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Vol LIV, No 4 (2022)

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What did the COVID-19 epidemic learn psychiatrists?

Mendelevich V.D., Gatin F.F., Khamitov R.R.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the psychopathological consequences of the COVID-19 epidemic. Particular emphasis is placed on assessing the fact of increased mortality from COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. It is concluded that this was influenced by the irrational use of antipsychotics, which contributed to the appearance of diabetes and overweight in patients.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):5-13
pages 5-13 views

Original study arcticles

The state of cognitive functions in COVID-19 complicated by viral pneumonia in young and middle-aged patients in the period 2020–2022

Kabysh S.S., Prokopenko S.V., Abdullaev M.B., Karpenkova A.D., Kuznetsova M.V., Golikova-Chereshkevich A.V., Frolova O.V.


BACKGROUND. Currently, the study of the cognitive sphere in COVID-19 is an urgent problem.

AIM. To determine the presence of cognitive dysfunction using valid scales MoCA, FAB, clock drawing test and their subscales in patients in the acute period of coronavirus infection, to compare the data of cognitive impairment in different epidemiological waves.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two groups of subjects were included in the present study. Groups No. 1 and No. 2 are patients infected with COVID-19 in the acute period, complicated by pneumonia. Group No. 1 was hospitalized in the period December 2020 — March 2021. Group No. 2 was hospitalized in the period November 2021 — January 2022. To study the neuropsychological status, the neuropsychological scales MoCA, FAB, the clock drawing test and their subscales were used. Screening for anxiety and depression and depression was performed using the valid HADS scale. Quantitative data on the normality of the distribution of the sample was tested using the Shapiro–Wilk test. The Mann–Whitney test was used to compare unrelated groups. Quantitative data are presented as median and interquartile range — Me [P25; P75]. Differences were considered statistically significant at p <0.05.

RESULTS. Statistically significant differences were found in the acute period of coronavirus infection complicated by pneumonia and cognitive impairment in both group No. 1 and group No. 2, respectively. In group No. 1 (observation period from December 2020 to March 2021), cognitive impairments were more severe than in group No. 2 (observation period from November 2021 to January 2022). When comparing the subscales of the MoCA test of groups No. 1 and No. 2 upon admission to the hospital, and at discharge in group No. 1, the results of MoCA testing were worse than in group No. 2 according to subscales: attention, speech, memory, indicators were statistically significant (p <0.05). According to the FAB data, in group No. 1, the indicators on admission to the hospital and at discharge were also worse than in group No. 2, highly significant differences were according to the data: fluency of speech, dynamic praxis, simple and complicated choice reaction, grasping reflex study (p < 0.001). Anxiety and depression were not found in the study groups.

CONCLUSION. With the help of such valid scales as: the clock drawing test, MoCA, FAB and their subscales, the presence of cognitive dysfunction in young and middle-aged patients at different time intervals of observation was proved; in the first group, the violations were more severe than in the group No. 2.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):14-21
pages 14-21 views

Cognitive functioning in patients with Chiari malformation type I and relationship with neurological manifestations

Kokurkina R.G., Mendelevich E.G.


BACKGROUND. The symptom complex of Chiari malformation type I (CMI) is traditionally characterized by the set of cerebrospinal fluid disorders, coordination disorders, brainstem and myelopathic manifestations. Cognitive impairments, as manifestations of CMI, are little-known area. Study of the characteristics of cognitive status in patients with CMI and analysis of relationship between cognitive phenotype and severity of neurological manifestations can become basis for the formation of a more detailed understanding of this pathology.

AIM. The aim was to characterize complex of the neuro-neuropsychological spectrum symptoms and their relationship in patients with CMI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS. The main group included 105 adult patients with CMI — 74 (70.5%) men and 31 (29.5%) women aged 25.61±6.89 years. The control group included 50 patients without signs of CMI, other organic brain pathology and cognitive disorders of known etiology — 31 (62%) men and 19 (38%) women aged 26.36±5.00 years. The neuroimaging verification of CMI was performed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Clinical assessment consisted of the collecting complaints, anamnestic information and detailed neurological examination. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing was performed by using MMSE, MoCA and TMT (A and B).

