I.V.

In connection with the construction of industrial centers on the territory of the Noginsko-Klyazminsky district, we conducted out material-structural, structural-geomorphological (neotectonic) and geodynamic studies. Studies have revealed a weak protection of this territory from irrational use. The buried limestone surface is characterized by excessive fissuring and powerful weathering, and limestone is cavernous, which indicates the development of leaching processes.Thin and predominantly sandy composition of Quaternary deposits, overlying bedrock, is permeable to atmospheric and surface sediments, including technologically polluted runoff. Closed depressions, funnels, subsidence, flooding, etc. were found in the relief.Changes in the terrain under construction adversely affect the geological environment, since this leads to a point-like pollution of groundwater near to the surface, and the barrage effect - to disruption of the groundwater flow.These features of the geological structure are unfavorable for placement on the territory of Noginsk and, in the valley of the river Vassa industrial centers.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):68-78
Research methods and techniques
Selection of sites for allocation of waste disposal objects based on the multicriteria decision-making methods
Yuganova T.I.

The problem of allocation of solid municipal waste (SMW) disposal objects is extremely acute for Russia. The complexity of such tasks is primarily due to their interdisciplinarity, i.e., a significant amount of social, economic and technical data and environmental information to be taken into account. In many countries, multi-criteria methods have been used for this purpose, which have proved their effectiveness, making it possible to work out a compromise and objective solution. The methods of T.L. Saaty - analysis of hierarchies (AHP) - and analysis of networks (ANP) are considered, as well as the examples of their use for choosing sites for landfills and waste incinerator plants.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):79-93
Indices and indicators of geoenvironmental safety for urban areas
Zaikanov V.G., Minakova T.B., Buldakova E.V., Savisko I.S.

The paper analyses the long-term international and domestic experience in the development and implementation of indicators and indices of sustainable development of regions, the quality of the urban environment and environmental safety. At present, there is no any commonly recognized integral environmental indicator. In Russia, indicators and indexes are developed mainly for regions, and to a lesser extent, for cities and urban districts. Widely used environmental indicators are insufficient and they do not cover the geoenvironmental indicators that are part of them and that are necessary for the comprehensive assessment of urban area safety. The conceptual approach to the evaluation of environmental hazards is presented. The development of the geoenvironmental safety index is complicated to a certain extent by the current lack of open-access information in the state statistics necessary for the calculation.

Геоэкология. Инженерная геология. Гидрогеология. Геокриология. 2019;(4):94-101

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