Vol 7, No 1 (2019)



Bondarev A.V., Zhilyakova E.T.


The aim of this research is the review of scientific and technical literature regarding possibility of using sorption processes in the technology of drug delivery systems.Materials and methods. The materials are the following electronic resources: eLIBRARY, CyberLeninka, PubMed. The methods of review are analysis and synthesis. The study covers the scientific literature from 1996 up to the present time.Results. Sorbents are used as carriers for various medicinal peroral substances, they are also dispensers of various compounds in the form of polymeric eye films and stents in the human body. The delivery of medicinal substances occurs with the help of sorption processes of mass transfer. Currently, the following medical substances are used as carriers for medicinal substances: activated carbon, mineral sorbents (medical clays, synthetic sorbents), polymers and their biosimilars. 6 groups of pharmaceutical substances are registered for the production of enterosorbents in Russia and they can be used as sorbent carriers in the sorption drug system. They are: activated carbon, colloidal silicon dioxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, dioctahedral smectite, polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate. As a result of the study, the model of the sorption drug system has been developed. It consists of sorbent carrier, active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients that provide the desorption. Desorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient may contribute to its modified release. The technology for obtaining sorption medicinal systems requires further study and development of modeling methods, searching for experimental pharmacological models and technological methods, which make it possible to obtain sorption dosage form with modified release.Conclusion. The review of the sorption processes used in the technology of drug delivery systems has been carried out. The model of the sorption drug system has been developed.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):4-12
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Alekseeva K.A., Pisarev D.I., Malyutina A.Y., Zhilyakova E.T., Tsvetkova Z.E., Polkovnikova Y.A.


Biologically active sulfur-containing compounds (BASC) exhibit pronounced antioxidant properties. Glutathione reduced (GSH) occupies a particular position among these compounds. It represents a key link in the 3 antioxidant systems of the body from the existing four. Based on the foregoing, a GSH-based dosage form with antioxidant properties was proposed. The aim of this study is to work out a model granulated dosage form based on GSH and methods of its analysis by means of pre-column derivatization with ortho-phthalic aldehyde.Materials and methods. GSH and granulated dosage form based on GSH obtained by wet granulation were used as the object of the study. Quantitative evaluation of GSH content in the obtained granules was carried out using pre-column derivatization by the method of reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (RP HPLC). Ortho-phthalic aldehyde was used as a derivatizing agent. A diode-array detector was used to detect the resulting derivative. Ortho-phthalic aldehyde was used as a derivatizing agent. A diode-matrix detector was used to find out the resulting derivative.Results. In the course of the work, a model dosage form was created – granules based on GSH. By reference to the recommendations on the dosage of the drug, the concentration of the active substance was selected. Lactose was chosen as an auxiliary component. Physical and technological characteristics of a model sample of granules with GSH and lactose as a filler were studied. A method of quantitative determination of GSH in granules using pre-column derivatization with ortho-phthalic aldehyde was developed and validated by HPLC. The method of quantitative determination of GSH in granules with the use of pre-column derivatization by ortho-phthalic aldehyde by HPLC was developed and validated.Conclusion. The developed granulated dosage form meets the requirements given in the pharmacopoeial item “Granules” according to the analyzed indicators. Using the validation evaluation it was established, that the developed methods for the quantitative determination of GSH in granules is correct, precise and specific.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):13-19
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Voronkov A.V., Pozdnyakov D.I., Nigaryan S.A., Khouri E.I., Miroshnichenko K.A., Sosnovskaya A.V., Olokhova E.A.


The aim of the paper is to assess the change in the mitochondrial respirometric function under conditions of various pathologies.Materials and methods. The study was performed on male Wistar rats. Experimental focal cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, coronary occlusive myocardial infarction and muscle dysfunction were used as pathological models. Focal ischemia was reproduced by the method of irreversible thermocoagulation of the middle cerebral artery. Traumatic brain injury was modeled by the method of free fall of the load. Experimental myocardial infarction was reproduced by ligating the descending branch of the left coronary artery. Muscle dysfunction was modeled by the method of «forced swimming with a 20% burden». The respiratory function of mitochondria was assessed by the method of respirometry by the change in oxygen consumption when introducing mitochondrial respiration into the medium: Oligomycin, Rotenone and FCCP. Additionally, we evaluated the intensity of the glycolysis process and the activity of respiratory complexes I, II, IV and V. In order to comprehensively assess the respiratory function, an ELISA study was conducted to determine the concentration of ATP, mitochondrial ATP synthetase, cytochrome C oxidase and NADP-Oxidase 4.Results. In the course of the study it was established that under conditions of experimental cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, myocardial infarction and muscle dysfunction, the ATP-generating ability of mitochondria the maximum breathing and respiratory capacity deteriorated, herby the decrease in overall respiratory function was accompanied by an increase in glycolysis, which was uncompensated, as well as dysfunction of mitochondrial complexes I, II, IV and V, confirmed by an increase in NADPH oxidase 4 activity and a decrease in cytochrome C oxidases and ATP synthetase. As a result, the observed changes in mitochondrial respiration function contributed to a decrease in ATP concentration under conditions of cerebral ischemia - by 3.2 times (p <0.05), traumatic brain injury – by 2.6 times (p <0.05), myocardial infarction – by 1.8 times (p <0.05) and muscle dysfunction – by 4 times (p <0.05).Conclusion. Basing on the data obtained, we can assume that in conditions of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, myocardial infarction and muscle dysfunction, there is deterioration of the mitochondrial respirometric function with inhibition of ATP synthesis and increased glycolysis.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):20-31
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Matveev A.V., Krasheninnikov А.E., Egorova E.A., Konyaeva Е.I.


