Use of express container train as optimization method of rubber export carriage

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Abstract


Aim: The article is devoted to the issue of optimizing the export carriage of synthetic rubber produced in Russian, using the service of express container trains.

Methods: The analysis of volumes distribution of synthetic rubber production between the main Russian producers was made and an alternative option was proposed for the delivery of the products of the largest plant for the production of this raw material to foreign countries. To assess the economic efficiency of the carriage variant by express container trains, a comparison was made with the most commonly used method of rubber transportation by transport costs.

Results: Based on the results of the calculations, it was found that when transporting rubber in containers as part of express container trains, significant savings in transportation costs arise.

Practical significance of the work: The relevance of the proposed variant is due to the growth of cars production and the development of container transportations in the world. As a result, the transport component is reduced in the final cost of production, which allows suppliers to be more competitive in the market for the production of this raw material.


Introduction

Globalisation, which began in the end of the previous century, is characterised by enhancement of competitiveness, increasing tempo of foreign investments, increase of volumes of intra-firm trade, establishment of transnational corporations in a number of branches, including the automobile industry [1].

The world has an increasing number of produced cars. In 2016, more than 94 million transport means were manufactured, which is 4 million more than in 2015 [2]. The increase of cars manufacture leads to increase of demand in rubber which is used for production of tires [3]. Far not all of the automobile concerns and spare parts works are located near rubber suppliers. Consequently, the demand arises to deliver these materials to manufacture sites by means of selecting the material transportation mean, which would be the most optimal for the producer.

Setting the task

Analysis of the world’s rubber production volumes

 

In the production of tires, the natural and synthetic rubbers are used, the greatest part of which is located in Asia [4]. The second place is held by Europe, Middle East and Africa. The third place is held by the Americas (Tables 1 and 2) [5].

 

Table 1.  World’s volumes of natural rubber production

Region

Production volume

in 2015, 106 kg

Production volume

in 2016, 106 kg

Asia and Oceania

11 340

11 420

Europe, Middle East, Africa

597

645

The Americas

334

336

Total

12 231

12 401

 

Table 2. World’s volumes of silicone rubber production

Region

Production volume

in 2015, 106 kg

Production volume

in 2016, 106 kg

Asia and Oceania

7508

7666

Europe, Middle East, Africa

3914

4130

The Americas

3085

3036

Total

14 507

14 831

 

The world’s natural rubber production volume in 2016 made 12,4 ∙ 109 kg, synthetic rubber production − 14,8 ∙ 109 kg.

Russia with its 8,5 % (1,3 ∙ 109 kg per year) of the world’s volume is a big manufacturer of synthetic rubber. The biggest national synthetic production enterprises are represented in the fig. 1 [6].

 

Fig. 1. Distribution of production of rubber in Russia in 2016

 

The biggest rubber producer in Russia is Public Joint Stock Company “Nizhnekamskneftekhim”. The company is one of the top 10 synthetic producers in the world.

In 2016, more than 88 % of synthetic rubber selling operations of the company fell on international markets. 75 % of the volume was sold to big enterprises both in Russia and abroad.

The amount of export of the company for 2016 is distributed as follows (fig. 2) [7]:

 

Fig. 2. Amount of Public Joint Stock Company “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” export, %

 

It is seen from the diagram that the company exports the largest part of its product to Asia, Europe and North America. These regions are located at a great distance from producers. Moreover, export to some of the regions is possible only by sea.

Analysis of problems related to transportation of rubber as part of export

The city of Nizhnekamsk, where one of the leading rubber factories is located, is significantly remote from Russia’s ports (fig. 3). For example, the distance to the port “Saint Petersburg” is approximately 2000 kilometres; to the Far East ports – 8000 kilometres. Another problem is large volumes of the production transported. Hence, the transportation of the production by car is irrelevant.

 

Fig. 3. Location of the rubber factory

 

With such long distances and large amounts of product transported, railway transportation is more profitable.

