Vol 11, No 3 (2013)

Articles
Neurobiological mechanisms of the rewars and punishment systems in the brain afteractivation of nucleus accumbens
Sheveleva M.V., Lebedev A.A., Roik R.O., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
The review devoted to neurobiological mechanisms of both positive and negative reinforcement is represented. The key role in these processes plays the nucleus accumbens as a part of the extended amygdala system. The afferent and efferent connections of the n.accumbens, starting mechanisms of the n.accumbens involvement in emotional reactions, interactions between n.accumbens and other structures of the extended amygdala system, and neurochemical organization of the n.accumbens and all system of reinforcement are discussed in the article. The special attention is taken to the n.accumbens participation in addictive behavior.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):3-19
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Neurobiological mechanisms of depressive disorders and their pharmacotherapy
Yakovleva Y.Y., Khnychenko L.K., Losev N.A.
Abstract
The neurobiological mechanisms of depressive disorders, concerning the role of biochemical changes in cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and other neurohumoral systems in the development of depression are reviewed. The modern approaches to pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders, with special accent on cholinergic drugs usage for treatment of depression are discussed in details.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):20-25
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Effect of dibazol and its new derivatives on the mollusk ionic channels
Vislobokov A.I., Myznikov L.V., Tarasenko A.A., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
The changes in transmembrane calcium, sodium and potassium ionic currents after extracellular administration of dibazol (2-(phenylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol hydrochloride) and its two new derivatives in concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µM were studied by the method of intracellular dialysis and fixation of membrane potential in isolated neurons of the Lymnaea stagnalis mollusk. Dibazol in concentrations of 1 and 10 µM effected slightly on the ionic currents. High concentrations of dibazol (100 and 1000 µM) inhibited all currents in dose dependent manner with maximal effect on potassium currents amplitude. ЕС50 were 7.4 мМ for INa, 4.0 мМ for ICa, 83.9 µM for IKs,1 (one group of neurons) and 2.9 мМ for IKs,2 (the another group of neurons). The voltage-amper membrane characteristics shift was not registered, but the kinetics of currents development was changed. Dibazol was more effective in inhibition of ionic currents compared to its structural analogs.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):26-32
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The influence of experimentally changedthyroid status on cognitive activity and angiogenesis in the brain of female inbred С3Н-А mice
Glushakov R.I., Kozyrko Y.V., Raskin G.A., Karpova I.V., Lebedev A.A., Mikheyev V.V., Tapilskaya N.I., Proshin S.N.
Abstract
The study was performed using 33 virgin females of inbred C3H-A mice. The animals were randomized as follows 3 : 2 : 2. The first group was hyperthyroid (n1 = 15), the second hypothyroid (n2 = 10) and the third euthyroid (control) (n3 = 8). The results of individual behavior investigation as to 18 and 40 weeks of our experiment in “open field” test clarified that quantitative traces of almost whole components of cognitive activity was much higher in hyperthyroid mice as compared to other groups (control and hypothyroid ones). The cognitive behavior activity has gradually been decreasing in hypothyroid group especially in connection to burrow reflex. As to those elements of behavior which are of characteristics of emotions the results were a bit different. The emotional characteristics were more expressed in hyperthyroid group as compared to control and hypothyroid ones. The immunohistochemical investigations clearly showed that expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neocortex and hyppocampus prevails in hyperthyroid mice and less expressed in animals deprived of thyroid hormones (p < 0.05). The level of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly lower in brain of hypothyroid animals (p < 0.05). Otherwise the level of platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGF-Rα) expression was much higher in brain of hypothyroid mice (p < 0.05). Our results presented for this paper confirmed the key role of thyroid hormones in regulation of cell interaction not only for developing neural cells but also for adult central nerve system.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):33-39
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THE HEART PRELOAD AND AFTERLOAD INTERACTION AND RR INTERVALS UNDER HARD NORMOBARICHYPOXIA EXPOSURE IN HEALTHY YOUNG PERSONS
Radchenko A.S., Borisenko N.S., Kalinichenko A.I., Rodionova Y.Y., Korolev Y.N., Golubev V.N., Churganov O.A.
