No 4 (2016)

Articles

Prospects of development of hybrid power units of vehicles

Baulina E.E., Krutashov A.V., Serebriakov V.V.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the issues of design and improvement of vehicles with hybrid power units, which are intensively developing fuel saving and environment pollution reduction technology for automobile transport. The ideology of hybrid power plants lies in optimal or rational choice of engines operating mode and the efficient use of produced energy. Vehicles with hybrid power plants can be quite effective in saving fuel resources, implementation of modern energy efficiency requirements and improvement the local environment in case of their mass use. The description of the design, functionality and characteristics of two experimental vehicles with hybrid power plants are shown. The design and engineering solutions that allow to extend the functionality of hybrid power unit and to improve consumer performance of vehicles are shown. One of design solutions is proposed by the authors circuit liquid cooling system of reversible electrical machines combined with the internal combustion engine cooling system. Since the power characteristic of some electric motors is not significantly different from the power characteristics of the internal combustion engines, authors believe that to develop automobile hybrid power plant it is advisable to design a two-stage connecting - transforming device, installed in the unit with the reversible electric machines on the basis of patent description at the request of the authors of the invention. In addition, to expand the scope of implementation of automobiles with hybrid power plants and to ensure universality of application, due to specific road and climate conditions of Russia, the authors of this article proposed a concept of extended functionality for vehicle with a hybrid power plant, where two electrical machines having individual kinematic connection with the corresponding wheel of drive axle are mounted in drivetrain. For the concept of such a vehicle with a hybrid power plant authors issued a patent for the invention.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):2-14
pages 2-14 views

Method for assessing the changes of the thermal state of cylinder head of engine with air-cooling when boosting

Vasilyev A.V., Lartsev A.M., Fedyanov E.A.

Abstract

The diesel engines with air-cooling have lower than engines with liquid cooling values of the average effective pressure. This happens because of lower stiffness of body parts of air-cooled diesel engines and the difficulty of maintaining within acceptable limits the temperature of the parts of the cylinder group when increasing power. Most heat-stressed elements of the design of the air-cooled diesel are cylinders heads. When boosting diesel with supercharge the question arises about possible limits of increasing boost pressure and the required depth of the charge of air cooling, where the cylinder head temperatures do not exceed the permissible limits. Predictive calculation at various levels of boosting the temperature fields in the cylinders heads by solving the heat equation through numerical methods faces the problem of determining with sufficient accuracy of the boundary conditions, primarily from the side of the cooling air. For air-cooled diesel engines ready or prepared for production is typically conducted the thermometering of cylinders heads defining, inter alia, the temperature value at the head surface at the bottom in most heat-stressed zones. A method for estimating changes in the thermal state of the head cylinder of engine with air-cooling when boosting, based on using data of testing and thermometering of diesel with initial level of boosting, is proposed. The method allows to set the limits of the possible boosting at various adjustments of diesel. The effectiveness of the method is confirmed by an example calculation for tractor diesel 8ChVN15/16. Comparison of the results of calculation of the maximum temperature value of cylinder head bottom with experimental data indicates that the values differ by no more than 1.8%. The proposed method correctly predicts the change of the thermal state of the cylinder head when boosting diesel with air-cooling by supercharge and can be used in engineering practice to assess the possible limits of boosting such diesels, choosing adjustments of fuel handling and parameters of coolant of charging air.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):15-19
pages 15-19 views

Prediction of traction indicators of wheeled tractors under dynamic nature of hooking strain

Gapich D.S., Privalov V.A.

Abstract

The main sources of the uneven impact of soil background on the work of machine-tractor unit is the unevenness of the surface of the soil background and the heterogeneity of soil inclusions in it, impermanence of hooking strain in time or traveled distance. The first group of causes forms the additional resistance to rolling of the tractor, the second group of reasons is a source of constant redistribution of vertical loads on tractor axles, generating its longitudinal angular vibrations. This random nature of loading and the spectrum of the generated effects from the soil background, with different phase displacements relative to each other may provide a continuous decline in bearing capacity of soil, leading to the variation of the coefficient of slipping of the tractor by separate curves of slipping. A deterministic analysis of the phenomena arising from the interaction of wheels with the soil in the described conditions allowed to develop a mathematical model for predicting the traction indicators of wheeled tractors of different design schemes, that takes into account the constructive parameters of the tractor, the geometric characteristics of the tire of the drive wheel, physico-mechanical properties of soil background, as well as the frequency and the amplitude of the hooking strain. Other factors, such as the inertial and elastic properties of the elements of power transmission, the possibility of self-generation of stable oscillations of the effective forces in the contact patch due to the periodicity of the change of tire grousers were considered in the model as constant in existing loading conditions. The calculation for this model, ultimately, allowed us to obtain static and dynamic curve of slipping of the tractor with the wheel formula 4x2. In general, theoretical evaluation of high-speed traction methods proved the necessity to take into account the reduced traction of agricultural tractors with increasing degree of uneven load on the hook.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):20-24
pages 20-24 views

