Vol 2, No 2 (2021)


V.K. Trediakovskii’s «In praise of summer»: on mushrooms, flies, and some mechanisms of cultural memory

Osokin M.Y.


V.K. Trediakovskii’s poem «In Praise of Summer» was not included in his collections of poetry or complete works and only appeared in manuscripts, and many well-educated people remembered it as example of his bad poetry. In collective memory the poem was reduced from six to four lines and was always cited ironically, almost as a self-caricature. However, over time its original lyrical quality could also be perceived. In the 1840s. the poem, despite the ironic quotation marks presumed by lovers of poetry, «In Praise of Summer» began to reassume its original function – the function of a lyric utterance describing the summer season.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):13-19
pages 13-19 views

The evolution of poems as machines

Faustov S.M.


This article discusses the use of physical terms to describe literary works, words such as «force», «power», and «machine», that have long been used to interpret texts. If a poem is a machine made of words, then it produces an effect or does intended work. The work done by this «machine of words» takes place in the reader’s mind or soul and enriches the mind with new knowledge. The author illustrates this idea with examples from poetry of the past and present centuries. Techniques that reinforce the analogy between verse and machine are shown, as well as the evolutionary changes occurring in both poetry and machines. This provides a new perspective on the complex processes of the modern world.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):20-26
pages 20-26 views

Idealism as «criminal content» (concerning A.F. Losev’s «restoration» of the world of eternal ideas)

Kuznetsov V.A.


In our country, the attitude of the power structures to science as an institution of culture remains very important. Тhe degree of state interference in the internal affairs of the academic community is growing, and the petty tutelage of scientific institutions and control over their intellectual activity are increasing. Study of the Soviet state under Stalin shows what damage such interference in scientific institutions, especially those of a humanitarian profile, can cause. This article describes the start of repressions against one of the most significant philosophers and philologists of the USSR, Alexei Fedorovich Losev. In this case the target of persecution was the humanities, which, in the opinion of the ruling elite, opposed the ideology of emerging Stalinism. Scientists were accused of adherence to idealism, and, consequently, to bourgeois values. By the end of the 1940’s-early 1950’s, the internal logic of repressive mechanisms in the Soviet Union led to the destruction of genetics, then cybernetics and sociology. This caused the country’s lag in these branches of science that has still not been fully overcome.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):29-37
pages 29-37 views

Cross-cultural compositions for landscape contact zones of civilization connections

Loiko A.I.


The article examines the cross-border dynamics of the intellectual traditions of European civilizational structures using the example of cross-cultural compositions in the space of Belarus. The novelty of the research lies in the description of the tendency for the transformation of cross-cultural compositions under the influence of historical eras. The phenomena of the Renaissance, the second scholasticism, the Baroque era, Romanticism and Postmodernism are considered. Cross-cultural compositions had a constructive beginning that dominated the technologies of the clash of civilizations. This can be seen in the cultural landscape of Belarus. In it, the strategy of the second scholasticism was realized to oust competitors from the cultural space of Belarus with the arguments concerning education and art. The cross-cultural composition of Romanticism strengthened the common European tendency in Belarus to integrate elite culture with elements of folk tradition. This contributed to the formation of Orientalism and the active participation of the natives of Belarus in the study of the East. Modernism put an emphasis on the adaptation of visual arts to technogenic reality and on the development of a methodology for dialogue. Vitebsk became a key locus of the cross-cultural composition of Modernism.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):38-47
pages 38-47 views

The influence of reformation on education, science and culture in early modern England

Yerokhin V.N.


This article studies the Reformation and Protestantism as a religious potential for cultural evolution. The religious confession influenced all areas of social life, including education, science, and culture. The ideas of Protestantism, based on the need for every believer to read the text of Holy Scripture independently without any intermediaries and external authorities began to form a special type of personality in Protestant culture. An individual began to seek education and to develop his point of view on the phenomena and processes of natural and social genesis. The study has also revealed that in the development of English Protestantism the tendencies highlighted in the article led to an «educational revolution» of the second half of the sixteenth to the seventeenth century. The increase in the number of university students during this period is evidence of young people’s desire for pragmatic knowledge in scientific research. The reliance on the word in all spheres of a culture shaped the specific logocentrism of the period of English history studied in the article.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):51-62
pages 51-62 views

Personal documents of Tver merchants as cultural heritage

Sereda N.V.


The article considers the tradition of keeping personal records among merchant families in Tver province at the end of the 18th and the first half of the 19th century. These records mainly record events that took place at the time. They also include accounts of the author and his ancestors, so that this material often takes on the character of memoirs. In some families, note-taking was a family affair. This aided in the education of children, cultivating their literacy and powers of observation.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):65-76
pages 65-76 views

Special effects in soviet cinema: the method of «combined perspective»

Bogdanova E.S.


The Russian State Archive in Samara is a unique center for storing materials on the history of Russian science and technology and preserves many interesting documents from the All-Union Research Film and Photo Institute concerning the history of Soviet cinema. In world cinema, the 1920s and 1930s were a time of technical experiments and research, and «combined shooting» became one of the best ways to solve increasingly complex production problems. This article presents two archival documents that provide a detailed description of the practical application of one method of combined shooting – that of perspective alignment. The films «The Golden Key» (1938) and «Ruslan and Lyudmila» (1939) were made using this method, and they represent a milestone in the development of special effects in the history of world cinema.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):77-84
pages 77-84 views

A list of the contents of the journal «The industrious Bee» (1759)

Rastyagayev A.V., Slozhenikina Y.V.


This article lists the contents of all 12 issues of the first private monthly journal «The Industrious Bee» (1759), edited and published by the Russian writer, poet, and playwright Alexander Sumarokov. The journal included both original works and translations from ancient and Western European literature (161 original and 52 translated pieces). The journal included the genres of «allegory», «fable», «idyll», «prayer», «monologue», «ode», «song», «letter», «parable», «psalm», «conversation», «discourse», «speech», «rondo», «satire», «tale», «word», «sonnet», «stanza», «eclogue», «elegy», «epigram» and «epistle». The article also provides biographical information about the main authors and translators of the journal and calculates the percentage of their participation in it.

Sphere of culture. 2021;2(2):85-111
pages 85-111 views

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