As a rule, rubber is transported in covered wagons. In case of the goods being transported to North America or Asia, there arises the necessity of transshipment leading to the goods being loaded from covered wagon to container for further seaborne transfer [8]. Since the amount of the goods transported is large, the procedure increases transport and time expenditures, which in its turn causes the delivery time to rise.

When the goods are delivered to Europe, there is a possibility of ground transportation. Yet even in this case transshipment may not be avoided. This is related to different track gauge: 1520 mm in Russia and 1435 mm in Europe.

The problems arising during transportation of goods in covered wagons can be solved by virtue of organisation of transportation of goods in sea containers by railway. This will significantly decrease transport expenditures and delivery time, as there will be no demand in transshipment. This measure will help increase efficiency of such freight transportations [9]. To further reduce the delivery time and transport expenditures, this transportation may be arranged within express container train service.

The container train is a train which is made up from flatcars with containers thereon, running to the destination point without rearranging.

The advantages of express container trains are:

  • possibility of transportation of large amounts of goods at one time. One express container train carries up to 150 TEU;
  • decrease of delivery time. Absence of necessity of shunting works of containers at technical stations;
  • fixed transit time during the journey;
  • possibility of organisation of heavy containers delivery (loading to the carrying capacity of containers).

During transportation by express container trains there are two main drawbacks:

  • dense arrival at the destination station. The difficulty of organisation of one-time export by car transport from the station.
  • lack of empty containers in the regions of loading.

Options of solving the set tasks

Delivery of rubber to Europe, America and Asia is feasible on condition that the intermodal transportation is organised, which means application of several modes of transport.

Below the possible options of production delivery to a client’s warehouse in terms of door-to-door shipping with the use of express container trains service is seen (Table 3).

 

Table 3. Options of rubber transportation with the use of express container trains service

Route

Modes

of transport

in use

Tine of transportation by express container train, days

Technology of transportation

Export to Europe

DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

Nizhnekamsk railway station (freight forwarder)

Avtovo railway station (freight forwarder)

the seaport “Saint

Petersburg”

a port of Europe

DOOR a client’s warehouse in Europe

Car

Railway

Sea

3

1. Empty container picking;

2. Delivering container for further loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim";

3. Delivering the container with freight to Nizhnekamsk railway station;

4. Transportation by express container train by route Nizhnekamsk railway station − Avtovo railway station (freight forwarder);

5. Carrying the container to non-public railway of one of the seaport terminals with further stationing in the terminal;

6. Loading the container on a ship;

7. Seaborne transportation to a European port;

8. Stationing the container in the seaport terminal;

9. Loading the container on a car and carborne delivery to a client’s warehouse

DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

Nizhnekamsk railway station (freight forwarder)

Russia − Europe

railway border station

DOOR a client’s warehouse in Europe

Car

Railway

3

(to the

border

transit)

1. Empty container picking

2. Delivering container for further loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim";

3. Delivering the container with freight to Nizhnekamsk railway station;

4. Transportation by express container train by route Nizhnekamsk railway station – border station;

5. Transloading to car transport and delivery to a client’s warehouse, or loading the freight on standard-gauge railway, transportation to a European station and delivery to a client’s warehouse

 

Export to America

DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

Nizhnekamsk railway station (freight

forwarder)

Vladivostok railway station (freight

forwarder) / Cape Churkin station (freight forwarder) / Nakhodka – Vostochnaya station (freight forwarder)

Commercial Port of Vladivostok

Vladivostok Sea Fishing Port

Vostochny Port

DOOR a client’s warehouse in America

Car

Railway

Sea

12

1. Empty container picking

2. Delivering container for further loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

3. Delivering the container with freight to Nizhnekamsk railway station

4. Transportation of container by express container train by route Nizhnekamsk railway station − Vladivostok railway station (freight forwarder) / Cape Churkin station (freight forwarder)/Nakhodka – Vostochnaya station (freight forwarder)

5. Carrying the container to non-public railway line of one of the terminals in the seaport and stationing in the terminal

