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Vol 10, No 2 (2012)

Articles
Response of immunocompetent cells of bone marrow and spleen of mouse males of several strains to stress and to pyrazine containing chemosignals
Daev E.V., Surinov B.P., Dukelskaya A.V.
Abstract
The quantity of antibody producing cells and mitotic disturbances in dividing bone marrow cells of mice were studied after exposure of animals to a physical stressor or various pyrazinecontaining chemosignals. Several different strains of mice were used. We demonstrate that immune suppression and destabilization of the chromosome apparatus in dividing cells depend on: а) mouse genotype and b) side chains position  in the pyrazine ring. Importance of this effects in the light of wide usage of pyrazine containing substances in perfume industry, food production and pharmacology is discussed.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):14-20
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GENETIC ESTIMATION OF SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS POPULATIONS FROM REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD AS A FIRST STEP IN GENETIC MONITORING
Koneva O.Y.
Abstract
The paper deals with carrying out molecular-genetic typing of populations of snail Lymnaea stagnalis from regions with a different ecological load (the lake Perstok and zatoka of the river Pripyat, Belarus). By means of interpopulation analysis of frequencies of RAPD-fragments, frequencies of zero alleles of RAPD-loci and genetic similarity index we established that these populations are genetically identical because there are no significant distinctions of genetic variability neither between individuals within a population, nor between populations. Results of the cluster analysis and the population analysis also have confirmed that populations of snails are genetically closely related. However the snail population of the lake Perstok is genetically more homogeneous.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):21-31
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STUDYING THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN SALINE SOILS BY HIGH-THROUGHPUT PYROSEQUENCING
Pershina E.V., Tamazyan G.S., Dolnik A.S., Pinaev A.G., Sergaliev N.H., Andronov E.E.
Abstract
 The taxonomic structure of soil microbial community was studied in six samples taken from a salt marsh along the salinity gradient and in two samples of non-saline soils using pyrosequencing method (454 Roche). The analysis allowed to identify three main ecological groups of microorganisms depending on the degree of the soil salinity. Halophylic microorganisms were mainly represented by bacteria of three phyla  Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and included much less of archaea (the Halobacteriaceae family). Within the distance of 150–200 m from the point with the highest levels of salinity, the microbial community tends to have a considerable similarity with control samples of non-saline soils.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):32-39
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GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF SPRUCE POPULATIONS IN NORTHWEST RUSSIA REVEALED WITH MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
Potokina E.K., Orlova L.V., Vishnevskaya M.S., Alekseeva E.A., Potokin A.F., Egorov A.A.
Abstract
Analysis of genetic diversity of spruce populations in northwest Russia using microsatellite markers revealed two moderately distinctive genetic clusters. One of them combined trees that were determined by morphological featuers as P. abies. The other cluster included trees identified as P. obovata and P. fennica. The SSR analysis does not support taxonomical independence of the hybrid-derived species P. fennica. Occurrence of P. abies genotypes revealed by SSR analysis significantly decreases from the south to the north.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):40-49
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The new taxonomic marker of nodulation bacteria of Rhizobium genus and its evolution
Zotov V.S., Punina N.V., Khapchaeva S.A., Didovich S.V., Melnichuk T.N., Topunov A.F.
Abstract
The new taxonomic marker (hin-region) has been proposed, which gives possibility for Rhizobium bacteria study on “species — group of strains” level. Using this marker the groups of Rhizobium strains were determined, which could not be distinguished with other methods, and these results correlated with evolutionary similarity of the bacteria. The developed approach for creating marker systems allows to carry out effective inventory of inter- and intraspecies genetic diversity of nodulating bacteria and to evaluate perspectives of their use in agriculture. The proposed marker system was used for description of Rhizobium bacteria samples isolated from various ecological-geographical regions of Ukraine.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):50-63
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Cytogenetic comparison of chironomid midge Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) populations from Northwest Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl zone)
- -., Zhirov S.V.
Abstract
Functional characters of polythene chromosomes and chromosomal rearrangements in salivary glands of 177 larvae of Glyptotendipes glaucus (Diptera, Chironomidae) from reservoirs of Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl) have been analysed. Similarity of the populations studied based on a pool of chromosomal reorganizations has been established. The general types of inversions in chromosomal arms A, B, D and E have been detected. Influence of radioactive pollution (Chernobyl) on functional changes of a nucleus, Balbiani rings, puffs, morphology of disks and interdisks is revealed. 
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):9-16
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ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND MUTAGENESIS IN ENTERIC AND NON-ENTERIC BACTERIA
Babudri N., Lancioni H., Achilli A.
Abstract
Mutations are fundamental for evolution. For many years it has been thought that mutagenesis occurs only in dividing cells. Now it is clear that mutations arise in non-dividing or slowly dividing microorganisms. Natural populations spend most of the time in stressful environments where their growth rate is highly reduced. Thus, the existence of a mutagenesis process, independent of multiplication (stress-induced mutagenesis, SIM), might have a profound evolutionary role. In the presented paper we review the stateof-the-art in enteric and non-enteric bacteria. We describe different experimental systems as well as the mechanisms and models presented to explain the huge amount of data obtained in more than twenty years of research.
Ecological genetics. 2012;10(2):3-13
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