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Vol 14, No 2 (2016)

Articles
Genesis of the karelian birch. an ecogenetic hypothesis
Vetchinnikova L.V., Titov A.F.
Abstract
Relying on the analysis of data from the literature and own findings the authors develop and specify the previously postulated ecological-genetic hypothesis of the curly birch origins, which is based on the concept of interactions between specific natural-climatic factors and conditions in the north-western continental Europe during so-called Little Ice Age (LIA), the high genetic polymorphism, and the adaptive nature of many anatomical-morphological traits and physiological-biochemical characteristics of the representatives of the genus Betula L. growing in the area. The various facts and observations in favour of the ecological-genetic hypothesis of the origins of curly birch are reported.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):3-18
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The genetic variation in pulmonate mollusk (Arianta arbustorum L.) in Leningrad Region
Bondareva O.V., Orlova M.I., Abramson N.I.
Abstract
Background. One of the most mysterious phenomenon related to biological invasions is the so-called “genetic paradox”. It is supposed that invasive species population starts from a small number of individuals and thus should possess low genetic variation, and then what mechanisms provide it successive distribution instead of lower survivorship in front of native species is not clear. It has been shown that there are several scenarios of invasion that may help to overcome this paradox. Here, we investigate genetic variation within and between the invasive populations of land snail in Leningrad region aimed to test the various probable invasion scenarios. Materials and methods. Samples were collected in Leningrad region in May-October 2014 at both shores of the Gulf of Finland with maximal distance between the sites in 80 km and stored in 96% ethanol. As a molecular marker to study genetic variation a sequence of DNA fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 was used. Results. We revealed abnormally low haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the snail populations under study. Therewith four haplotypes uncovered among 47 specimens from the territory of approximately 100 km2 were unique for Leningrad area. Phylogenetic analysis showed one sample from Denmark in the same cluster with samples from Leningrad region. This indirectly point on colonization route from Central Europe through Denmark, but this assumption should be confirmed by enlarge sampling. Conclusions. The data obtained suggest the ‘bridgehead’ model of the land snail invasion in Leningrad region. In favor of this evidence that all haplotypes recovered in Leningrad area were unique, differing from the closest haplotype from Denmark by several mutations. This fact together with extremely low haplotype and nucleotide diversity most likely points that snails first accumulated at a small territory during a rather long period. Neutrality test are in accordance with balancing selection.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):19-27
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Microspatial structure of population gene pool in the land snail Helicopsis striata (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) in conditions of the Southern Mid-Russian Upland
Sychev A.A., Snegin E.A.
Abstract
Background. The formation of the subdivided genetic pattern is key to the successful adaptation of population. Consequently work on the conservation and restoration of protected steppe snail Helicopsis striata (Müller 1774) should be based on the analysis microprotrusions differentiation of population gene pools. Materials and methods. The genetic structure of six populations of H. striata was studied in a variety conditions of the Southern Mid-Russian Upland. In each population collected snails from five locations, located at an equal distance from each other (150-200 m). As the genetic markers used six polymorphic loci of allozymes (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and DNA loci (ISSR-PCR). Results. In general, on the Southern Mid-Russian Upland H. striata is characterized by a different degree of the spatial differentiation population gene pools (for example, according to the ISSR-loci 0,078 ≤ Фst ≤ 0,251). In comparison with the other investigated species of land snail in the study area H. striata is distinguished by the high degree of а differentiation population gene pools. It is shown that populations with a high degree of genetic structure found in the biotopes with different levels of the landscape fragmentation. Conclusion. Based on these results it can be stated that an important role in shaping the populations genetic structure in H. striata is not so much the level of diversity environmental conditions, as the degree of migratory activity individuals, which was the highest in genetically rich populations of the basin Seversky Donets river. At the same time the biology of this snail decrease the speed of its active and passive migration, which probably leads to increased isolation of populations. The highest probability of extinction, in our opinion, are isolated populations of H. striata with low genetic variability.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):28-38
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On the photoperiodic induction of diapause in first generation hybrids of Harmonia Axyridis (PALL.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)
Reznik S.Y., Ovchinnikov A.N., Ovchinnikova A.A., Belyakova N.A., Barabanova L.V.
Abstract
Background. Diapause is an important component of insect life cycle which ensures synchronization of reproduction and development with local seasonal climate. Genetic bases of this synchronization are particularly important for the analysis of biological invasions. Materials and methods. We investigated photoperiodic induction of diapause in hybrids between two populations of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas): autochthonous population from Irkutsk (Siberia) which shows a strong induction of diapause by short days and invasive population from Sochi (the Caucasus) which exhibits very weak photoperiodic induction of diapause. Results. Reciprocal crosses showed that the strong photoperiodic induction of diapause is dominant and the effects of male and female genotypes on progeny phenotype are equal.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):39-42
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Helminths infestation of various mitochondrial lines of the sable Martes Zibellina and the pine marten M. MARTES
Zhigileva O.N., Uslamina I.M.
