Vol 15, No 4 (2017)

Articles
Flavonoids through the eyes of a pharmacologist. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
Zverev Y.F.

Abstract

Review discusses the mechanisms of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids. In discussing the antioxidant effect detail the mechanisms of scavenging of reactive oxygen species, the chelation of transition metals, the activation of antioxidant enzymes. In consideration of anti-inflammatory action emphasis on the effects of flavonoids on the activity of the transcription factors and pathways involved in the formation of the inflammatory response.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):5-13
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Preventive and therapeutic strategies of pharmaco-correction gastropathy induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Hladkykh F.V.

Abstract

Today the problem of prevention and treatment of gastropathy associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has not lost its relevance. In order to reduce the ulcerogenicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is classically accepted to supplement the therapy scheme with preparations of other pharmacological groups — antacids, alginates, M-cholinoblockers, gastrin receptor antagonists, H2-histamine blockers, proton pump inhibitors, synthetic analogues of prostaglandins or stimulators of their synthesis, reparants, gastroprotectors. Nowadays, it was suggested I was suggested the use of drugs which have pharmacological properties polyvector (vinboron, thiotriazoline et al.). Also, the scientists started of combined preparations “NSAIDs + drugs other pharmacological groups” — indotril (indomethacin + thiotriazoline) diklokor (diclofenac + quercetin) Artrotek (diclofenac sodium + misoprostol) dueksis (ibuprofen + famotidine) vimovo (naproxen + esomeprazole) aksorid (ketoprofen + omeprazole) tioaspekard (thiotriazoline + ACK) aspifat (ACK + sucralfate), Alka-Zelttser® (ACK + sodium bicarbonate), and others. The second direction is preventing and improving NSAID gastrotoxicity protrudes improving existing non-steroidal drugs – modification of gaseous molecules (NO, H2S, CO), amino acid derivatives, modulators “effector function” of afferent terminals n. vagus (amtolmetina guatsil) то pairing with nanoparticles biometals (Zn-ibuprofen, Zn-naproxen, Zn-indomethacin).

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):14-23
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Phytopreparates in regulation of decadaptatic infusions in a practically healthy person
Sambukova T.V., Ovchinnikov B.V., Yatmanov A.N., Shabanov P.D.

Abstract

Relevance. In recent years, the popularity of phytotherapy, despite the great success in the development of chemical medicines, is increasing. Interest in natural healing substances and preparations created on their basis is increased due to both the unique properties of phytopreparations and rapidly developing research technologies in biology, medicine and the production of medicines.

Methodology. The analysis of the publications studying medicinal plant preparations in the VINITI databases, in the electronic resource of the Russian National Library, search engines Yandex, Google, Cyberleninka and Scholar Google for 2000-2015 was carried out.

Results. The main direction of studies of phytopreparations was experimental, which is devoted to about 50% of all publications. 20% of publications are devoted to studies performed with human participation. The research structure of domestic and foreign researchers is similar. However, in foreign studies, experimental studies on the antioxidant and antidepressant effects of medicinal plants prevailed. The greatest number of publications is devoted to the study of tutsan, rhodiola rosea and sage. With the participation of a man, the preparations of rhodiola rosea and tutsan have been most thoroughly studied.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):24-29
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The influence of oligopeptides - the homologues of ACTH15-18 on the liver and adrenal glands in the rats on the model of acute immobilization stress
Kudina O.V., Shtrygol’ S.Y., Kolobov A.A., Lar’yanovska Y.B.

Abstract

An in-depth study the possible links of the stress-protective action of oligopeptides - homologues of the of adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment (15-18) on the model of acute immobilization stress has been carried out. A marked antioxidant effect, not inferior to the reference medicine “Semax”, has been detected in the blood serum and liver of the rats. The results of the morphological study of liver tissue also indicate the normalization of the stress-induced damage in the organ under the influence of oligopeptides (KK-1, KK-5). Both peptides have been exceeded the reference drug, however, the peptide KK-1 had the marked positive effect on the reduction of histological structure of the liver. The stress-protective action of the investigated oligopeptides KK-1 and KK-5 is confirmed by their ability to reduce the increased activity of steroidogenesis and reduce the release of catecholamines, as well as normalize the damaged structure of the adrenal cortex. According to the indices of the adrenal structure recovering, the peptide KK-1 exceeded the reference drug and the peptide KK-1.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):30-37
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Ghrelin system of the brain participates in control of emotional, explorative behavior and motor activity in rats rearing in conditions of social isolation stress
Shabanov P.D., Vinogradov P.M., Lebedev A.A., Roik R.O., Morozov V.I.

