Approaches to isolating and purifying nucleic acids from blood for genotyping human leukocytic antigen

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Donor–recipient histocompatibility results from the presence on cell membranes of the main protein complex of histocompatibility and is a key condition for successful transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. To determine histocompatibility, human leukocyte antigen is genotyped, and its accuracy relied significantly on the quality and quantity of nucleic acids obtained from the biomaterial. In laboratory practice, the most pure and intact deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids are extracted from the blood; however, the choice of an accessible, effective, time-efficient, and viable method for their production remains challenging. The methods of isolation and purification of nucleic acids from the blood include organic extraction, salting out, and use of spin columns and magnetic particles (“bidids”), and their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency indicators, practicality, and cost were compared. The selection of the peripheral blood as a source of genetic material for genotyping human leukocyte antigen is justified. Experimental data comparing the price–quality ratio of commercial protocols for the extraction of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids from blood were analyzed. Prospects of modification of procedures for isolation and purification of nucleic acids from biomaterial for sequencing of genes of human leukocyte antigen classes I and II to increase efficiency of high-tech care are evaluated. Generally, the need for affordable and effective protocols for the extraction of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids from minimal biomaterial volumes stimulates the optimization and modification of existing protocols and the creation of new methods on new physicochemical principles.

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About the authors

Oleg A. Baranov

“ERA” Military Innovation Technopolis


senior operator

Russian Federation, Anapa

Dmitry A. Bayran

“ERA” Military Innovation Technopolis

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5527-5560

senior operator

Russian Federation, Anapa

Ilya V. Markin

“ERA” Military Innovation Technopolis

Author for correspondence.
SPIN-code: 6021-7645

candidate of technical sciences

Russian Federation, Anapa

Elena S. Shchelkanova

“ERA” Military Innovation Technopolis

SPIN-code: 8396-0602

candidate of biological sciences

Russian Federation, Anapa

Evgeny A. Zhurbin

“ERA” Military Innovation Technopolis

SPIN-code: 8426-1354

кандидат медицинских наук

Russian Federation, Anapa


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Organic (phenol-chloroform) extraction of nucleic acids: a — genomic deoxyribonucleic acid; b — ribonucleic acid

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2. Fig. 2. Isolation of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid by salting out

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3. Fig. 3. Isolation of nucleic acids using spin columns: a — genomic deoxyribonucleic acid; b — ribonucleic acid

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4. Fig. 4. Isolation of nucleic acids on magnetic particles: a — genomic deoxyribonucleic acid; b — ribonucleic acid

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Copyright (c) 2022 Baranov O.A., Bayran D.A., Markin I.V., Shchelkanova E.S., Zhurbin E.A.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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