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Vol 25, No 11 (2022)

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Effect of light spectral composition on the essential oils accumulation in basil plants grown with artificial lighting

Ivanitskikh A.S., Tarakanov I.G.


Relevance. Sweet basil is a valuable green spice and flavor crop, widely grown in intensive cultivation systems with artificial lighting. The implementation of LEDs light sources with an adjustable spectral composition of light allows us to approach the fine tuning of physiological and biochemical processes in plant ontogenesis and the subsequent development of light recipes.

The aim of the research is to study the effect of light spectral composition on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the of the basil essential oil components for optimizing cultivation in vertical farms.

Material and methods. Sweet basil plants of the Dwarf and Lemon flavor varieties were grown in a vegetative experiment in a controlled environment. As the sources of optical radiation, white LEDs (LEDw) were used, as well as narrow-band LEDs with radiation in the red and blue regions of the headlights (LEDr and LEDr+b), high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) were used as standard. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil accumulated in plant biomass was studied by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results. The analysis of extracts from the leaves showed differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the essential oil components depending on the light spectral compositiont. The Dwarf variety had the highest content of 1,8-cineol (eugalyptol) under LEDr, linalool under LEDw, eugenol under LEDr+b. The Lemon flavor variety had the highest linalool content in variants with LEDr+b and LEDr, citral – under HPS and LEDw. The largest number of components of essential oils was detected during exposure to LEDr, the smallest – under HPS. The quantitative outcome of essential oils per m2 was maximal in the Dwarf variety under HPS, and in the Lemon flavor variety under LEDw.

Conclusion. The regulation of the spectral composition of light when using LED irradiators makes it possible to optimize the production process and influence the biosynthesis of target functional compounds in plant biomass. Along with high operational and economic indicators of LEDs (long service life, low heat generation, reduced electricity costs for obtaining a unit of biomass) this makes it possible to increase the profitability of sweet basil light culture in vertical farms.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):3-9
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Development of an identification method vaccinium uliginosum leaves by thin-layer chromatography

Shamilov A.A., Bubenchikova V.N., Garsiya E.R., Ibaeva K.A., Larsky M.V.


A.A. ShamilovPh.D. (Pharm.), Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy, Botany and Technology of Phytopreparations, Pyatigorsk Medical-Pharmaceutical Institute, Branch of Volgograd State Medical University (Pyatigorsk, Russia)E-mail:; ORCID iD 0000-0002-6730-9518V.N. BubenchikovaDr.Sc. (Pharm.), Professor, Head of Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Kursk State Medical University (Kursk, Russia)E-mail:;ORCID iD0000-0001-9682-0684E.R. GarsiyaLecturer, Department of Pharmacognosy, Botany and Technology of Phytopreparations and Department of Inorganic, Physical and Colloidal Chemistry,Pyatigorsk Medical-Pharmaceutical Institute, Branch of Volgograd State Medical University (Pyatigorsk, Russia) E-mail:; ORCID iD 0000-0003-3217-0680Kh. A. IbaevaPost-graduate Student, Department of Pharmacognosy, Botany and Technology of Phytopreparations, Pyatigorsk Medical-Pharmaceutical Institute, Branch of Volgograd State Medical University (Pyatigorsk, Russia)E-mail: ibaeva.hadizhat@mail.ruM.V. LarskyPh.D. (Pharm.), Head of Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pyatigorsk Medical-Pharmaceutical Institute, Branch of Volgograd State Medical University (Pyatigorsk, Russia)E-mail:; ORCID iD0000-0002-4406-7165

Relevance. Development of new methods and improvement of existing methods of identification and quality control new and pharmacopoeia plant raw material involve detection of major or marker component. End-to-end standardization of plant raw material and drugs from these plant material can be carried out on this component.

Aim. Development of qualitative control analysis of Vaccinium uliginosum leaves by marker component – chlorogenic acid – using thin-layer chromatography.

Material and methods. Qualitative control analysis of V. uliginosum leaves was carried out with water-alcohol extract (ethanol 70%) from air-dried leaves. We have selected the best conditions for separating the marker component – chlorogenic acid – from other compounds: mobile phase, detection, application, type of chromatographic plate.