Balancing of three-cylinder engine through the action of reactive torque

Gusarov V.V., Ashishin A.A.

Abstract

The improvement of the balance of reciprocating internal combustion engines is an important task of improving the design, the solution of which allows to improve the environmental properties of the automobile by reducing vibration and noise. Perturbations from the action of overturning (reactive) torque are substantially different from the action of inertial forces and moments. Its common quantitative evaluation in existing methods of analysis is missing, which complicates a general analysis of the balance. The authors proposed to use as the same for all sources of imbalance the measures of perturbation value the maximum for the period of the pulse value, developed a software system that allow to perform such an assessment of unbalance for three-cylinder reciprocating engine type L3 with the specified weight and size characteristics and modes of operation. The mechanism is proposed to partially balance the reactive torque of the engine, the optimal parameters for the field of specified modes of operation was found. Using the developed complex the analytical quantification of unbalance from the action of overturning moment of three-cylinder engine with typical mass-dimensional parameters as when balancing with proposed method and without it was made. For a typical scheme of moment partial balancing of forces of inertia of the first order in considered engine the assessments of disturbances were made and their effect on different modes was studied. It was found out that in the engine of L3 type unbalance from the action of reactive torque at low and medium frequencies of rotation makes a major contribution to vibroactivity of engine surpassing in values of the impulse contribution from the residual unbalance from the moment of inertia of the first order inherent to typical designs. The mechanism allows to decrease this imbalance several times.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):25-30
pages 25-30 views

The modern state of system of technical inspection of transport vehicles in the Russian Federation

Zubriskiy S.G., Tupitsyn I.I., Kataev M.V., Lysenko E.S., Larinskiy A.S., Salnikov S.S.

Abstract

The article discusses the current state of system of technical inspection from the side of all involved parties. Number of negative aspects that caused social tension in conduction of technical inspection and proper control by the supervisory authority were identified. In the first place it is caused by combining in one structure, the Russian Union of Automotive Insurers, the functions of the accreditation of inspection and functions of control and supervision over their activities. At the moment there is a sad tendency in increasing of road accidents in consequence of a technical failure of vehicles. The relevance of the work is confirmed by obtained practical data during observations of some of the inspection stations were found a number of violations of the Federal law from July 1, 2011 No. 170-FZ “On technical inspection of vehicles and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation”. In this work, we also carried out comparative characteristics of the previous system of technical inspection and the existing one, the successful historical experience is given, the authors offer solutions to exit this extremely negative situation. It is worth noting that the article was used in preparation of speech of the Presidium of the State Council on road traffic safety, the Governor of Vladimir region Svetlana Orlova. She assessed the current system of technical inspection and offered to upgrade it by means of formation of state policy in relation to procedures of inspection and taking measures for control and state supervision over organisation of it, excluding the falsification of results, because behind every driver are people and their lifes.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):31-35
pages 31-35 views

The choice of the main parameters of vehicles of classes A, B and C

Kravets V.N., Musarskiy R.A., Volkov S.A.

Abstract

The object of the study are the vehicles of classes A, B and C on the European classification made in 2010 - 2015 in more than 80 enterprises in all automotive countries. The purpose of the study is to establish the dependencies curb and total mass of automobiles the main classification parameter is the overall length. The novelty of this work is that we studied a model of modern automobiles , while similar investigations were made on vehicles produced in the beginning of XXI century, most of which are now discontinued. Completed work is relevant because its results scientifically allow to choose when designing critical design parameters of passenger automobiles the curb and total mass. On the basis of statistical processing source data were obtained analytical and graphic dependences of curb and total mass of automobiles from their overall lengths in each class and, in addition, in the largest class C. These dependencies are set separately for sedan, hatchback, coupe and cabriolet automobiles. In total, were analyzed 289 automobile models. A large volume of the investigated models allowed to obtain statistically reliable results. The article shows that the accuracy from 7.5% to 14.4% of the dependency between mass and overall length of vehicles of all studied classes can be approximated by polynomials of second order. The results of the study are recommended for use in design and research organizations of automotive companies for a reasonable choice of design parameters of the designed passenger cars.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):36-41
pages 36-41 views

Evaluation of ability to regenerate oscillation energy by the suspension system of a two-axle truck

Malikov R.R., Smirnov A.A., Klimov A.V.