Abstract

Wistar rats were rearing in conditions of social isolation from others beginning with 20th day of life till adulthood (90-100 days). In adult rats, a conditioned place preference (CPP) of ethanol (0.5 g/kg ip) was trained, and behavior in open field, elevated plus maze and intruder-resident test was examined. Intranasal administration of [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, a peptide ghrelin antagonist (10 µg in 20 µl), to isolated rats blocked formation and expression (recovery) of CPP of ethanol that supported participation of ghrelin system in regulation of positive reinforcement activated by ethanol. Intranasal administration of ghrelin (20 µg in 20 µl) to rats reared in conditions of social isolation produced a typical anxiogenic effect, elevated exploratory activity, aggression signs and reduction of communicative behavior. In rats reared in conditions of social isolation, [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, a ghrelin antagonist, possessed anxiolytic effect, reduced explorative activity, communicative behavior and aggression. It is concluded that ghrelin system of the brain participates in control of emotional, explorative behavior and motor activity in rats rearing in conditions of social isolation stress.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):38-45
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Testing of new selenium containing metal complex compounds by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia method
Evseev A.V., Surmenev D.V., Parfenov E.A., Evseeva M.A., Sosin D.V., Tishkova Y.V., Markova E.O.

Abstract

Aim. To test the new selenium containing metal complex (Zn2+) compounds by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia method in experiments on mice for antihypoxic effect finding.

Methods. The screening of antihypoxants in experiments on mice placed in acute hypoxia-hypercapnia condition (AH + H) among 11 new metal complex selenium containing compounds have been performed. Condition of AH + H in animals was formed by their placing in hermetic glass boxes with 0.25 L free volume. Each substance has been used once by intraperitoneal introduction 60 min. before mice placing in AH + H area in doses 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg. The “life span” parameter was used as a criterion of antihypoxic activity. At the definite steps of investigation all animals where undergone to rectal temperature measuring.

Results. The antihypoxic effect was shown by 4 compounds among 11 (πQ2719, πQ2720, πQ2721, πQ2882). The greatest result in life span was found in substance πQ2721. In this case the right positive interaction between doses of substances and results was marked – doses 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg provide life span enlargements to 25.1, 81.7 (р < 0.05), and 186.1% (р < 0.005) in comparison with control groups correspondently. The efficiency of etalon substance πQ1983 was near to that of πQ2721 but in dose 50 mg/kg it becomes weaker in activity than new compound.

Conclusion. The test resultant of 11 new metal complex (Zn2+) substance with selenium in structure of ligand in use of acute hypoxia-hypercapnia method shows the πQ2721 as an antihypoxant that was confirmed by significant mice life span enlargement after doses 25 and 50 mg/kg during its action that according with dose-dependent rectal temperature decrease.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):46-52
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Antiamnestic effect of Phlojodicarpus sibiricus extract in a scopolamine-induced amnesia model
Gulyaev S.M., Taraskin V.V., Radnaeva L.D., Nikolaev S.M.

Abstract

The present study was investigated influence of Phlojodicarpus sibiricus (Steph. ex. Spregel) K.-Pol. extract on memory in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats using object recognition test. The rats were divided into four groups: the first group consist of rats received purified water; rats of two groups administrated scopolamine in dose 1 mg/kg and purified water intraperitoneally; rats of three and four groups introduced scopolamine and P. sibiricus extract in doses 50 and 100 mg/kg accordingly intraperitoneally. The object recognition test was performed 30 minutes after the administration of scopolamine and the P. sibiricus extract. The results of the studies showed that administration of the P. sibiricus extract in animals at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg prevented the development of amnesia caused by the administration of scopolamine. The antiamnestic effect of P. sibiricus extract is due to the cholinergic effect of coumarins contained in the plant.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):53-57
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The cellular and molecular mechanisms providing therapeutic efficiency of gistokhrom
Talalaeva O.S., Zverev Y.F., Bryukhanov V.M.

Abstract

The review presents the screening of the therapeutic effects of the Russia drug “Histochrome”, active substance of which is quinoid pigment marine – echinochrome A (2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-7-ethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). Assessing the pharmacological aspects of the drug authors have focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of histochrome. The parallel between echinochrome A pharmacodynamics and its biological effects proves promising directions for expansion of the clinical application of the preparation “Histochrome”.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):58-68
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Physiological characteristics of puberty for adolescent girls suffering from acne
Pilnik E.N., Pyatibrat A.O., Pyatibrat E.D.

Abstract

The physiological characteristics of sexual development and immune status in girls suffering from acne disease have been analyzed. It is revealed that at puberty, in girls suffering from acne, the concentration of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone in peripheral blood was significantly lower than girls in the control group. While menarche was in girls 14-13 years old with acne there indexes were significantly less than in the control group. The formation of breast and pubic hair at puberty, they lagged behind in comparison with girls in the control group. The immune status of acne was characterized by a decrease in cytotoxic lymphocytes and increased T-lymphocytes helper cells and immunoregulatory index. In the peripheral blood of these girls there was an increase in interleukin-4 and serum tumor necrosis factor, level of circulating immune complexes, mainly due to the low concentration of serum interferon γ was significantly lower than in healthy girls. The indicators of basal metabolism indicate that girls with acne disease higher rates of creatinine and glucose, and also lower neeterificirovannah fatty acids and enzyme activities of alanine (Alat) and aspartic (AST) transferases than girls in the control group. Thus, ladies suffering from acne, was characterized by delayed and at the same time disharmonious puberty. They are characterized by a later menarche, delayed the establishment of the rhythm of the menstrual cycle, some changes of rhythm humoral regulation and biochemical homeostasis.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;15(4):69-74
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