Toxic effect of organophosphate compounds on the kidneys

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Abstract

Abstract. The study describes: the toxic effect of organophosphate intoxication compounds on the human and animal organism, the contribution of organophosphate to the chronic kidney disease epidemiology and the acute kidney poisoning pathophysiology caused by organophosphate compounds. The study shows oxidative stress and systemic hemodynamic disturbance in the pathogenesis of organophosphate-induced kidney injury. We summarized effects of organophosphate substances on the structural and functional kidneys tissue characteristics in humans and animals. Biomarkers useful for early diagnosis of kidneys toxic damage are shown. In study we considered microscopic and ultrastructural changes in the anatomical and histological kidney structures caused by acute and chronic organophosphate intoxication. The organophosphate compounds are highly toxic, easily overcome the epithelial integument, are able to penetrate cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier. These compounds are involved in the disruption of several key biological processes – the acetylcholinesterase irreversible inhibition and the oxidative stress induction in the excretory organs cells. The kidneys are not the first target in the toxic effect of organophosphate compounds in the human body, but are actively involved in the pathological process. It was established that kidneys tissue damage by organophosphate compounds can manifest itself differently depending on the duration of exposure, type and concentration of the toxic compound. It was shown that the kidney injury pathogenesis during acute and chronic intoxication by organophosphate compounds remains not fully understood. Nephron dysfunction patterns depending from various doses and toxic agents exposure duration have not been identified.

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About the authors

M. O. Sokolova

Military medical academy of S.M. Kirov; Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: vmeda-nio@mil.ru
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg; Saint Petersburg

V. E. Sobolev

Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology; Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: vmeda-nio@mil.ru
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg; Saint Petersburg

D. A. Reshetkina

Military medical academy of S.M. Kirov

Email: vmeda-nio@mil.ru
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

O. A. Nagibovich

Military medical academy of S.M. Kirov

Email: vmeda-nio@mil.ru
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg

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Copyright (c) 2020 Sokolova M.O., Sobolev V.E., Reshetkina D.A., Nagibovich O.A.

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