Abstract

One of the challenges that currently face manufacturers of electric vehicles is the development of an effective energy source. Currently, the main independent source of energy of electric vehicle is an electric traction battery of chemical type, but due to its low intensity, it cannot provide long mileage without recharging. The article describes a method of improving vehicles ' energy efficiency through energy recovery oscillations of the suspension system when driving on uneven road surface. To convert the mechanical energy of vibrations into electrical, the leading manufacturers of the world are developing special regenerative shock absorbers. The article describes the design of such absorbers designed by companies Audi and ZF. For quantitative evaluation of vibrational energy that is potentially possible to convert to electric we used a simulation mathematical model of motion of two-axle vehicle on ridges, implemented in the simulation package MATLAB/Simulink. As inputs in the model was used the implementation of random road profiles that were obtained by the method of forming a filter by known from the literature the spectral characteristics of the irregularities for different types of roads. As a result of the mathematical model of computational experiments, it was determined the amount of dissipation in the suspension system energy when the vehicle is moving with different speed on different road types. Also for comparison was determined the energy spent by the vehicle at different speeds on the road with asphalt. The comparison of the obtained energy values allows to make a conclusion about prospects of application of energy recovery oscillations of the suspension system especially for vehicles capable of high speeds on dirt roads.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):42-49
pages 42-49 views

Increase of the accuracy and reliability of output parameters determination of vehicle Integrated Navigation Systems

Novikov P.V., Sheypak A.A., Gerdi V.N., Novikov V.V.

Abstract

Dynamic development of navigation technologies opens up possibilities for the successful solution of a wide range of navigation tasks of mobile objects. For a long time the extension of the scope of navigation systems for transport applications was constrained by their high cost. The emergence of a small cheap inertial sensors, based on MEMS technology have resulted in integrated navigation systems, including the inertial and satellite GPS/GLONASS inertial modules. For solving problems of navigation of ground vehicles the integrated system is combinated with odometer. Nowadays a number of car navigation systems were made including the odometer along with the inertial measurement unit and a receiver of a satellite navigation system. However, most of these systems only exists in the form of models. The article provides the option of constructing the integrated navigation system of a vehicle brought to practical implementation. The analysis of the errors of the navigation system was made. The method of correction of errors due to the damping of the errors in speed with subsequent consideration of the damping of the amendments was proposed. Method is distinguished by ease of implementation and reliability. Correction of the navigation parameters calculated on the base of measurements of inertial sensors and odometer is permissible only when it is known that their accumulated errors have exceeded the corresponding error of the satellite navigation solution. Essentially new to the theory and practice of operation of vehicle is the introduction of a system of criteria characterizing the stability of mode generation navigation parameters. In article the numerical value of criteria-based assessments are of interest to developers of navigation systems, since accounting provides the reliability of the determination of output parameters of the system. The practical value of the presented research results, is that they can be used in the construction of high-precision navigation system of a ground vehicle.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):50-56
pages 50-56 views

Stabilization of the vertical reactions of the road on the wheel when driving automobile on periodic profile

Ryazantsev V.I., Balsam A.

Abstract

For various reasons roads could be in not very good condition. In particular, at the roads could appear the areas with clearly defined periodic profile. The traffic on such road sections may be accompanied by resonance oscillations of the wheels with their separation from the road. This causes a decrease in stability of the vehicle. To combat this phenomenon the new system of active safety of the cat could be applied - stabilization system of the vertical reactions of the road on the wheel when driving on a periodic profile. Such a system to control the vertical reaction uses an execution unit called the actuator. This is the engine in the form of a hydraulic cylinder or linear motor that is included in suspension in the parallel elastic element and shock absorber. The actuator is controlled by a signal generated by the control unit, which receives a signal from the sensor of vertical force that is perceived by a bus or a signal to replace it. The article shows that the linear control system copes with the elimination of separation of wheel from the road, reducing fluctuations in the value of the vertical reaction to 10% of the static load. In the hydraulic control system vertical reaction of road on the wheel may cause the nonlinear relationship of the values of vertical reaction and the force generated by a hydraulic cylinder. The calculations showed the feasibility of stabilizing the vertical reactions in this case. However, this nonlinearity can cause some instability of vibrations of a vertical reaction. Another promising solution to the design of the hydraulic system of stabilization of the vertical reaction to the preservation of its sufficient efficiency is the use of hydraulic cylinders of unilateral action, which simplifies the system and makes it more available for use, even on compact automobiles.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):57-65
pages 57-65 views