Drug hypersensitivity reactions are among the most important problems that arise when using drugs. The occurrence of such reactions in the population is at least 7% and tends to a constant increase. The most frequent manifestations of drug hypersensitivity reactions are medically induced skin lesions.The aim of this research was to study and analyze the cases of development of skin drug reactions on the basis of the reports on the adverse reactions (ADRs) of the drugs, registered in the Republic of Crimea in the period from 2009 to 2016.Materials and methods. The objects of the research were report cards about the adverse reactions, registered in the regional base (registry) of spontaneous messages called ARCADe (Adverse Reactions in Crimea, Autonomic Database) for the period from 2009 to 2016. During the analysis of the report cards, 2,698 cases of the development of skin drug reactions arising in response to the use of drugs in patients were selected. The study of the frequency of occurrence of skin drug reactions in the application of various groups of drugs was carried out taking into account the codes of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Сlassification System of drugs of the World Health Organization (WHO).Results. Of the study showed that the development of skin drug reactions was most often associated with the use of antimicrobial agents for internal use, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), drugs for the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and agents that affect the nervous system. Among the clinical manifestations of skin drug reactions, generalized and localized rashes prevailed, and itching and hyperemia of the skin were much less common in patients. The analysis of age categories showed that the most frequently medically induced reactions occurred in children from birth to 3 years, as well as in the age group of patients from 46 to 60 years. The risk factors identified in the course of the analysis, were female gender, early childhood and old age, as well as the presence of aggravated drug allergy history.Conclusion. Drug hypersensitivity reactions create certain difficulties in clinical practice related to the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis, and may also cause danger to health or life of patients. In this connection, the study of such adverse reactions is the most important task of practical health care and requires direct participation of doctors of all specialties.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):32-41
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Stepenko Y.V., Soldatov V.O., Zatolokina M.A., Mayorova A.V., Sysuev B.B., Demidenko A.N., Ivahno E.N., Sarycheva M.V., Pokrovskiy M.V.


The aim of the article is to evaluate Bischofit gel reparative activity in a linear wound model in rats.Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats weighing from 193 to 218 grams. On the 8th day after modeling a linear wound defect 50±1 mm long, the reparative effect of bischofite, Actovegin and Contractubex in the gel compositions was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out using: the following methods: 1) studying the physicomechanical characteristics of the wound defect (a wound-tearing machine Metrotest REM-0.2-1); 2) morphological examination of the skin graft taken from the wound area (stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Van Gieson‘s solution); 3) determining the ratio of collagen types I and III in a polarizing microscope (the picrosirius was red); 4) cоlorimetric analysis of the hydroxyproline concentration in the wound surface tissues.Results. On the 8th day, the wound defects sampled from the bischofite treated animals, were characterized by the most pronounced strength (the average force at the rupture moment was 13.70 N), which was significantly higher (p<0.01) than in the control group (11.76 N). Actovegin showed less influence on this parameter (12.60 N), and the use of Contractubex led to its decrease (8.10 N). The effect of the drugs on the morphological state of the skin tissue was similar. The hydroxyproline concentration in the studied groups’ samples was: Bischofit 13.23±1.68; Actovegin 15.89±1.37; Contractubex 17.61 ± 0.67; the Control was 16.59±1.08. According to the impact on the ratio of collagen in types I and III, the studied drugs were arranged in the following sequence: Bishofit (0.73±0.023) > Actovegin (0.67±0.017) > Control (0.56±0.012) > Contractubex (0.38 ±0.020).Conclusion. The carried out study showed that Bischofit has a pronounced ability to stimulate the regeneration of the skin wound defect. Hereby, the reference drug Actovegin showed less activity, and Contractubex worsened wound healing.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):42-52
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Oganesyan E.T., Shatokhin S.S., Glushko A.A.


45 compounds uniting 3 groups of derivatives of cinnamic acid, chalcone and flavanone, have been studied. Each of them includes 15 substances. The analyzed compounds contain a common structural fragment, which is a cinnamic acid residue (cinnamoyl fragment).The aim is to study the quantum-chemical parameters of the listed groups of the compounds in order to predict possible ways of their interaction with the most aggressive and dangerous of the active oxygen species (ROS) – a hydroxyl radical.Materials and methods. For the analyzed structures, the Mulliken charges (a.u.), bond numbers (Nμ), unsaturation index (IUA), and electron density values on all 9-carbon atoms of the cinnamoyl fragment have been determined. The calculations have been carried out on a workstation with an Intel Xeon E5-1620 3.5 GHz processor, 20 GB of RAM. The semi-empirical method PM7 was used (WinMopac 2016 program). The ORCA 4.1 program was used to calculate the energies of homolytic cleavage of the O – H bond.Results. The analysis of Mulliken charges (a.u.), bonded numbers (Nμ), unsaturation indices (IUA), and electron density revealed a number of regularities on the basis of which it can be concluded, that taking into account the nature of the substituent, the most probable for addition in the aryl residueare positions C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4 and C-5. In the propenone fragment, the radical НО∙ first attacks position 8, then 7. For the hydroxy-substituted, the energy of the homolytic breaking of the H – O bond has been determined and it has been established that the spatial difficulty of phenols (compounds 13k, 13x, 13f, 14k, 14x, 14f) H-O bonds are the smallest and on average are -160.63 kJ/mol. It has also been established that the higher the positive Mulliken charge on the carbon atom with which the phenolic hydroxyl is bound, the lower the energy of the homolytic breaking of the H – O bond and the more stable the resulting phenoxy radicalis.Conclusion. The carried out quantum chemical calculations allow us to conclude that the studied classes of compounds can be used to bind the hydroxyl radical formed in the body, causing various kinds of mutations, leading, among other things, to the development of oncological diseases.
Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2019;7(1):53-66
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