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Vol 12, No 2 (2014)

Articles
Cytogenetic methods of ecological stress indication in water and terrestrial biosystems
Daev E.V., Dukelskaya A.V., Barabanova L.V.
Abstract
The genetic monitoring of the environment is an important link of the analysis of biosystems status. Its efficiency depends on the correct choice of: a) natural bioindicator species; b) appropriate signs reflecting the state of the environment and c) right statistical analysis. The genome integrity estimation plays a key role in studying of mutagenicity in the polluted environment. Step-by-step procedure of the cytogenetic data analysis and perspectives of using genetic tests in ecological monitoring are discussed with the help of crustacean species as an example.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):3-12
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Gene expression analysis of genes coding key enzymes of cadmium detoxification in garden pea symbiotic nodules
Kulaeva O.A., Tsyganov V.Y.
Abstract
Background. Cadmium is one of the most wide-ranging and dangerous pollutants for all living organisms, including plants. Currently, the mechanisms of cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and plant tolerance to its toxic effect are intensively studied. Metal-binding ligands, such as glutathione and phytochelatins, are one of the most important components in cadmium homeostasis in plants. Materials and methods. The pea line SGE and mutant SGECdt differed by cadmium tolerance were used. Gene expression for γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1), glutathione synthetase (GSHS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS) and phytochelatin synthase (PsPCS) was measured in pea nodules using realtime PCR. Results. GSH1 expression was slightly influenced by cadmium cloride. GSHS expression was upregulated in SGE and slightly downregulated in SGECdt. Cadmium cloride caused increased expression of hGSHS and PsPCS in both pea line SGE and the mutant SGECdt. Conclusion. Increased tolerance to cadmium of symbiotic nodules in the mutant SGECdt is not linked with expression pattern of analyzed genes.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):13-22
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Genetic structure of the continuous and ephemeral populations of the land snail Brephulopsis Cylindrica (Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Enidae)
Kramarenko S.S., Snegin E.A.
Abstract
Background. One may hypothesize that the land snail B. cylindrica distributed in small, isolated, ephemeral populations tends to decrease genetic polymorphism level (e. g., observed heterozygosity for allozyme loci). Thus, the present study aims at estimating the levels of allozyme polymorphism in the land snail B. cylindrica from continuously distributed populations and ephemeral ones. Materials and methods. In the Nikolaev urbanised areas 9 samples were taken and studied electrophoretically for four polymorphic allozyme system. In the Dubki, Neftebasa and Park Pobedy populations (continuously distributed populations - group N 1) the two localities, situated about 50 m apart, were sampled. While only single locality were investigated from the Kosmos, Morechodnaya and Mira populations (ephemeral populations - group N 2). Statistical analysis of electrophoretic data was performed with the program GenAIEx version 6.0. Results. In general, significant differences with respect to the level of genetic polymorphism between the continuous and ephemeral populations of the land snail B. cylindrical have not discovered on the basis of allozymes loci. However, when analyzing the distribution of multilocus allozyme genotypes in the populations studied, we have received fundamentally different results. In general, ephemeral populations differed from the continuous ones with respect to the frequency of studied multilocus allozyme genotypes although one populations has been disrupted this rule (Dubki-2). Conclusion. Based on these results it is concluded that small, isolated (including, urban) populations tend to reduce the level of genetic diversity, due to the manifestation of genetic and stochastic processes (genetic drift or founder effect). In addition, an important consequence of the latter there is a relatively high rate of unpredictable change genotypic profiles of such settlements, which leads to a significant increase in the level of genetic differentiation between them.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):23-34
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Root-specific expression of early auxin-regulated
Shishova M.F., Pahler M., Stahl F., Scherer G.
Abstract
At the variable environmental conditions plant growth and development are under the control of different factors triggered shifts in hormonal balance and followed changes in intensity of hormone-induced gene expression. Root-specific expression of early auxin-regulated genes, belonged to Aux/IAAs, SAURs, ARFs и GH3s gene families, was tested with specially designed chip. An auxin treatment (15, 30 and 60 min) led to increase of IAA1, IAA3, IAA5, IAA11, IAA19 and GH3-1, GH3-3, GH3-5 genes. Intensification of SAUR9 and SAUR10 genes expression was less significant and appeared only at 30 min.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):35-46
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Gene (CYP1A2, CYP2F1, NQO1, UGT2B7, CAT, GSTP1) - environment interactions analysis in occupational chronic bronchitis
Akhmadishina L.Z., Korytina G.F., Kochetova O.V., Viktorova T.V.