Results. Determination of the main group of biologically active compounds in the V. uliginosum leaves by thin-layer chromatography can be carried out under the following conditions:sorbent – silica gel, polymer or aluminum plates, eluent – anhydrous formic acid-glacial acetic acid–water–ethylacetate (7.5:7.5:18:67), detector – ammonia and aluminum chloride alcohol solution 2%, injection volume 7.5 µl of water–ethanol extract, 5 µl of chlorogenic acid standard solution, time of saturation of the chamber with eluent vapors – 30 min, elution time – 55–60 min, storing time in the dish drying cabinet after treat with a aluminum chloride alcohol solution2% 3 min.

Conclusions. We have developed qualitative control method of plant raw material – Vaccinium uliginosum leaves–by marker component chlorogenic acid using thin-layer chromatography.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):10-15
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Short-chain fatty acids quantitative determination methods in Arctium Lappa L. leaves biomass extracts

Khaibullin R.G., Tumilovich E.Y., Volkova L.V., Malkova T.L.


Relevance. Fermentation of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) leaves with the Lactobacillus plantarum microorganisms makes it possible to obtain biologically active substances containing a range of compounds in its composition. These compounds determined by the used plant material composition and synthesized bacterial metabolites, one of which are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that play important role in maintaining human health. In combination with the polysaccharide inulin, present in the leaves of A. lappa L, SCFA in the fermented product will have a complex effect, including prebiotic and metabiotic activity. This fermented biomass can be used as a pharmaceutical substance in a drugs production for the prevention and concomitant therapy of metabolic disorders.

Aim of the research - Development of SCFAs determination methods in A. lappa L. leaf biomass samples aqueous extracts. Evaluation of the using microbial fermentation effectiveness to obtain biologically active substances.

Material and methods. The objects of study - aqueous extracts (1:10) of A. lappa L. leaf biomass samples, obtained by drying, traditional fermentation, and microbial fermentation by L. plantarum 8P-A3 microorganisms. Research methods - gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography

Results. As a result, a method of some SCFA determination in plant extracts was developed. It has been established, that the acids-metabolites content in microbial-fermented A. lappa L. leaves biomass sample is higher than the acids content in samples obtained by drying and traditional fermentation.

Conclusion. The developed conditions of acetic, butyric and lactic acids determination in plant extracts by gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography can be used to analyze analogous products, as well as to develop determining the entire spectrum of SCFA methods. Plant raw materials fermentation by L. plantarum microorganisms makes it possible to obtain SCFA-enriched substances, which can be used to produce therapeutic and prophylactic drugs.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):16-22
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Antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of bone matrix impregnated with a solution of sanguiritrin after sterilization with an ozone-oxygen mixture

Litvinov Y.Y., Panin V.P., Krasnov V.V.


Relevance. Currently, the problem of creating implantation materials based on biodegradable polymers of natural origin with specified properties continues to be relevant.

Аim. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of bone matrix samples impregnated with sanguiritrin solution after sterilization with an ozone-oxygen mixture.

Material and methods. Cylindrical samples of cortical bone and bone matrix impregnated with sanguiritrin substance, a medicinal product of plant origin, were used in the work. The samples were sterilized with an ozone-oxygen mixture with an ozone concentration of 8 mg/l. Antimicrobial activity was tested using bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli; strains of micromycetes: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum.

Results. The study found that there was no significant effect of ozone-oxygen sterilization with an ozone concentration of 8 mg/l and a duration of 15 minutes in the flow mode on the antibacterial and antimycotic properties of the studied bone samples impregnated with a solution of antimicrobial and antifungal medicinal product of plant origin – sanguiritrin. Sanguiritrin alkaloids released after sterilization from demineralized and disorganized bone matrix do not lose their antimicrobial and antimycotic properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as micromycetes.

Conclusion. The approach proposed in the study can be used to further improve and develop new implantation drugs with specified antimicrobial properties and methods of their sterilization.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):23-28
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Cellulase activity of mycelial fungi collection strains study

Nikitina Z.K., Gordonova I.K.