Mathematical modeling of motion of lorry convoy on the deformable support surface in view of emerging dynamic processes

Selyuk D.V., Karpukhin S.A.

Abstract

An approach to mathematical modeling of motion of lorry convoy on the deformable supporting surface, taking into account dynamic processes, including re-distribution of normal reactions on the wheels and the oscillatory nature of the interaction forces units trailed the train are discussed. The mathematical dependence allowing to describe dynamic processes, characteristic for movement of trains: fluctuations in the thrust on the tow hook of lorry convoy in the function of the structural parameters of the towing device of the tractor; the geometric parameters of the joint "tractor - trailer" and is given the coefficient of resistance to movement of the train and the redistribution of normal reactions on the wheels of the train taking into account the applicable forces and moments, dimensional parameters of the tractor and trailer link and their changes due to the immersion of the moving vehicle into a deformable supporting surface. Article describes the dynamic processes of redistribution of normal reactions in the wheels of the train and fluctuations in the strength of interaction links of trailer road train, influencing the parameters of its motion for deformable bearing surface. The dependences, describing the redistribution of normal reactions on the wheels of the trailer, take into account the forces and moments, geometric parameters of the tractor and trailer link and their change due to the immersion of the moving vehicle into a deformable supporting surface. Dependences are aimed at further deepening of the theory of special dynamics of the trains, especially with regard to his motion on a deformable support surface, and can be used in the modelling of soft start and rectilinear uniform motion of this type of vehicle. They are common on vehicles used in various sectors of economic activity and in the army.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):66-73
pages 66-73 views

Method of identifying transfer function of a pneumatic/hydro apparatus

Trykhanov K.A., Efremova K.D., Makarov I.V.

Abstract

A large number of modern industrial systems of control by actuators is composed of elements of pneumatic/hydraulic automatics. In the synthesis of such systems, however, the challenge is to study their dynamic properties and stability. These quality systems are influenced by their constituent components, in particular pneumatic/ hydro apparatus, because the elements after connection with each other can form an unstable system, and/or, on the contrary, a sustainable system may contain unstable elements. To analyze it, it is needed to check the stability of any component included in the projected system. On this basis, the aim of this work was to establish unambiguous relationships obtained by experimental frequency characteristics of pneumatic/ hydro apparatus and type of transfer functions that allow to analyze the stability of the system that uses it. The article presents the method of obtaining the experimental amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of the pneumatic/ hydro apparatus, given the basic relationships required to build them. The issue of identification of transfer functions on the example of selected number of pneumoapparatus, obtained experimentally, the amplitude and phase frequency characteristics are considered. For each of these pneumoapparatus were obtained constant coefficients of the transfer function. The estimation of the dynamic properties of these pneumoapparatus was made. As evaluation criteria were adopted: the transient time and the maximum dynamic error. There was performed assessment of the stability of the system consisting of a pneumatic cylinder with sensor feedback on the status of the stock jointly with each of the considered pneumoapparatus. To study the stability of the system the linearized mathematical model was composed for this system. For the created model of the system was built amplitude and phase frequency characteristics in logarithmic scale (LAH and LPH), which were found reserves of amplitude and phase of the whole system. According to the results of the work performed, conclusions were drawn.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):74-81
pages 74-81 views

Analysis of methods and means of ecological control of harmful emissions of exhaust gases of automobiles

Solomin V.A., Shabanov A.V., Shabanov A.A., Kilyushnik V.M., Mladenskiy A.V.