Abstract
Background. Occupational chronic bronchitis is one of the common disease and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to its etiology. Materials and methods. A case-control study was conducted using 122 patients with occupational chronic bronchitis and 166 healthy workers to investigate the association of CYP1A2 (rs762551, rs35694136), CYP2F1 (rs11399890), NQO1 (rs1131341, rs1051740), UGT2B7 (rs7439366), CAT (rs1001179, rs769217), GSTP1 (rs1695, rs1138272) polymorphisms with the disease developing risk Analysis was performed to test for GxE interactions with exposures (smoking, PY, occupational experience) using logistic regression models. Results. It was shown CYP1A2 rs35694136 (P = 0.02, in over-dominant model), UGT2B7 rs7439366 (P = 0.002 in recessive model), CAT rs1001179 (P = 0.02, in dominant model) were significantly associated with high risk of occupational chronic bronchitis development. When ethnicity, smoking, PY, occupational experience were included in the logistic regression model, it was shown association with risk of disease development for rs1131341 NQO1 (Padj = 0.0004, ORadj = 3.57), rs7439366 UGT2B7 (Padj = 0.0024, ORadj = 2.31), rs35694136 CYP1A2 (Padj = 0.0041, ORadj = 2.17). Statistically significant interaction with smoking status was defined for rs7439366 UGT2B7 (Pinteract = 0.015, in over-dominant model) with PY-for rs11399890 CYP2F1 (Pinteract = 0.05 in additive model). Conclusion. Identifying GxE interaction will lead to better understanding of the development of occupational chronic bronchitis and potential biological mechanisms, and, in future, effective prevention strategies.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):47-59
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Genetic and environmental determinants in the formation of differences in aggression in same-sex siblings
Shustikova M.V.
Abstract
Background. The analysis of the contribution of genotype and nonshared environment caused by birth order in formation of differences in physical, indirect, verbal aggression and irritability in same-sex siblings was carried out. Materials and methods. Data of sibling from sibship size two and there parents in the Kharkov population (Ukraine) were analyzed. The aggression was defined by Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory scales. Results of the research have been processed with statistical software packages SPSS 13.0 for Windows, MATLAB. Results. The heritability for physical aggression: h2 = 24 %, Н2 = 84 % at male siblings; h2 = 35 % at female siblings. The heritability for indirect aggression and irritability: h2 = 41 % and h2 = 36 % at female siblings. Variability of a level of indirect, verbal aggression and irritability in male siblings is depends from birth order: the increase phenotype similarity between fathers and younger sons in comparison with fathers and older sons was marked. Conclusion. Results are the basis for a conclusion about gender-specificity of gene interactions and genotype-environment interaction in formation differences of aggression. The next step of investigation is model fitting analysis.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):60-67
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Cytogenetic analysis of residents of North Ossetia contacting with toxic factors
Chshiyeva F.T.
Abstract
Background. The use of cytogenetic assays in the surveillance of populations occupationally exposed to a variety of xenobiotics originates from the assumption that chromosomal alterations might be causally involved in early stages of carcinogenesis. Materials and methods. This study was designed to assess genotoxic damage in somatic cells of workers contacting with harmful factors after the accident in metallurgical plant. The study was conducted on 29 workers (with the mean age of 44 ± 2.5) performing various jobs with harmful factors. Control group was recruited from occupationally unexposed individuals and comprised 18 persons with the mean age of 30 ± 2.2 and inplant control was 5 employees from metallurgical plant (accountants) with the mean age of 32 ± 5.9. Chromosome aberration analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultures were incubated for 48h. Results. Among the residents with occupational hazards, a statistically significant increase of the frequency of the cells with chromosome aberrations in comparison with the control group (5.2 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.3, respectively). The highest frequency of cells with structural abnormalities was observed among steel plant workers (6.3 ± 0.6). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that in peripheral blood lymphocytes of residents contacting with harmful factors may induce clastogenic effects, indicating a potential health risk in populations of workers. A high average frequency of metaphases with aberrations and characterization of quality spectrum of cytogenetically violations is an indication of adverse environmental conditions which have developed after the accident.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):68-73
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Population genetic structure of HLA-G gene in North-west Region of Russian Federation
Alenichev A.P., Nasykhova Y.A., Ivashchenko T.E., Baranov V.S.
Abstract
Background. HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class Ib molecule predominantly expressed in cytotrophoblasts and under pathological conditions also in chronically inflamed and in malignant tissues. Polymorphic sites present in coding and non-coding regions of the HLA-G gene may potentially affect all of these biological features. Materials and methods: Using the PCR method we have studied polymorphism of HLA G gene (alleles G*0101-G0107, -725C/G , 3741del/ins14.) in 118 people aged from 20 till 40 years of the North-West Region of Russia (St. Petersburg). Results: To determine the common alleles of the HLA-G gene the system of allele-specific PCR primers was elaborated. We have determined HLA-G allele distribution in North-west Region of Russian Federation. The minor allele frequencies varied in wide ranges - from 0 % to 39 %. The genetic distances among the Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Danish, Indian, African Shona, Brazilian, Polish, German and North-west Region of Russian Federation were calculated. Conclusion: The evaluation of alleles rates in North-west of Russian Federation and in populations of other countries revealed the similarity in alleles G*0101-G0107 and polymorphism 3741del/ins14 distribution among the Danish, German and North-west Region populations.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(2):74-80
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