6. Loading the container on a ship

7. Seaborne transportation to a port in America

8. Stationing the container in the seaport terminal

9. Loading the container on a car and delivery by car to client’s warehouse

Export to Asia

DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

Nizhnekamsk railway station (freight forwarder)

Vladivostok railway station (freight forwarder) / Cape Churkin station (freight

forwarder)/Nakhodka – Vostochnaya station (freight forwarder)

Commercial Port of Vladivostok

Vladivostok Sea Fishing Port

Vostochny Port

DOOR a client’s warehouse in Asia

Car

Railway

Sea

12

1. Empty container picking;

2. Delivering container for further loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim";

3. Delivering the container with freight to Nizhnekamsk railway station;

4. Transportation of container by express container train by route Nizhnekamsk railway station − Vladivostok railway station (freight forwarder) / Cape Churkin station (freight forwarder) / Nakhodka – Vostochnaya station (freight forwarder);  

5. Carrying the container to non-public railway line of one of the terminals in the seaport and stationing in the terminal;

6. Loading the container on a ship;

7. Seaborne transportation to a port in America;

8. Stationing the container in the seaport terminal;

9. Loading the container on a car and delivery by car to client’s warehouse

DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim"

Nizhnekamsk railway station (freight forwarder)

Russia-China border station

railway stations near China’s ports

China’s ports

Asia’s ports

DOOR a client’s warehouse in Asia

Car

Railway

Sea

16–22

1. Empty container picking;

2. Delivering container for further loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim";

3. Delivering the container with freight to Nizhnekamsk railway station;

4. Transportation of container by express container train by route Nizhnekamsk railway station – Russia – China border station;

5. Loading the containers on standard-gauge railway;

6. Transportation of containers by express container train from Russia – China border station to stations near ports in China;

7. Delivery of the container to a seaport terminal;

8. Loading the container on a ship;

9. Seaborne transportation to an Asia’s port;

10. Stationing the container in the seaport terminal

11. Loading the container on a car and carborne delivery to a client’s warehouse

 

Results of the studies

One of the factors of increase of freight transportation efficiency is tariff setting which is based on the prime cost of transportation [10, 11]. To compare options of transportation of rubber in covered wagons and in express container trains, the transport expenditures were calculated for one tonne of freight [12].

For calculations the today’s most widespread transport pack for carrying rubber has been chosen, i.e. corrugated box placed on a pallet. During transportation in covered wagons, the wagon type 11-280 with the volume 138 cubic metres was used, by express container train – 40DC sea container [13].

All data concerning the freight, wagon and container necessary for calculations are given in the Tables 4 and 5.

According to the results of the calculations of the amount of freight in the wagon and in container, the optimal number of pallets in the transport mode was chosen, using the scheme of arrangement and carrying capacity [14].

The authors have calculated the costs of transportation by the route DOOR PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim" – Avtovo railway station (freight forwarder) with delivery by covered wagons and in containers on express container train for further forwarding to Europe (Tables 6 and 7). Since the cost of transportation by sea and, consequently, further transportation by car or in containers by railway through Europe will be the same, the comparison of carborne transportation cost [15] from PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim" to the departure station (Nizhnekamsk station) and of railway transportation by the route Nizhnekamsk station – Avtovo station (freight forwarder) is made.

 

Table 4. Determination of the amount of freight in covered wagon

138 cubic metres covered wagon

Parameter

Unit of

measurement

Value

Size of the box

mm

1200 × 800 × 1200

Size of the pallet

mm

1200 × 800 × 145

Freight density

kg/m3

950 000

Freight weight

kg

1095

Freight weight including the pallet

kg

1107

Inside dimensions of the wagon body

mm

15 724 × 2764 × 2800

Wagon doors dimensions

mm

3802 × 2334

Carrying capacity of the wagon

kg

68

Number of pallets according to carrying capacity of the wagon

pieces

61

Number of pallets according to arrangement of freight inside the wagon

pieces

66

Net weight of the freight without pack in one wagon

kg

66 795

Gross weight of the freight without pack in one wagon

kg

67 527

 