Abstract
Background. There is an extensive area of introgressive hybridization of the sable and the pine marten in Western Siberia. MtDNA haplotypes mark different phyletic lines of mustelids and can be used to identify their hybrids. Natural focus of filaroidosis, nematodes pathogenic to martens, is situated in Western Siberia. We hypothesized that groups of mustelids different in origin have different susceptibility to nematode infestation. Materials and methods. Animals were caught according to the hunting license in 2009-2014, in 9 localities of Western Siberia. A total of 166 individuals, including 100 sables, 20 pine martens and 46 their hybrids (kidus) were investigated using the method of dissection of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Polymorphism of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was studied by the method of RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Results. Four species of parasitic nematodes Crenosoma petrovi, Filaroides martis, Capillaria putorii, Strongyloides martis were found in martens in Western Siberia. The pine marten was infected by F. martes and S. martis more than the sable (p ˂ 0.05). Hybrids had intermediate levels of nematode infestation. 9 complex haplotypes of mtDNA were identified. Haplotype Z30 prevailed in the sable, AK29 and Z5 - in the pine marten, Z30 and AK23 - in hybrids. Animals from different lines of mtDNA differed significantly by helminths infestation. Animals with a haplotype Z31, typical of the eastern subspecies of sable, were infected with helminths in 2 times more than the animals from Z5 and Z30 lines, typical of the local populations. Animals with a haplotype AK23 have the lowest rate of infections by helminths. Conclusion. Differences in nematode infestation of animals with different mtDNA haplotypes indicates that different phyletic lines of the sable, the pine marten, and their hybrids have varying degrees of susceptibility to nematode infestations.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):43-49
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DNA damage in placenta and embryos of rats exposed to peat smoke; antigenotoxic effects of afobazole
Gorbatova D.M., Zhanataev A.K., Nemova H.P., Durnev A.D.
Abstract
Background. It was shown that prenatal exposure to peat smoke leads to disturbances of fetal and postnatal development in rats. Genotoxic mechanisms may be involved to these deleterious effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the DNA damage and its modification by known antimutagen afobazole in placenta and embryo of rats, exposed to peat smoke. Materials and methods. Pregnant rats were exposed to filtered air (control), to peat smoke or to peat smoke with receiving of afobazole (1 or 10 mg/kg, per os) for 44 min, daily during days 1 to 13 of gestation. At the day 13 four placenta and embryo samples from each rat were obtained for DNA damage analysis using the alkaline comet assay. Results. A significant, 4-5 folds increase in the DNA damage values (% DNA in tail) was found in placenta and embryos of rats exposed to peat smoke. Genotoxic effects were generally more pronounced in placenta. Exposure to peat smoke together with receiving of afobazole at the doses 1 and 10 mg/kg showed a significant, 53-60 % decrease in the mean % DNA in tail values in both placenta and embryos. Clear inter and intra-individual differences in genotoxic as well as in antigenotoxic effects were observed. For the some placenta or embryo samples were seen reducing of DNA damage to the control level. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant rats to peat smoke causes DNA damage in placenta and embryos. This smoke-induced genotoxicity might be decreased or prevented by antimutagenic agents.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):50-56
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Types of cytogenetic abnormalities in apical root meristem of Elodea сanadensis from Yenisei River areas with different types of anthropogenic pollution
Medvedeva M.Y., Bolsunovsky A.Y.
Abstract
Background. The spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities in the apical root meristem of Elodea сanadensis Michx. (elodea) from the Yenisei River was studied depending on the type of anthropogenic pollution. We compared elodea samples from areas with radiation-contaminated sediments (area affected by Rosatom Mining and Chemical Combine, MCC, Zheleznogorsk) and areas with chemical pollution (Krasnoyarsk). Materials and methods. The apical root meristem of elodea was fixed in acetic alcohol (96 % ethanol and glacial acetic acid, 3 : 1) and stained with 1 % aceto-orcein. The cytogenetic analysis of metaphase and ana-telophase elodea cells was carried out with temporal squashed preparations using an Olympus CX31 microscope. Results. At metaphase stage, the predominant types of abnormalities in elodea cells were disoriented chromosomes (up to 9 % of total metaphase cells) and chromosome agglutination (6 %). In the area affected by the MCC an increased content of ring chromosomes in elodea cells was detected, but in terms of frequency of their occurrence no significant differences were revealed between samples from areas with different types of pollution. Among abnormalities at ana-telophase stage, bridges (to 20% of dividing cells) and disoriented chromosomes (up to 8%) dominated. The following abnormalities were also detected: multipolar and asymmetrical mitoses, agglutination and cells with multiple chromosome abnormalities. It was shown that in areas with the highest content of 137Cs in bottom sediments the frequency of cells with bridges and multiple chromosome abnormalities significantly increased as compared to samples from other areas. Conclusion. In the radioactive contamination area of the Yenisei River the spectrum of abnormalities was dominated by chromosome aberrations (bridges, agglutination, chromosome fragmentation) and multiple abnormalities in one and the same cell. In areas with non-radioactive (chemical) contamination of sediments, mitotic spindle irregularities prevailed.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(2):57-66
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