Relevance. Cellulases occupy the third place in the world among industrially produced enzymes. This is largely due to the fact that cellulose is the main component of plant material, and the lignin-cellulose part of biomass accumulates in huge quantities in the form of waste from agriculture, woodworking and other industries. To convert this material, it is necessary to perform its enzymatic cleavage to glucose and cellobiose using various cellulases.

The purpose of this work was to study the cellulose activity of collection strains of mycelial fungi for the selection of promising strains-producers of cellulases

Material and methods. The objects of the study were 13 strains of 12 species of micromycetes from the microorganisms biocollection of the VILAR, belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Monilia, Penicillium. The work used surface and deep cultivation of fungi on media with partial replacement of sucrose with cellulose. The cellulolytic activity of microorganisms was assessed by the growth rate of colonies. In addition, at the last stage of cultivation, the surface of the agar was stained with Lugol solution, the diameter of the lysis zones was measured and lysis indices were calculated.

Mushroom cultivation in deep conditions was carried out in flasks on a shaker. The seed material was a suspension of spores of seven-day deuteromycete cultures. In the culture fluid filtrates, the total cellulase activity was evaluated by determining reducing sugars, as well as the concentration of sucrose.

Statistical processing of the results, regression and correlation analysis were carried out on a personal computer using the Microsoft Office Excel 2010 statistical software package.

Results. During surface cultivation on a modified medium with cellulose, fungi formed colonies and well-defined lysis zones, which indicated the synthesis and secretion of cellulolytic enzymes. Differences in radial growth rates and lysis indices were found in individual species and strains of micromycetes. Using regression and correlation analysis, six strains were selected for deep cultivation. The presence of hydrolytic activity with respect to microcrystalline cellulose in the culture fluid of fungi during cultivation on a medium with partial replacement of sucrose with cellulose is shown.

Conclusions. The synthesis of cellulases was found by the studied fungal cultures during surface and deep cultivation. A comprehensive analysis of the data obtained makes it possible to select the most promising cellulase-producing strains.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):29-35
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Blood xanthine oxidoreductase: activity profile in systemic lupuse erythematosus

Mozgovaya E.E., Bedina S.A., Trofimenko A.S., Spitsina S.S., Mamus M.A., Zborovskaya I.A.


Relevance. Oxidative stress is an integral part of the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). At the same time, hyperproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species prevails over the capabilities of the antioxidant system. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an important source of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and nitric oxide. The enzyme exhibits its activity in interconvertible forms: xanthine oxidase (XO; EC and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDG; EC

Objective – analysis of XDH and XO activities profiles in blood depending on the activity of SLE.

Material and methods. 56 SLE (diagnosis of SLE was verified using the EULAR/ACR criteria (2019)) patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with SLE were divided into 3 subgroups, according to the degree of process activity (classification based on clinical manifestations and the SLEDAI 2K index were used). Enzymes activities levels were measured in plasma (KOpl, XDGpl), lysed WBC (KOl, XDGl), and lysed RBC (KOer, XDGer).

Results. The enzyme indices of SLE patients significantly differed from the control values both in blood plasma and in cell lysates. Relationships between the activity levels of the D-form, as well as the O-form of XOR and the SLEDAI 2K index were revealed. The increase in the levels of XOpl, XDGer and a decrease in the levels of XDGpl, XOl, XDGl, XOer were determined on the background of an increase in disease activity. The levels of XO and XDG in plasma and cell lysates differed significantly between subgroups of patients with different SLE activity.

Conclusion. The significant changes in the XOR enzyme system, which depend on the activity of immune inflammation, were revealed in SLE. Changes in the balance of O- and D-forms XOR levels in plasma, lysed WBC and lysed RBC determine the blood profiles characteristic of different activity degrees in SLE.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):36-41
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Choleretic effect of the Hedysarum alpinum L. extract

Matypov B.D., Nikolaev S.M., Nikolaeva G.G., Sambueva Z.G.


Relevance. The topicality of the studies is driven by the increasing interest of the population of the plant medicinal remedies and needs in the replenishment of the national plant preparations list for prevention and treatment of the diseases.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the choleretic activity of the Hedysarum alpinum L. extract.