RESULTS. Dissociation was noted between prevalence of the typical subjective symptoms and frequency of the objective neurological manifestations in patients with CMI. Among the most frequent subjective symptoms in CMI were headaches and neck pain, asthenia, disorders of the coordination sphere, as well as subjective signs of cognitive dysfunction. Objective neurological deficits were mainly represented by cerebellar disorders. Signs of cognitive dysfunction in the form of memory and attention disorders described by patients with CMI in 20% cases were confirmed by the results of complex neuropsychological testing in comparison with a group of healthy respondents. The relationship of the cognitive deficits with presence and severity of the objective neurological, mainly cerebellar, manifestations in patients with CMI was revealed.

CONCLUSIONS. The relationship of cognitive dysfunction with the presence and severity of objective neurological, mainly cerebellar, disorders indicate the complexity of neurological and neuropsychological manifestations in CMI. These data suggest an important role of the disturbed anatomy of the cerebellum and its connections with the cerebral cortex in the pathophysiology of a wide range of major clinical manifestations of CMI.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):22-31
pages 22-31 views


Magical thinking in normal and pathological conditions: literature review

Chertischev M.S.


The scientific literature analysis on a magical thinking problem was conducted. A review of studies in a historical perspective on this problem was given (English anthropological and French sociological schools, psychoanalysis views), various descriptions of magical thinking structure and possible causes of its development were discussed. A brief review of experimental studies of magical thinking of people without mental pathology is described as well as a specificity of magical thinking in children’s mind. The study of magical thinking in various mental pathologies is considered as one of the forms of “psychosis-like experiences”, as well as the phenomenon of “thought action fusion”.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):32-44
pages 32-44 views


Illness as a metaphor — a psychiatrist’s view

Voskresensky B.A., Begmatov R.I.


Following the writer and publicist S. Sontag the opportunities of demetaphorization and demythologization of mental disorders (schizophrenia spectrum) are discussed here. Some specific methods are suggested based on trichotomous concept of human (spirit-soul-body).

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):45-50
pages 45-50 views

“Revolutionary” steps to a dead end. To the 160th anniversary of the publication of the article “Reflexes of the brain”

Reshetnikov M.M.


The article is focused on a critical analysis of the work of I.M. Sechenov “Reflexes of the brain” and its influence on the development of modern psychology, psychoneurology and psychiatry.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):51-58
pages 51-58 views

Comments on the article of M.M. Reshetnikov “Revolutionary” steps to a dead end. To the 160th anniversary of the publication of the article “Reflexes of the brain”

Zobin M.L.


In this paper we carried out a critical analysis of М.М. Reshetnikov’s article. The invalidity of the arguments and the inappropriate form of presentation are pointed out.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):59-63
pages 59-63 views

Recommendation for practitioners

The new psychiatric dignosis: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

Portnova A.A., Sivolap Y.P.


The DSM-5, adopted in 2013, presents an updated list of affective disorders, which opens with a fundamentally new psychiatric diagnosis of a disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is diagnosed in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and is manifested by chronic severe and persistent irritability or anger, as well as outbursts of anger disproportionate to the cause. It is obvious that the condition of a significant part of children and adolescents with a disruptive mood dysregulation disorder before the appearance of this diagnosis was mistakenly regarded as manifestations of bipolar disorder. The criterion of the fundamental difference between disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and bipolar disorder is the absence of manic or hypomanic in the first of them. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is characterized by high comorbidity and is often combined with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit with hyperactivity, as well as anxiety. The course and prognostic significance of a disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, as well as the choice of the most effective methods of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy require numerous further studies.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):64-70
pages 64-70 views

Case reports

Systematic use of LSD, mephedron and amanita muscaria without signs mental and addictive pathology. The case of Daria D.

Mendelevich V.D., Konovalova V.N., Galiullina G.M., Galiullina L.К.


The article describes the case of Daria D., 23 years old, who has been using various drugs (LSD, marijuana, mephedrone) for a number of years and independently abandoned using drags with the transition to the use of microdoses of red fly agaric (Amanita Muskaria). Her mental and addictive status is analyzed. It is concluded that, despite the systematic use of drugs, there are no grounds for making Darya D. a psychiatric or addiction diagnosis.

Neurology Bulletin. 2022;LIV(4):71-78
pages 71-78 views

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