Abstract

The problem of reduction of atmospheric air pollution by exhaust gases is discussed. A brief assessment of the impact of transport on the environment is given. The components of the pollutants are discussed. It is noted that in considering this problem, the methods of measurement and control of harmful emissions of the vehicles play a crucial role. The emphasis on the subject is made at the normative Russian and international standards, UN Rules and adoption of purposeful measures in the field of environmental protection during vehicles operation. The modern methods and devices used for the measurement of emissions of harmful substances of exhaust gases of automobiles are given. The conformity of the newly introduced vehicles to environmental requirements of international normative documents (UN Rules) on the emissions of harmful substances applies to a large extent the accuracy of measurement of gas analysis equipment. It is associated with a significant reduction of the measured values of concentrations of harmful emissions for vehicles of the ecological class EURO-5. It was noted that today especially relevant becomes the problem not only to improve the vehicle design from the point of limiting toxicity, but also improvement of technical control in operation. The lack of control and low level of maintenance lead to the breakdown of the normal operation of units and systems of the vehicle, which leads to increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmospheric air. As a result, all the efforts of the automotive industry to improve engine and neutralization systems to ensure environmental standards can be mitigated. In this regard, there were proposed approaches for the improvement of methods of technical control of vehicles. Substantially improvements of environmental control of motor vehicles are connected with performance of the onboard diagnostic systems of the vehicle in operation and neutralization systems. In order to guarantee their effective functioning during the life of the vehicle it is proposed to establish a system of replacement of catalytic converters of a vehicle failed during operation of the vehicle.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):82-89
pages 82-89 views

Reduction in strength requirements of material of the subframe of truck with independent suspension by topological optimization of the design and power scheme

Shabolin M.L., Vdovin D.S.

Abstract

The paper describes application of the method of topology optimization on the basis of finite element modeling when design highly loaded parts of the chassis of the vehicle. The brief theoretical information on method of optimization based on the application of the concept of body with variable density is given and two popular formulations of the problem were considered: with objective function in type of minimum strain energy of deformation and with objective function in type of minimum mass. In first case, constraints on objective function are set in the form of a maximum usage percentage of the original volume of space design, and in the second case, restrictions on objective function are set in form of maximum allowable displacements and stresses in the elements of space design. An example of the synthesis of the power scheme of the front sub-frame independent suspension of the truck with a description of the estimated model is given. For the solution of optimization problems were selected five the most heavy-load modes of the frame. The figure is shown of the available layout space design for subframe. The result of solving the problem of topological optimization is subject to a geometrical interpretation in the form of separate parts and combining them into assembly units. The result is the design of the subframe, close to the truss type (without the elements, working in bending and shear). For the design was carried out verifying calculation of strength at the same five load modes. The analysis results show the strength of low operating voltage in parts of the subframe, due to the lack of significant stress concentrators and compliance of space topology of the sub-frame structure to solution of the problem of topological optimization. Low operating voltage allows to use as construction material of sub-frame the cheap steel with low strength properties. Thus, the use of topology optimization to create an optimal constructive-power circuits of highly loaded structures allows to reduce the demands on the material properties while improving the performance characteristics of the products - durability, stiffness and reduced mass.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):90-96
pages 90-96 views

Experimental evaluation of the loads influencing the rubber parts of track chain with rubber and metallic hinges

Sharipov V.M., Barsukov Y.N., Korostylev S.A.

Abstract

The results of experimental research of loads acting in rubber and metallic hinges of track chain for agricultural tractors of class 3 are shown. Tracked tractor was equipped with a caterpillar with rubber-metallic hinges of sequential type of five towing point variant with restrictor of radial deformation. To determine the forces acting on hinge was used strain-gauge joint and angle relative to the rotation of track chain was defined. In addition, the research was accompanied by a recording of the following parameters: frequency of rotation of the motor shaft, torque on the shaft of clutch, torque on driving wheel, number of revolutions of the drive wheel, number of revolutions of track-measuring device. These parameters were determined during tractor movement at different gears with changing range of hook loads from 15 to 32 kN. Experimental studies and their analysis showed that the restrictor is in contact with the surface of towing point during movement of the tractor in all gears when hooking load exceeds 15 kN, not only in the driving area of caterpillar tracks, but also on the supporting unit. Rubber elements on the contour of the tracked bypass are subject to deformation in the radial direction. The radial displacement is not constant and on free unit values 0.05...0.15 mm and varies with frequency close to track one. On all parts of caterpillar tracks the twisting of the rubber elements is accompanied by a preliminary deformation in the radial direction. The obtained results allow to substantiate the modes of loading rubber components of track chain hinges for bench testing and when calculating the stress-strain state.
Izvestiya MGTU MAMI. 2016;(4):97-106
pages 97-106 views

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