Material and methods. The experiments were carried out on 40 white male Wistar rats weighting 170.0–200.0 g.

In the conditions of acute experiments, the choleretic effect of the extract was evaluated in rats anesthetized by thiopental sodium (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) taking into account the whole volume of the secreted bile, contents of the bile acids, bilirubin and cholesterol. The bile was collected by the cannula inserted into the common bile duct for 4 hours. The Hedysarum alpinum extract obtained using the alcohol-water extraction from the plant material gathered in the Baikal region in 2021–2022 and conforming to the temporary pharmacopeial monograph 42-1998-85 was introduced into the duodenum of experimental animals (group 2, 3, 4, 5) at the doses 50–300 mg/kg in the form of water solution. Each group consisted of 8 animals. The control group (group 1) received the purified water in the same volume.

Results. The studies have shown that the Hedysarum alpinum extract stimulates the choleretic reaction, hastening the bile secretion and increasing the content of the bile acids in the secreted bile. Dose escalation of the Hedysarum alpinum extract has shown the further increase in the bile secretion and the content of bile acids as well as bilirubin and cholesterol in the secreted bile. The statistical data processing was made with the use of the Statistica application program.

Conclusion. The Hedysarum alpinum dry extract in experimental-therapeutic doses has the marked choleretic effect in anesthetized while rats.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):42-45
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The effect of the hormonal composition of the nutrient medium and endogenous polyphenols on the formation of callus tissue Ipomoea batatas (L.)

Kalashnikova E.A., Kirakosyan R.N., Abubakarov H.G., Zaitseva S.M.


Relevance. Ipomoea batatas (L.) is a valuable agricultural crop, in the tubers of which inulin accumulates, a natural polysaccharide that has no synthetic analogues. Market analysis shows that, as a rule, in the production of functional food products, Russian manufacturers use imported inulin. Currently, globalization, the information revolution, as well as the sanctions policy have exacerbated significant problems of the world economy, which increases the relevance of import substitution of a number of goods and products. It is known that cold stress is one of the main environmental factors limiting agricultural production. Low positive temperatures have a negative impact on the growth, development, productivity and yield of I. batatas (L.) plants. It is possible to create such plants using cell biotechnology methods, in particular, in vitro cell selection, which is carried out on a callus culture.

Purpose of the study. To study the effect of the hormonal composition of the nutrient medium and endogenous polyphenols on the formation of the callus tissue of sweet potatoes (I. batatas (L.)) in vitro.

Material and methods. The object of the study were three varieties of I. batatas (L.) (Purple, Jewel, Porto Rico). Callus tissue was obtained from segments of leaf blades and stem internodes, which were isolated from aseptic sweet potato plants. Explants were cultured on MS nutrient medium containing BAP 0.5 mg/l and 1 mg/l NAA/IAA/2,4-D. The localization of phenolic compounds was studied in leaves, stems, and apical buds of microclones. In addition, localization was studied in the callus tissue obtained on different auxins. Histochemical methods were used for this. For the amount of phenolic compounds, the material was stained with 0.08% Fast Blue reagent raster. To study the localization of flavans (catechins and proanthocyanidins), a reaction with a vanillin reagent in hydrochloric acid vapors was used.

Results. It was found that the auxins used had a significant effect on the intensity of callus tissue formation, its consistency and color. A well-proliferating callus tissue of light yellow color was obtained on a medium with NAA, a dense, green rhizogenic callus tissue was formed on a medium with IAA, and a dark brown tissue was formed on a medium with 2,4-D, which died during cultivation. As a rule, callus tissue was formed in those places where the formation and localization of phenolic compounds was insignificant.

Conclusion. It was found that in callus cultures initiated from leaf plates and grown on a nutrient medium with NAA, the content of cells with phenolic compounds was less than that of callus obtained from leaf plates as well, but on a medium with 2,4-D.

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):46-58
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In memory of Alexander Moiseevich Rabinovich (06/28/1930–10/30/2022)

Problems of Biological Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2022;25(11):59-60
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