Abstract
The study wThe left ventricular end diastolic pressure (EDP) fluctuations, specific peripheral vascular resistance (SPR) and cardiointervals (RR) on the respiration frequency under hard normobaric hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.1) were studied. 7 young men (volunteers) were subject to series of hard hypoxic exposures (6 weeks, every other day, intermittently by 6 × 5 min – FIO2 = 0.1). The hypoxic tests (HT1 and HT2) – FIO2 = 0.1, 15 min continuously) were performed before and after each series. SаO2 at the last 3 m of the tests on average was 82.5 % and 92.0 % respectively (Р < 0.05). During HT1 and HT2 (in comparison with inactivity) were increased: angle of max QRS vector (VQRS) in the frontal plain (68.5° ± 16.68 and 72.94° ± 15.32; 69.62° ± 22.4 and 74.45° ± 17.98 respectively), minutes blood flow (MBF) (6.41 ± 1.98 l/min and 6.87 ± 1.27 l/min; 5,27 ± 1,02 l/min and 5.67 ± 1.19 l/min respectively) (Р < 0.05). SPR was decreased too (27.39 ± 5.45 s.u. and 25.62 ± 4.96 s.u.; 30.59 ± 6.34 s.u. and 27.93 ± 5.77 s.u. respectively) (Р < 0.05). By means of transfer function analysis was shown that EDP fluctuations at HT2 significantly outpace by time (phase) the SPR and RR fluctuations on the respiration frequency (1.19 s ± 0.64 and 1.99 s ± 0.63 or 94.39° ± 43.3 and 125.4° ± 7.54; 1.65 s ± 1.28 and 2.22 s ± 0.87 or 101.4° ± 59.6 and 152.7° ± 21.26 respectively) (Р < 0.05). The increased oxyhemoglobin saturation is a trigger of artery wall smooth muscle relaxation mechanisms and this one is changes the background for beat to beat baroreflex realization on the respiration frequency.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):40-49
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The locomotor hyperactivity in the rats,produced by 5-th type methabotropicglutamate receprors antagonist MTEP and ZnCl2 injection into rostral striatum
Yakimovskiy A.F.
Abstract
The effects of 5th type of methabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist MTEP separately or with ZnCl2 multiple injection into the rostral neostriatum in chronic experiments were investigated in rats learned with condition avoidance reflexes in “schuttle box”. The two-week daily microinjection of 3 µg MTEP, similar with 1 µl saline (control group) did not influence on condition avoidance reflexes parameters and free locomotor activity in “open field”. The injection of 3 µg MTEP with ZnCl2 (1 µg /1 µl) in rostral neostriatum impaired the avoidance conditioning and locomotor hyperactivity with motor stereotypia in part of experimental animals. As separate injection as MTEP or ZnCl2 did not produce the locomotor hyperactivity, the reasone of the changed behaviour of rats was the combined action of them administered into brain substrat. The possible changs in neurotransmitter relationship provided by zinc ions striatum saturation are discussed. The hypothesis about nigro-striatal dopaminergic system activation as a general cause is proposed.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):50-54
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Pharmacological correction of amnesticdisorders in mammalians(evolutionary aspects of investigation)
Sollertinskaya T.N., Shorokhov M.V.
Abstract
The present work is devoted to the study of the peptides bioregulators of new generation (Cortexin, Semax, Selank) in the compensation of the disturbed Higher Nervous Functions ih the ascending row of mammls (insectivores, rodents, primates). The new data have been established that at the early stage of mammals (in insectivores) Cortexin, Semax and Selank induced the more significant and long lasted effect on inherent forms of behaviour. Their effects on the compensation of the disturbed Higher Nervous Functions have nonspecific, facilatory short time lasted character. Contrary to insectivores, rodents have a clear tendency to compesation for Higher Nervous Function disturbances. At the Semax and Selank background, the delayed conditional reflexes were restored. It has been established that the cerebroprotective effects of Selank exerted more significant influences upon the brain function disturbances in neurotic rats. Contrary to the results found in lower mammals, the application of Cortexin, Semax and Selank to neurotic monkeys exerted differnt effects upon the Higher Nervous Functions disturbances. The compensatory effects of drugs are dose dependant in nature being more effective with intranasal administration and having different effects on the various types of neurosis. The long duration compensation of the mental disturbances (the EEG homeostatic parameters of memory processes) took place during the Selank (30 mkg/ kg) administration. The cerebroprotective effects of Semax are especially significant on the operative memory. Cortexin antiamnestic and cerebroprotective effects especially significant at the inhibitory type of neurosis. The data collected on the compensatory Cortexin, Semax and Selank influeces on the disturbed memory processes and cognitive deficit of monkey’s may serve as neurophysiological basis for the more intensive and specific role of these drugs in the neurological clibic.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):55-65
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NEUROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF DRY EXTRACTS OF FUMARIA SCHLEICHERI AND OCIMUM BASILICUM
Tsyvunin V.V., Shtrygol S.Y., Prokopenko Y.S.
Abstract
On the model of closed traumatic brain injury in rats dry extracts of Fumaria schleicheri and Ocimum basilicum have shown a neuroprotective effect by the reduction of behavioral and cognitive disorders, normalization of the brain mass / body weight ratio and the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in CNS. According to the sum of the effects the extracts take precedence over reference drug bilobile.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2013;11(3):66-71
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