Table 5. Determination of the amount of freight in container and on a wagon

40DC container on a 25 metres long platform

Parameter

Unit of measurement

Value

Size of the box

mm

1200 × 800 × 1200

Size of the pallet

mm

1200 × 800 × 145

Freight density

kg/m3

950 000

Freight weight

kg

1095

Freight weight including the pallet

kg

1,107

Inside dimensions of the container

mm

12 022 × 2352 × 2395

Carrying capacity of the container

kg

26 580

Number of pallets according to carrying capacity of the container

pieces

24

Number of pallets according to arrangement

of freight inside the container

pieces

25

Net weight of the freight without pack in one container

kg

26 280

Gross weight of the freight without pack in one container

kg

26 568

Net weight of the freight without pack on one wagon

kg

52 560

Gross weight of the freight without pack on one wagon

kg

53 136

 

Table 6. Calculation of transport expenditures per one tonne of freight transported in covered wagons, rur

Parameter

Value

Supply of car to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim" and transportation by car from the factory to Nizhnekamsk station

(three runs)

20 000

Loading and unloading of the freight from the car to the covered wagon

26 000

Fastening materials

6000

Lock and seal devices, 2 pieces

600

Additional expenditures (Loading scheme, weighing, document procedures)

1300

Supply of the covered wagon to the route

40 000

Railway tariff of the route Nizhnekamsk station−Avtovo station (freight forwarder)

94 932

Loading of the freight from the covered wagon to sea company owned container

26 000

Total cost of the freight transportation in covered wagon

214 832

Total cost of transportation of 1000 kg of the freight

3181,42

 

Table 7. Calculation of transport expenditures per 1000 kg of the freight transported by express container train

Parameter

Value

Supply of two sea company owned 40DC containers

12 000

Picking of the two empty containers from the line, supply of the containers for loading to PJSC "Nizhnekamskneftekhim", delivery by car from the factory to Nizhnekamsk station

22 000

Lock and seal devices for two containers

600

Additional expenditures (Loading scheme, weighing, document procedures)

1300

Supply of the 80 feet platform for the route

20 000

Railway tariff of the route Nizhnekamsk station−Avtovo station (freight forwarder)

48 014

Total cost of transportation in two 40DC containers with a 25 metres long platform

103 914

Total cost of transportation of 1000 kg of the freight

1977,05

 

Discussion of the results

The results of the studies have shown that with transportation of rubber from Nizhnekamsk to Europe by express container train service, transport expenditures per 1000 kg of the freight decrease by more than 1200 rubles.

Provided that one container train can carry up to 74 40DC containers, the savings will make more than 2,3 million rubles as compared to transportation of rubber in covered wagons.

Conclusion

To conclude, it needs to pointed out that the development of express container trains allows significant reduction of transport expenditures in the final cost of the product, increase of safety of the transported freight and, consequently, enhancement of competitiveness of railway transport.

Anton V. Shklyaev

Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University

Author for correspondence.
Email: Antonshklyaev28@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1836-143X

Russian Federation, 9 Moskovsky ave., St. Petersburg, 190031

Student

Yuliya S. Pasynkova

Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University

Email: Yuliapasynkova14@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0458-160X

Russian Federation, 9 Moskovsky ave., St. Petersburg, 190031

Student

Yelena S. Sivertseva

Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University

Email: yalifa@inbox.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2087-0260
SPIN-code: 2917-1809

Russian Federation, 9 Moskovsky ave., St. Petersburg, 190031

Nadezhda V. Saks

Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University

Email: sax-nad@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9723-684X
SPIN-code: 4539-1545

Russian Federation, 9 Moskovsky ave., St. Petersburg, 190031

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1. Fig. 1. Distribution of production of rubber in Russia in 2016 View (28KB) Indexing metadata
2. Fig. 2. Amount of Public Joint Stock Company “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” export, % View (25KB) Indexing metadata
3. Fig. 3. Location of the rubber factory View (35KB) Indexing metadata

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Copyright (c) 2018 Shklyaev A.V., Pasynkova Y.S., Sivertseva Y.S., Saks N.V.

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